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was the hereditary right of the first born in the family of Aaron. In the time of Christ the High Priests were appointed and deposed at will by the Roman governors.
ANNAS. Annas was the officer before whom Jesus first stood after arrest. He was high priest from A. D. 6 to 15. He and his five sons, and also his son-in-law, Caiaphas, had all been high priests. For nearly fifty years he practically wielded the sacerdotal power.
CAIAPHAS. His full name was Joseph Caiaphas. He was high priest and held the office from A. D. 25 to A. D. 36. He was a Sadducee, learned and unscrupulous. He presided over the Sanhedrin and led the attack on Jesus with great zeal.
THE HOUSE OF CAIAPHAS. In the southern part of Jerusalem stands the Armenian Monastery of Zion, called by the Arabs “The Prison of Christ,” and known in tradition as the House of Caiaphas. While none of these traditions are intended to be vouched for in these notes, the map of the journey of Friday is drawn to show the location of this, and the other houses now standing in Jerusalem which tradition connects with the experiences of that day.
PONTIUS PILATE, Pilate was procurator of Judæa from before the time of John's first preaching till some years after the crucifixion. His residence was at Caesarea, but he came to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts. He possessed complete judicial authority, except in cases of Roman citizens, who had the right of appeal to Rome. Many of the functions of the courts he delegated to local bodies, as to the Sanhedrin. He was thoroughly hated by the Jews, who more than once rose in insurrection against him.
His rule in Judæa ended by his being summoned to Rome to answer to charges of injustice and cruelty. From this time he disappears from authentic history; but there is a tradition that he perished in a little lake in Switzerland under the shadow of Mount Pilatus.
THE PRÆTORIUM. Prætorium was the Latin name for the palace of the Roman governor in Jerusalem. Whatever building he occupied bore, during the period of his official residence there, that name. It is commonly located in the Castle of Antonia, just north of the temple area. But many scholars believe it to have been in Herod's palace, a magnificent structure connected with the temple by a bridge over the Trypoean valley.
HEROD. The house of the Herods was founded by Antipater, an Idumæan governor, who made himself master of a dominion great enough to entitle him to the name of king.
He ruled under the authority of Rome, and was succeeded by his son, Herod the Great, who extend ed his power beyond Jordan, and became known as “Herod, the King of the Jews.” He died a few months after the birth of Jesus. His kingdom was divided among his sons, Archelaus, who ruled over Judæa, Antipas, whose capital was at Tiberius, on the Sea of Galilee, Philip, whose territory was north and east of the Sea of Galilee, and who built Caesarea Philippi and ruled 38 years, on the whole temperately and well, and Herod Philip, who was omitted from his father's second will by the treachery of his mother, and was wronged of his wife, Herodias, by his brother Antipas. The Herod who put John to death and to whom Pilate sent
Jesus was Herod Antipas. Each son was intended to have been governor under Rome of a Tetrarchy, or quarter kingdom; but Archelaus had fallen into disfavor and his kingdom was governed by a Roman procurator until the year 41 A. D., when Herod Agrippa, son of Aristobulus, and grandson of Herod the Great and Mariamne, the daughter of the Maccabæan priestking, John Hyrcanus, ruled over all the territory that had belonged to his grandfather.
THE HOUSE OF HEROD. Near the Jaffa gate in Jerusalem stands the Tower of Hippicus, believed to have been one of the towers erected by Herod in defense of his magnificent palace, erected in the north-western portion of Jerusalem.
SANHEDRIN. The Sanhedrin or assembly was the supreme governing council of the Jews, having judicial, and, within certain limitations, executive authority. It consisted of seventy-one members called elders or rulers. In the time of Christ there were two leading classes: chief priests, who appear to have been for the most part Sadducees, and scribes, representing the Pharisees who at this time had greater influence among the people, Those not included in these two classes are designated elders, that is, heads of families. The members of this council were probably chosen for life by the Sanhedrin itself, or on its nomination were appointed by the king or Roman procurator. The high priest was ex-officio the presiding officer of the Sanhedrin. Its regular place of meeting was in Jerusalem in the hall or chamber Gazith, within the temple enclosure. The Romans allowed the supreme jurisdiction of the Sanhedrin to continue in most respects, but restricted the execution of a capital sentence until the case had been reviewed by the Roman governor.
CROWN OF THORNS. Palestine has over 50 general and 200 species of plants provided with thorns. It is quite impossible to determine with certainty what plant contributed
the thorns for the shameful crown of our Lord. The
tradition of Palestine is in favor of the plant known as Calycotome Villosa, which the Arabs call Kundaul.
Thorny twigs from this shrub are bent into crowns and sold to tourists in Jerusalem. The twig is pliable, and the thorn is long and sharp. These little crowns are sometimes laid as votive offerings at the feet of a statue of the thorn-crowned Christ which stands in the church of the Sisters of Zion, in the Via Dolorosa, close to the Ecce Homo arch. The crown shown in the illustration is one that had been laid at the feet of this image, and was secured by an American visitor. It is a typical illustration of the crowns now plaited in Palestine and is probably not unlike the one worn by our Lord. There are other plants that fulfil the simple conditions of the narrative, among them the Nubk, which scholars call Zizyphus, and which is often called Spina Christi. Its deep green leaves somewhat resemble the ivy with which victors were crowned, and it may have been used in mockery.
BARABBAS. “Now Barabbas was à robber.”
But he was very probably something other than an ordinary criminal. He was “a certain notable prisoner” and whatever his other crimes that for which he was condemned was not robbery but insurrection (Mark 15: 7). The crime had been committed in Jerusalem, and was accompanied with loss of life. His name indicates that he was the son of a rabbi. His first name, for Barabbas was a surname, is judged from some old manuscripts to have been Jesus, which, as the Greek equivalent of Joshua, was a not uncommon name among the Jews in the time of Christ. Political offenders frequently supported themselves by unlawful raids, and it is very likely that the crimes of Barabbas were of this character, and of insurrection against the Roman authority. The robbers crucified with Jesus were very likely of