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those about his court to conceal the king's death, and continued to issue decrees in the name of Artaxerxes, as if still alive ; among others, a decree by which he proclaimed Ochus his successor. After about ten months, the death was acknowledged, and Ochus openly assumed the government; but an almost universal insurrection immediately arose throughout the empire. Ochus exceeded in cruelty and wickedness all the princes of his race-to prevent their becoming his rivals for the crown, he put to death every individual of his family, and indeed every one else whom he suspected of opposing him. Such measures could scarcely prevail; one revolt succeeded to another, and threatened to dismember the empire-but Ochus finally prevailed. As soon as peace was restored at home, he led an army into Egypt, and again brought that kingdom into subjection to Persia. All opposition thus ended, Ochus

gave himself to luxury and dissipation, and left to his ministers the management of affairs; by one of whom, an Egyptian, he was eventually poisoned, in pious revenge for his god, Apis, whom Ochus, in his Egyptian expedition, had destroyed. B.C. 338.

The minister who had thus murdered his master and benefactor, put to death also all his sons, except Arses, the youngest, whom he placed on the throne-but before the end of the second year, murdered him also and all his family. Darius Codomannus, a distant branch of the royal family, was next raised to the royal dignity. Him also the treacherous minister would have murdered, but being detected in his purpose, Darius forced him to drink himself the poisonous cup he had prepared, and thus had secure possession of his throne. This Darius was a prince of great valour and good disposition—but the period of Persian greatness was at hand, and Alexander, now on the throne of Macedon, was preparing to overthrow it.

The name of Macedon is new to our history of the world--we have hitherto not had occasion to mention it,

nor shall we do so particularly, till we come to the annals of Grecian history. It is sufficient now to remark, that the first Grecian states had already reached the summit of their glory and declined—while the kingdom of Macedonia, lying north of those with whose name we are already familiar, was rising to greatness on their decline, and about to claim an almost universal empire in the civilized world, as extensive as it was brief. At present we have no more to do with it than as connected with Persian history.

The aggressions of Persia for three centuries passed, were not forgotten by the Greeks, and an invasion had for some time been contemplated, under Philip, the father of Alexander. He being dead, Alexander called an assembly of the Grecian states, and persuaded, or rather obliged them to choose him their commander, and furnish men and money for the expedition. But it was now by valour and moral strength, not by numbers that battles were to be won—the contrast is remarkable : when Persia was to attack the small states of Greece, she brought over an army of 600,000 men—now Greece was to subdue the immense empire of Persia, not more than 33,000 crossed the Hellespont. At the river Granicus Alexander first met the enemy, to the amount of more than 100,000, drawn up on the opposite side of the river to dispute bis passage. The Persians waited till the Macedonians should enter the water, prepared to attack them in landing. As soon as a convenient place was found, the passage commenced with sounding of trumpets and loud shouts of joy. A bloody engagement ensued, the Macedonians resolutely endeavouring to land, the Persians driving them back into the river. The valour of Alexander and his troops forced the Persians to give way after long and obstinate resistance. The victory was complete-the Persians lost 45,000 men. Of the Macedonians, twenty-five men of the king's troops fell in the first attack, whose statues, made by Lysippus, Alexander, some time after, caused to be set up in Dia, a city of Macedon, whence they were, many years after, carried to Rome by Metellus. About sixty others were killed, and buried the next day with solemnity, the king exempting their parents and children from all taxes and burdens. The cities of Sardis and Ephesus immediately surrendered to the conqueror-Miletus maintained a severe siege, but yielded at last. Halicarnassus was very bravely defended, and much knowledge of the art of war, as well as intrepid courage, was manifested on both sides. The Macedonians, with great difficulty, filled up the ditches and brought their engines to the walls; their works were repeatedly demolished, and their engines set on fire. No sooner was a part of the wall beaten down with the battering rams, than another rose behind it, and all was to begin again. But Alexander's perseverance was never vanquished. The Persian commander, Memnon, was obliged to abandon the city to its fate. As the sea was open, he placed a garrison in the citadel, and going on board the fleet, of which he was also admiral, he conveyed the inhabitants, with all their effects, to the island of Cos, not far distant. Alexander, finding the city empty both of riches and inhabitants, razed it to the ground: but left the citadel as of small importance.

In the second year of this war, Phrygia, Gallicia, and most of the northern provinces were subdued, and the friends of the conqueror left to govern them. Darius made vigorous, but unavailing preparations for defence. The death of Memnon, his best general, as he was preparing to lead an army into Greece to attack the domiinions of Alexander in his absence, was an irrecoverable loss to the Persian empire. At Babylon, Darius himself assembled from four to six hundred thousand men, according to different authors, and marched to meet the enemy in the vast plains of Mesopotamia. As this is the last opportunity, we shall relate as a matter of curiosity illustrative of Asiatic habits, the order of march on this occasion.

nor shall we do so particularly, till we come to the annals of Grecian history. It is sufficient now to remark, that the first Grecian states had already reached the summit of their glory and declined—while the kingdom of Macedonia, lying north of those with whose name we are already familiar, was rising to greatness on their decline, and about to claim an almost universal empire in the civilized world, as extensive as it was brief. At present we have no more to do with it than as connected with Persian history.

The aggressions of Persia for three centuries passed, were not forgotten by the Greeks, and an invasion had for some time been contemplated, under Philip, the father of Alexander. He being dead, Alexander called an assembly of the Grecian states, and persuaded, or rather obliged them to choose him their commander, and furnish men and money for the expedition. But it was now by valour and moral strength, not by numbers that battles were to be won—the contrast is remarkable : when Persia was to attack the small states of Greece, she brought over an army of 600,000 men—now Greece was to subdue the immense empire of Persia, not more than 33,000 crossed the Hellespont. At the river Granicus Alexander first met the enemy, to the amount of more than 100,000, drawn up on the opposite side of the river to dispute bis passage. The Persians waited till the Macedonians should enter the water, prepared to attack them in landing. As soon as a convenient place was found, the passage commenced with sounding of trumpets and loud shouts of joy. A bloody engagement ensued, the Macedonians resolutely endeavouring to land, the Persians driving them back into the river. The valour of Alexander and his troops forced the Persians to give way after long and obstinate resistance. The victory was 'complete the Persians lost 45,000 men. Of the Macedonians, twenty-five men of the king's troops fell in the first attack, whose statues, made by Lysippus, Alexander, some time after, caused to be set up in Dia, a city of Macedon, whence they were, many years after, carried to Rome by Metellus. About sixty others were killed, and buried the next day with solemnity, the king exempting their parents and children from all taxes and burdens. The cities of Sardis and Ephesus immediately surrendered to the conqueror-Miletus maintained a severe siege, but yielded at last. Halicarnassus was very bravely defended, and much knowledge of the art of war, as well as intrepid courage, was manifested on both sides. The Macedonians, with great difficulty, filled up the ditches and brought their engines to the walls; their works were repeatedly demolished, and their engines set on fire. No sooner was a part of the wall beaten down with the battering rams, than another rose behind it, and all was to begin again. But Alexander's perseverance was never vanquished. The Persian commander, Memnon, was obliged to abandon the city to its fate. As the sea was open, he placed a garrison in the citadel, and going on board the fleet, of which he was also admiral, he conveyed the inhabitants, with all their effects, to the island of Cos, not far distant. Alexander, finding the city empty both of riches and inhabitants, razed it to the ground: but left the citadel as of small importance.

In the second year of this war, Phrygia, Gallicia, and most of the northern provinces were subdued, and the friends of the conqueror left to govern them. Darius made vigorous, but unavailing preparations for defence. The death of Memnon, his best general, as he was preparing to lead an army into Greece to attack the domiinions of Alexander in his absence, was an irrecoverable loss to the Persian empire. At Babylon, Darius himself assembled from four to six hundred thousand men, according to different authors, and marched to meet the enemy in the vast plains of Mesopotamia. As this is the last opportunity, we shall relate as a matter of curiosity illustrative of Asiatic habits, the order of march on this occasion.

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