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tions of the Scripture narrative. The outline map gives the relative distances and directions of these four places.
THE NARRATIVES OF THE RESURRECTION. All of the evangelists record that the tomb was found empty on the Easter morning. Matthew states that the two Marys found an angel, who had rolled away the stone, who showed them the vacant place where Jesus had lain, and who commissioned them to tell the disciples to meet the Lord in Galilee. Mark adds Salome as a third woman and relates substantially the same narrative. Luke says that there were also other women and likewise gives the words of an angel who sends the women to the disciples. He adds that Peter came to see, and found the tomb empty. John records that Mary Magdalene came to the tomb, saw the stone removed, ent immediately to the disciples, and that Peter and John came and found the body gone, but the linen cloths upon the rock where the body had been laid. John adds that Mary remained weeping at the tomb, saw two angels within where the body had been laid, and presently saw Jesus, who sent her to his disciples. Matthew relates that Jesus met the two Marys as they were going to tell the disciples.
Luke alone gives the account of the appearance of the two who were going to Emmaus. He relates tha after these two had returned to the eleven at Jerusalem Jesus appeared to them all. John has a clearly parallel narrative, except that he specifies that Thomas was not present, and records another appearance a week later, especially designed for Thomas. Luke records no further appearances after the Easter Day, but passes immediately to the final words of Jesus and to the Ascension. We owe to him, however, in the beginning of the Book of Acts, the statement of the forty days.
John relates the appearance to the seven fishermen in Galilee, and Matthew the appearance to the eleven on a mountain.
It is not, of course, possible to make a complete harmonization of these narratives. As nearly as that is possible it has been done in the continuous story.
THE MARYS AT THE CRUCIFIXION. The name Mary was very popular in the time of Christ, probably because of the affection of the people for the memory of Mariamne, the Maccabæan princess, wife of Herod, and cruelly murdered by him. Beside Mary, the mother of Jesus, and “the other Mary” who appears to have been the wife of Cleopas and mother of James, Mary of Magdala was present among the women at the tomb of Jesus. There is no sufficient reason to believe that this Mary, the first witness to the resurrection, had ever been an abandoned woman. Beside these Marys, another, the sister of Martha, was not far away. Other women of the same name appear in the Acts and Epistles, one of whom is known to us as the mother of Mark, the evangelist, her home was in Jerusalem, and was a meeting place for Christians. (Acts 12: 12).
EASTER. Many of the northern nations celebrated the vernal equinox as a time of festivity and cheer. The name “Easter" was given by the early Saxons to a festival in honor of the goddess of spring. Some features of the common celebration may be traced to this Teutonic origin. There is a peculiar fitness in celebrating the resurrection of the Lord of the earth in that season when earth wears its resurrection robe of green.
The early Christians celebrated Easter with solemn and joyous services; it was a day of unalloyed Christian gladness. No requirement was given by Christ or the apostles; the day has been gladly observed by the Church as one of uncompelled rejoicing. The Roman Catholic, Greek and Protestant Episcopal churches make it a matter of ecclesiastical rule, and the nonliturgical churches more and more universally enter into its celebration. In some parts of the Greek Church, friends meeting on Easter morning greet each other with the words, “The Lord is risen!" To which the customary answer is: “He is risen indeed!” In all Christian lands churches of every name on that day are specially adorned with flowers and other emblems of life and hope, and their worship is enriched with songs and anthems of triumphant faith.
THE DATE OF EASTER.
Jesus rose on the Sunday after the full moon of the vernal cquinox-a time we are able to fix by the Feast of the Jewish Passover. The anniversary of our Lord's resurrection is reckoned not according to the civil calendar, but by the Jewish religious calendar, which was celebrated from the 14th to the 21st of the Jewish month Nisan, a month corresponding to the latter part of March and the first part of April. There was some difference of practice among the early Christians, and some sharp controversy. To settle these the Council of Nice (A. D. 325) decreed that Easter should be celebrated the first Sunday after the first full moon following the vernal equinox, and this decree has been followed by the general practice of the church. The equinox always falling on March 21st, the first full moon following may be in the night of March 21st22d, and the Sunday after may be as early as March 22d. But a whole lunar month, less one day, may pass after the equinox before a Sunday following a full moon, and so Easter may be as late as April 25th. Between these extremes called "the Easter limits' the date varies from year to year.
The Oriental churches, in Russia, Greece, and elsewhere, still observe the unreformed calendar, and their Easter therefore falls sometimes before and sometimes after that of the Western Church, though sometimes the two coincide.
THE EASTER EGG. The use of the egg at Easter time is doubtless to be attributed to the high regard in which it was held among many nations as the symbol of life.
THE EASTER LILY. The lily has always been highly regarded in the Church. Jesus said “Consider the lilies.” The white lily is the symbol of purity. There is a peculiar fitness in the choice of this flower as an Easter emblem. Its bulb is hidden in the earth, and waits the coming of the Easter season to spring forth and blossom. Beautiful in itself it is still more beautiful in its sacred significance.
Thomas was not present when Jesus appeared to the disciples on the Easter evening. He could not believe the report they gave him, and insisted that he must have ocular proof. It was a week afterwards when they were all together, probably in the same upper room, which may have become their meeting place, Jesus again appeared, offered to Thomas the proofs he sought, and was gladly acknowledged by the happy disciple.
The disciples left Jerusalem for Galilee, their own country. They had no settled plan and Peter suggested a night at the old fishing trade. Six others who were present agreed to join him. As on a memorable night before, the labor of the fishermen was unrewarded. Jesus appeared to them on the beach in the morning and directed them so to cast their nets that they took a mighty catch. They had not recognized him, but John guessed it was the Lord. Peter not waiting for the boat to reach the land leapt into the water to meet the Master. Thrice he had betrayed him, now thrice Jesus gave him opportunity to testify his love, and thrice to receive a commission of service.
Again in Galilee Jesus appeared to the eleven upon a mountain. He assured them of his divine authority and gave them the Great Commission to disciple the nations.
The last appearance of Jesus is placed by Luke in Jerusalem. The disciples would return there to wait for the Pentecostal blessing. jesus bade them wait for the promise of the Father, then led them out once more on the familiar road toward Bethany, and in the act of blessing them ascended out of their sight. The eleven returned to Jerusalem with joy, and recognized that the resurrection appearances of Jesus were ended.