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. ch. 14. 10; 17. 4;

Ps. 30. 15. & see 2 Ki. 2 21:41 b see Jos. 24. 21

16. . 2:1 1, 4; P. 66. 10; 8L

7. 12-15 e Deu. 2. 27, 60. sch, 22 ; Ps. 41.

4; 103, 3; 1c. 3

Jer. 32 6; Hos & L & Num. 33. 9.

13, 23; 1 Cor. 10. 10

Entrance into the wilderness; Marah and Elim. SO Moses brought Israel from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur;l and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water. Ge. 16. 7; 7. 18. 23 And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters of Marah,

for they were bitter :3 therefore the name of it was called Marah [i.e. bitterness =]. * Ra l. 90 24 And the people y murmured 4 against Moses, saying, What shall we drink? And "ch. 16. 2; 17. a 25 he ? cried unto the LORD; and the LORD showed him a tree,5 a which when he

had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet. There he made for them 26 a statute 6 and an ordinance, and there he proved them, and said, "If thou wilt * 6. 16. 4. Deu

diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his sight, and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his l_13; 'den statutes, I will put none of these e diseases upon theo, which I have brought

upon the Egyptians : for I am the LORD Sthat healeth thee. 27 * And they came to Elim, where were twelve wells of water, and threescore and ten palm trees : and they encamped there by the waters.

Gift of manna and of quails. 16 AND they h took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the - Nura. sa 10, 1L

children of Israel came unto the wilderness of · Sin, which is between Elim and Eze. 20. ls.

Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the 2 land of Egypt. And the whole congregation of the children of Israel * murmured *ch. 5. 9; P- 106,7 3 against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness : and the children of Israel said unto

them, 'Would to God we had died by the hand of the LORD in the land of Num.20. 3–5; Lan. Egypt, m when we sat by the flesh pots, and when we did eat bread to the full;9 Num. 11. 4, 5 for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger.

Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain " bread from heaven for "Pe7224%; 105. you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, (the portion

of a day in his day), that I may o prove them, whether they will walk in my 5 law, or no. And it shall come to pass, that ? on the sixth day 10 they shall prepare that which they bring in; and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.

And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, • At even, then ye see vers. $ 12, 13 7 shall know that the LORD hath brought you out from the land of Egypt: and in

the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that he heareth your se vers 19,13;

murmurings against the LORD: and what are we, that ye murmur against us ? 8 And Moses said, This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh

to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your - Num. 11. 27.

murmurings which ye murmur against him; and what are we? your murmurings 9 are not against us, but y against the LORD. And Moses spake unto Aaron, Say

unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, · Come near before the LORD: for he hath heard your murmurings.

And it came to pass, as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children

of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the 11 Lord appeared in the cloud. And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, "I have 12 heard the murm

rmurings of the children of Israel: speak unto them, saying, At even ye

shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled with bread ; and yeter shall know that I am the LORD your God. 13 And it came to pass, that at even the quails 11 came up, and covered the camp:

4

40; John 6. 31, 32; I Cor. 10.4

• Pre. 30 8: Mt. 6 11. Peh. 15, $3; Deu &

2, 16. 9 ver. 23; ch. 2.2,2

see ver. 2; Lesa 91.

6

eh. 6 7; Num. 16

10. 11. 4, 40. " Nur. 16. II.

see 1 Sarn. & 7Lk. 10. 16; John 10 19, 2: Ra 13% # Num. 16. 16

10

a ver. 7; ch. 13. 21, 22;

40. 34-38: Nunt. 16 19; 1 Ki & 10, 11 ver. &

d ver. 7.

• Num. 11. 31-37; Ps

78. 27, 28; 105.14

1 Surrounding the head of the Gulf of Suez, and called springs of Arabia, and bears a refreshing berry, which Etham (Numb. xxxiii. 8), from the town of that name on might make water palatable. But these berries are not its edge (ch. xiii. 20).

ripe at the time of year when the Israelites were at 2 Here the Israelites entered upon a course of training Marah. “Marah' is probably the modern Hawarah. exactly suited to their condition and destiny: one great 6 A special command, occasioned by the recent mur. object of which was to give them a better knowledge of muring, to confide in His provision and guidance. God's character and of their own. See Hos. ii. 14-23. 7 Probably Wady Ghurundel —a fertile valley.

3 The brackish water found in the wells of the desert 8 That is, for some days. The places of encampment would be very distasteful after the water of the Nile; but mentioned through the subsequent narrative were prothis seems to have been worse than usual, and absolutely bably the head quarters of Moses and the priests; the unwholesome (ver. 26).

people spreading themselves over the neighbourhood, 4 If our praises proceed only from gratified self-love, wherever they could find pasturage. A list of the printhey will soon be changed into murmurs when our cir- cipal encampments will be found in Numbers, ch. xxxiii. cumstances alter. See Psa. cvi. 12–14.

9 A striking example of the manner in which discon5 In some countries water is purified naturally by tent unduly praises the past, and vilifies the present. similar means; but both Moses, who was well acquainted 10 This is an indication that the Sabbath was known with this part of the desert, and its present Arab inhabit- among the Hebrews before the Law was given at Sinai. ants, to whom such a remedy would be invaluable, ap- 11 One of those vast flocks which in spring migrate pear to know nothing of it. Some have supposed' that northwards from Africa and Arabia was brought by God the tree was the ghurkud, which is found near the bitter over this spot. This recurred the next year. "See refs.

3. 9. 15; . 78 24; 105, 40.

I Mt. 6. 14, 34.

see vers. 5, 16

#ch. 20.8-11;31. 15:

35. 3: Ge. 2. 2, 3; Le. 23. 3; Lk. 23. 56.

vers. 20, 23.

14 and in the morning the dew lay round about the host. And when the dew that | Num. 11. 9.

lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round - Num. 11.7Deu, S. 15 thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground. And when the children of Israel

saw it, they said one to another, It is manna :) for they wist not what it was.

And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which the LORD hath given you to see soon. l. 31 16 eat. This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, Gather of it every man

according to his eating, an omer for every man, according to the number of your : ver. 36. 17 persons; take ye every man for them which are in his tents. And the children 18 of Israel did so, and gathered, some more, some less. And when they did mete

it with an omer," he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered *? Cor. 8. 14, 15. 19 little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating And 20 Moses said, 'Let no man leave of it till the morning. Notwithstanding they

hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it 21 bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with them. And they gathered

it every morning, every man according to his eating: and when the sun waxed

hot, it melted. 22 And it came to pass, that won the sixth day they gathered twice as much

bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came and 23 told Moses. And he said unto them, This is that which the Lord hath said,

To-morrow is * the rest of the holy sabbath unto the Lord: bake that which yé

will bake to-day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over 24 lay up for you to be kept until the morning. And they laid it up till the morning, 25 as Moses bade: and it did not stink, neither was there any worm therein. And

Moses said, Eat that to-day; for to-day is a sabbath unto the LORD: P to-day ye P ver. 23. 26 shall not find it in the field. Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh ch. 20. 9, 10. 27 day, which is the sabbath, in it there shall be none. And it came to pass, that

there went out some of the people on the seventh day for to gather, and they 28 found none. And the LORD said unto Moses, How long," refuse ye to keep my 29 commandments and my laws? See, for that the LORD hath given you the sabbath,

therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every 30 man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. So the 31 people rested on the seventh day. And the house of Israel called the name

thereof Manna : and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was

like wafers made with honey. 32 And Moses said, This is the thing which the LORD commandeth, Fill an omer

of it to be kept for your generations ; that they may see the bread wherewith I

have fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt. 33 And Moses said unto Aaron, "Take a pot, and put an omer full of manna therein, Heb. 9. 4 34 and lay it up before the Lord, to be kept for your generations. As the LORD 35 commanded Moses, 80 Aaron laid it up before the Testimony, to be kept. And " . 23. 18213:40:20:

the children of Israel did eat manna * forty years, y until they came to a land

inhabited; they did eat manna, until they came unto the borders of the land of 36 Canaan. Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah.

God sends water out of the rock. 17 AND all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilder-1.6.1; Num.

ness of Sin, after their journeys, according to the commandment of the LORD, and 2 pitched in Rephidim : and there was no water for the people to drink. «Wherefore the people did chide with

Moses, and said, Give us water that we may drink. And Moses said unto them, Why chide ye with me? wherefore do ye tempt the Deus & !6; Ps. 7 3 LORD! And the people thirsted there for water; and the people murmured

against Moses, and said, Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us up out of - K. 16 2 Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?

And Moses d cried unto the LORD, saying, What shall I do unto this people? 5 they be almost ready to stone me. And the LORD said unto Moses, Go on

before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, where- s Eze. 2. 6

Nam. 14. 11; 2 Ki. 17. 14; Ps. 78. 10, 22; 106. 13; Ezo. 20. 13-16.

• Num. 11. 7, &

10.5; 1 KI. & 9. * Num. 33. 38: Deu.

8. 2,3: Ne. 9. 20, 21;

John 6. 31, 19. y Jos. 5. 12; Ne. 9. 15.

& Num. 20.3-5.

18, 11, 56; . 12; Mr. 47; 1 Cor. 10. 9; Heb. 3. 9.

deh. 14. 15.

• 1 Sam. 30. 6; John

8. 59; 10. 31.

I Rather, "What is this? This provision, began just use (vers. 16, 32). As a measure, it occurs only in this when other food failed, accompanied the Hebrews in all chapter; and must be distinguished from the homer, of their forty years' wanderings, and ceased on the day after which it was the hundredth part. An omer contained they had eaten the corn of Canaan : it was doubled and about five pints, English measure. preserved every sixth day, and withheld every Sabbath. 3 Each gathered according to the number of persons he It was

, therefore, clearly a miraculous production, entirely had to eat of it. different from the ordinary mann,' or manna, of that 4 of the double quantity that was found, evidently to neighbourhood, with which the Hebrews were undoubt- obtain his directions as to the supply for the Sabbath. edly acquainted, as the tree which produces it grows spon- 3 That is, the Ark of the testimony, which was soon

afterwards made. This book being written after the ark ? Probably the name of a . bowl or vessel in common was made, the fact is anticipated in the history.

taneously in Egypt.

A Num. 20. 6-11P

78. 15, 16, 9; 106 41: 114 8; Cor.

10.4 i Is. L. 17, 18; 41 19,

20; Jalan 10, 14;

7. ,B; Rev... 17. * Num. 90. 13; Ps. El

7; 94 8; Haba &

k

20; Den. % 17; 1

Sam. 15. 2. inch. 24. 13; Nam IL

28; called Jerus, At 7. 45; Heb.&

eh. 4. 20 • Pe. 56. 9; Lk. 181;

1 Tim. 28; Jam 5. 16.

PIs. 333; ? Cor.Lll;

Heb 12 12

Num. 2. 20; Deu. S. 17-19; 1 Sam. 15. 3, 7, 18; 30.1.1 2 Sam. & 12; Ears

Judg. 6 24

6 with thou smotest the river, take in thine hand, and go. * Behold, I will stand ch. 7.20 : Nam.2.8

before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and

there shall come water out of it, i that the people may drink.' And Moses did 7 so in the sight of the elders of Israel. And he called the name of the place

Massah, [i.e. temptation,) and Meribah, [i.e. chiding, or, strife,] because of the chiding of the children of Israel, and because they tempted the LORD, saying, Is the LORD among us, or not?

Victory over the Amalekites, 8 THEN came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim. And Moses said Ge. 38. 12: Num. 24 9 unto m Joshua, Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek : to-morrow I 10 will stand on the top of the hill with " the rod of God in mine hand. So Joshua

did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek : and Moses, Aaron, and 11 Hur went up to the top of the hill. And it came to pass, when Moses held up

his hand, that Israel prevailed : and when he let down his hand, Amalek pre12 vailed. But Moses' hands were heavy;t and they took a stone, and put it under

him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur P stayed up his hands, the one on

the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the 13 going down of the sun. And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the 14 edge of the sword. And the LORD said unto Moses, ? Write this for a memorial ch. 12 14; 51. 77.

in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua : for "I will utterly put out the 15 remembrance of Amalek from under heaven. And Moses built an altar, and 16 called the name of it JEHOVAH-nissi [i.e. the LORD my banner]: for he said,

Because 5 the LORD hath sworn that the LORD will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.

Jethro's visit and advice. 18 WHEN "Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses' father-in-law, heard of all that "ch. 2 16; 3 1.

God had done for Moses, and for Israel his people, and that the LORD had po 2 brought Israel out of Egypt; then Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, took Zipporah, 3 Moses' wife, * after he had sent her back, and her two sons, (of which the ch.4.

a name of the one was Gershom [i.e. a stranger there]; for he said, I have been an 4 alien in a strange land : and the name of the other was Eliezer [i.e. my God is

an help]; for the God of my father, said he, was mine help, and delivered me 5 from the sword of Pharaoh,) and Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, came with his

sons and his wife unto Moses into the wilderness, where he encamped at a theach. 2 1, 19; 1 EL 6 mount of God: and he said unto Moses, I, thy father-in-law Jethro, am come 7 unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her. And Moses • went out to Ge 14, 17; 18. 9:19

meet his father-in-law, and did obeisance, and · kissed him; and they asked each • Ge A 13; 32

other of their welfare; and they came into the tent. 8 And Moses told his father-in-law all that the LORD had done unto Pharaoh

and to the Egyptians for Israel's sake, d and all the travail that had come upon th. 15. 2–24; 16 }; 9 them by the way, and how the LORD delivered them. And Jethro rejoiced for 1.18 2: 81.7; 106

all the goodness which the LORD had done to Israel, whom he had delivered out 10 of the hand of the Egyptians. And Jethro said, Blessed be the LORD, who hath Ge!!* Sam

delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh, 11 who hath delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians. Now I ch. 2. 16;! K1784

know that the LORD is a greater than all gods : ' for in the thing wherein they 12 dealt k proudly he was above them. And Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, took a

burnt offering and sacrifices for God : and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, ** same Ne ? to eat bread with Moses' father-in-law ' before God.

And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and 14 the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening. And when Moses'

father-in-law saw all that he did to the people, he said, What is this thing that

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78 4: 105, 106 2,&

Y Ac. 7. 23
I ch. 2 22.

19. &

10; 10. 2

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A 13. Chr2 5; Ps. 953; 9.9:

135. & ich. l. 10, 16, 9:4

13

10; 16 23; Job 10 II, 19; P sl. 3:

119.91: LL 1.51 ! Deu. 12 7; 1 Chr.

2. 22; 1 Cor. 10.18 21, 31.

1 As the people remained in this neighbourhood a whole 5 Heb., 'The hand upon the throne of the Lord.' But year, it is probable that the water thus miraculously pro- a slight change in the Hebrew text affords a meaning duced yielded them a constant supply.

more agreeable to the context: "For it shall be known 2 The tribes of the Amalekites appear to have wandered as my banner (or signal] of the war of Jehovah with through the wilderness of Paran" (now_called Et-Tyh), Amalek,' etc. which occupied the table-land between Horeb and Pales- 6 This visit probably occurred some time during the tine. It appears, from Deut. xxv. 17, 18, that this attack Israelites' stay at Sinai; and is inserted here (its exact was marked by peculiar craftiness and cruelty.

date not being important) that the subsequent account 3 The Hebrews were thus reminded that this victory of the giving of the Law might not be interrupted. See was as much the work of Jehovah as were the other won- vers. 13, 16; Deut. i. 6, 9. ders wrought with the rod of Moses. The name of the 7 Probably after the occurrence recorded in ch. ir. 25. altar also alludes to this (ver. 15).

8 That is, by a messenger. See note on ch. xii. 31. 4 Our Divine Mediator in heaven faints not, nor be- 9 A thanksgiving-feast. Friendship should be sanctified comes weary.

by united worship.

m Le. 24. 12; Num. 15

34; 27.5.
ch. 23. 7; 21. 14;
Deu. 17. 8; 2 Sam.
153; Joh 31. 13;

Ae. 18. 15; 1 Cor.6.L. • Le. 24. 15Num. 15.

33; 27. 6, etc. ; 36. 6 -9; Deu. 4.5

eh. 4 16; 19. 8, 9; 20. 19; Deu. 5. 6. Num. 27. 5.

16; 16. 18; 9 Chr.

19. 5-10; Ảe. 6 . * Ge. 12. 18; 2 Sin!

23. 3; 2 Chr. 19. 9.

e ver. %6.
d ver. 26; Le. 24. 11:

Num. 15. 33; 27. 2;
36. 1; Deu. 1. 17;
17. 8.

Num. 11. 17. 5 ver. 18 8 ch. 16 29; Ge. 18

33 : 30. 25; 2 Sam,

19. 39. A Deu. 1. 15; Ac. 6 5

* Job 29. 16.

thou doest to the people ? why sittest thou thyself alone, and all the people stand 15 by thee from morning unto even? And Moscs said unto his father-in-law, 16 Because " the people come unto me to inquire of God: when they have " a matter,

they come unto me; and I judge between one and another, and I do ° make them

know the statutes of God, and his laws. 17 And Moses' father-in-law said unto him, The thing that thou doest is not good. 18 Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee : for

this thing is too heavy for thee; P thou art not able to perform it thyself alone. Noi 17; 19 Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God shall be with ch.3.136

thee: Be thou 'for the people to God-ward, that thou mayest bring the causes 20 unto God: and thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws, and shalt show them Deu. 9.5: 5. 1; 21 * the way wherein they must walk, and - the work that they must do. Moreover Pulse

thou shalt provide out of all the people y able men, such as a fear God," men of Dv. 1. 15,

truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, 22 and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens: and let them judge

the people at all seasons: d and it shall be, that every great matter they shall : Ber. 18. .

bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge : so shall it be easier for 23 thyself, and they shall bear the burden with thee. If thou shalt do this thing,

and God command thee so, then thou shalt be able to endure, and all this people

shall also go to their place in peace. 24 So Moses hearkened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had 25 said. And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over

the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of 26 tens. And they judged the people at all seasons: the hard causes they brought in your 27 unto Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves. And Moses let his father-in-law depart; and 'he went his way into his own land.

Encampment at Sinai; the ten commandments; directions as to worship. 19 IN the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the 2 land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai. For they h 20.

were departed from * Rephidim, and were come to the desert of Sinai, and had 3 pitched in the wilderness; and there Israel camped before the mount. And

Moses went up unto God, and the LORD 9 called unto him out of the mountain, Deu. 5. Jer 7 saying, 3 Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel; 4 Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how • I bare you on eagles' 5 wings, and brought you unto myself. Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice

indeed, and keep my covenant,* then "ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me 6 above all people: for all the earth is mine : and ye shall be unto me a y kingdom

of priests, and an · holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.

And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before their 8 faces all these words which the LORD commanded him. And a all the people

answered together, and All that the LORD hath spoken we will do. And

Moses returned the words of the people unto the LORD. 9 And the LORD said unto Moses, Lo, I come unto thee bin a thick cloud, -that. 16722;

the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever. And 10 Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD. And the LORD said unto

Moses, Go unto the people, and é sanctifys them to-day and to-morrow, and let 11 them wash their clothes, and be ready against the third day: for the third day

the LORD will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Sinai. st. 11 Ge. 95. 2; 12 And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying, Take heed to a vere. 16, 18, 20; eh.

yourselves that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it: "whoso

I Num. 10. 29, 30.

Num. 33. 15.
"eb. 17. 1. 8.
• eh. 3. 1, 12.
Pch. 20. 21: Ae. 7. 38.

eh. 7 to 14; Deu.

29. 2 • Deu, 32. 11, 12; Is.

63. 9; Rev. 12 14.

, 20; 6; 14. 2, 21; 26. 18; 32. & 9; 1 Ki. & 53: P. 135. 4; Can. & 19; Is, 41.8; 43. 1: Jer. 10. 16: Mal. 3. 17;

Tit. 2. 14. #ch. 9. 29; Deu, 10.

14; Joh 41. 11; Ps. 24. 1; 50. 12; 1 Cor.

10. 26, 28 y Deu. 33. 2-4; Is. 61. 6; 1 P-t. 2. 3,9; Kes. I. 6; 5 10 20. 6. : Le. 19. 2; 20. 24, 26;

Dent. 7. 6; 26. 19; 28. 9; Is. 62. 1:; 1 Cor. 3. 17; 1 Thes.

5. 2; 1 Pet. 1, 15, 16 a ch. 24. 3,7; Deu. *

94. 15, 16: Deu. 4 11; Ps. 18 II, 12;

97, 2; Mt. 17. 5 • Den. 4. 12, 36, John

12 29, 30, deh. 14. 31. • le. 11. 44, 45; 1 Cor.

6. 11; Heb. 10. 22.

31. 5; Deu. 33. 2 Heb. 12. 20

1 The judicious proposal of Jethro, which he piously I was called (ver. 10); a summary of the Law was given, made subject to the command of God (ver. 23), was ratified first orally (chap: xx.), then through Moses (ch. xx. 22 by Him (Numb. xi. 16, 17); and probably laid the founda- | xxiii. 33); and the covenant was ratified, first with blood tion of the municipal polity of the Hebrews. The Saxon (ch. xxiv. 6), and then by a Divine vision and a sacred institutions of Alfred somewhat resemble this plan. feast (vers. 9–11). After this, Moses twice ascended the

2 Probably either Wady Esch Schiekh, or Wady Feiran. mountain to meet God; and went often into the tabernacle Here they remained nearly a year.

of the congregation to receive his instructions. 3 This is the beginning of those remarkable transac- 4 The Jews, as a nation, broke this covenant; and God tions between God and the chosen nation, called the Cove- afterwards promised to make with them a new and better nant of Sinai; by which God became their King, esta- covenant. "See Jer. xxxi. 33; Heb. viii. 7–10. This blishing a theocracy, typical of the spiritual dominion of national covenant must be distinguished from that covethe future Messiah. On God's part, it was commenced with nant of grace, the blessings of which are personal, and a reference to his recent deliverance of them (ver. 4), and limited to true believers. with promises of future blessings, as reasons for their 5 This, with the required ablutions, and the bounds unlimited obedience (ver. 5); which they, on their part, put around the mount, was designed to invest the whole readily promised (ver. 8). Upon this, a solemn assembly 1 with the most awful solemnity.

vers. 16, 19.

ver. 10. I ver. II. ** Sam. 21. 4, ;

Zech. 7.3; 12 13

14; 1 Cor. 7.5 » P: 77. 18; Het 12

18, 19; Rer, 46;

& 5; 11. 19 e ver. 9; el. 40. 34;

2 Chr. 3. 14. P Res, L 10:41

Heh. 12. 21

14

16

. Deu. 4 11; * 2:

Julg. & 5; Ps

7,8; Is. 64; Hadi I eh. & !; 24 17,9

Chr. 7. 1-3
Ge. 15 17: Ps. 144

5: Rev, 15. &
* Ps. 68. 8: 77. 19:

114. 7: Jer. ; Heb. 12 26

• ver. 12: Jok 34 / Deu. 4. 26; & 22.

21

13 ever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death : there shall not an hand

touch it, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live: when the i trumpet soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.

And Moses went down from the mount unto the people, and sanctified the 15 people; and they washed their clothes. And he said unto the people, 'Be ready against the third day : m come not at your wives.

And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, that there were " thunders Deu. 4. and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the P voice of the trumpet 17 exceeding loud; so that all the people that was in the camp a trembled. And

Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet with God; and they 18 stood at the nether part of the mount. And mount Sinai was altogether on a

smoke, because the LORD descended upon it'in fire: "and the smoke thereof 19 ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly. And :

y when the voice of the trumpet sounded long, and waxed louder and louder, 12.9. 13: Ps. 81. 7. 20 z Moses spake, and « God answered him by a voice. And the LORD came down nee eh. a 's: 32 20;

upon mount Sinai, on the top of the mount: and the Lord called Moses up to the S10 las 11 top of the mount; and Moses went up.

And the LORD said unto Moses, Go down, charge the people, lest they break cha 7:13 22 through unto the LORD • to gaze, and many of them perish. And let the priests?

also, which come near to the Lord, sanctify themselves, lest the LORD d break A ch10 10 is 23 forth upon them. And Moses said unto the Lord, The people cannot come up to

mount Sinai : for thou chargedet us, saying, "Set bounds about the mount, and 24 sanctify it. And the LORD said unto him, Away, get thee down, and thou shalt

come up, thou, and Aaron with thee : but let not the priests and the people break the 25 through to come up unto the LORD, lest he break forth upon them. So Moses

went down unto the people, and spake unto them. 20 And God spake Sall these words, saying,

& I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, 3 out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.

* Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the 5 water under the earth : 'thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve

them: for I the Lord thy God am ma jealous God, " visiting the iniquity of the

fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate 6 me; and showing mercy unto thousands 8 of them that I love me, and keep my

coinmandments. 7 "Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain ;' for the LORD

will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. 8 Remember 10 the sabbath day, to keep it holy. "Six days shalt thou labour,

13; Deu. 5. 6; 6 4; Ps. 50. 7; sl. 10; Hos. 13.4

i Deu. 5. 7; 6 ;

? KL 17 33: Ps. Bl. 9; Is. 3. 10: 4.8: Jer. 26; 38 15; Me. 4. 10; 1 Cor.&

2

4

Deu. 4 16:38: 15; Ps. 97.7: Is

18: 12 8: A. 17. I eh, 2 : Jas. X

7, 16; 2Ki. 17. 85;

Is. 44. 15, 19. ch. 31 14; Deu. 24; 6. 15; Jos. 84 19; Is. 2 8; XA

1 2 "ch. 31 7; Ler. 20

5; 26 39, 40; Xan. 16 18 33: ? Sam. 21, 1:1 Kl. 21. 29; Job & 4: 21. 19, P. 79. 8: 1o. 14; I. 14, 20, 21666, 7: Jer. 2 9; 5218;

Eze. 18 • Deu. 7. 10; 120:

Pro. & 36; John 15 Peh. 34 7. Den 43:

6 9: B; P. 4

34; RO IL 28 9 Joha 14 18, 91: !

John 4. 19; John 6. ch. 2 1: Le. 19. 12

Deu. & 11:2:
Ps. 15 4; 122 23;

"Le. 24. 16; Mic. 6. 11.

I ch. 16. 23-30; 31. 13, 14; Le. 19. 3, 30; 26. 2, Den. S. 12.

Eae. 20. 12; Lk. 13 14

ch. 3. 12; 31, 15; 34.91; Lev. 23. 3;

1 Saying, “I exceedingly fear and quake' (Heb. xii. 21). | tions; and forbidding any actions injurious to (6) the life, The allusion to this august scene in Heb. xii. 18–24, shows (7) the personal purity, (8) the property, and (9) the rehow far the sublimest material display of the power of putation of others; as well as (16) all selfish and irregular Jehovah is surpassed by the spiritual glory of the gospel. desires. It is further to be noticed, that though most of Its effect upon the minds of the people is described in these laws specify actions, the ninth refers to terds, Deut. xviii. 16.

whilst the tenth extends to the thoughts and desires of 2 These were probably the chiefs of families, who, in the heart. patriarchal times, discharged the duties of priests.

4 The peculiar claims of Jehovah here mentioned are, 3 That is, down to ver. 17. The manner in which these (1) His covenant-relation to his people, “Thy God;' (2) commandments were delivered is sufficient to prove their His marvellous deliverance of them. pre-eminent importance-being spoken immediately by 5 Rather, 'besides.' Jehovah alone is God. the voice of God; while the rest of the Divine directions 6 As the Egyptians did of the sun, the bull, the crocowere communicated privately to Moses, and by him given dile, etc. All material representations of himself are a to the people. They were fundamental laws; and were much condemned by God as the worship of other gods. selected not only on account of their intrinsic and uni- See Deut. iv. 15-19. versal importance, by which they are distinguished from 7 This is not spoken of eternal condemnation, but of the ceremonial and political injunctions afterwards given; the temporal consequences of sin; and is to be understood but also because the Israelites and their Egyptian and as modified by the repentance of either parents or chilCanaanitish neighbours were peculiarly prone to the sins dren. See Ezek. xviii

. here specifically forbidden. Upon these and other sub- 8 That is, unto thousands of generations; or, in other jects, our Saviour's commandments are contained in the words, for ever. See Psa. cxxxvi. sermon on the mount (Matt. v., vi., vii.) In these com- 9 Referring not only to profanity and false swearing, mandments a natural order is observable. They present but probably to unmeaning repetitions in worship (sce (1) JEHOVAH as the sole object of worship; (2) the mode Matt. vi. 7), instead of a thoughtful and reverential use of worship, accordant with his spiritual nature; (3) the of God's name, or names. intelligent reverence, and (4) the constant regularity re- 10 The word remember' seems to imply that the Sabquired in worship. They then provide rules for our social bath was an ancient, though perhaps almost forgotten life; beginning with (5) its foundation in family rela- | institution; and that the command required constant at

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