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approach their surface, and in those of lighter and more aërial form, which, in the words of Wilson, “enliven the prospect by their airy movements—now skimming closely over the watery element, watching the motions of the surges, and now rising into the higher regions, sporting with the winds;" and we may surely add, still in the words of that enthusiastic worshipper of Nature, that "such zealous inquirers must have found themselves amply compensated for all their toil, by observing these neat and clean birds coursing along the rivers and coasts, and by inhaling the invigorating breezes of the ocean, and listening to the soothing murmurs of its billows." Nor could they fail to notice how admirably the white and grey tints which prevail in the plumage of these birds harmonize with those of air and ocean--a species of adaptation which is manifest in all the works of nature, no colours, however varied, presenting to the eye an incongruous or disagreeable picture, and no sounds, however modified by the throats of a thousand feathered warblers, jarring as discord on the ear. Well may we judge from this that our senses were framed in unison with all created objects, and that the right test of ex

cellence in music, painting, or poetry, is, that it is natural." LARUS MINUTUS, THE LITTLE GULL.

The genus Larus (Gull) of the early writers included.

many birds now separated from it—the Skuos, or parasitic This bird, hitherto known in Great Britain only as an occa- gulls ; Lestris ; the Terns, or sea-swallows; Sterna; and some sional and rare visitant, has now been added to the Fauna of others—the consequence of increasing knowledge in natural Ireland—one of a pair seen between Shannon Harbour and science being the gradual limitation of genera by the use of

All these genera Shannon Bridge having been shot in the month of May of the more precise and restricted characters.

now form part of the family of Laridæ, or gull-like birds—the present year, by Walter Boyd, Esq. of the 97th regiment, and system of grouping together those genera which exhibit strikpresented by him to the Natural History Society of Dublin. ing analogies in plumage or habits securing the advantages of It has been stuffed by Mr Glennon of Suffolk Street, who con- a natural arrangement, without the danger of that confusion tinues to gratify the lovers of natural history by a free inspec- which so often results from loosely defined genera. The tention of it.

dency is indeed to still further subdivision—the kittiwake The Little Gull was first noticed with certainty as a British Rissa (Stephens), and the blackheaded gulls classed together

(Larus rissa) having been made the type of a new genus, bird by Montague, who, in the Supplement to his Ornithologi- as the genus Xema (Boië)—the periodic change of the colour cal Dictionary, published in 1813, described an immature spe- of their heads from the white of winter to the black of summer, cimen, the plumage being that of the yearling in transition to their more rapid and tern or swallow-like flight, and their its winter garb. The Irish specimen, on the contrary, is inland habits, forming so many striking and apparently natuinvested with its full summer plumage, as described by Tem- ral marks of distinction. To this genus, if finally admitted, minck. The head and upper portion of the neck are black; will belong the Little Gull (Xema minuta). the lower portion of the neck and under parts of the body are The term Larus is adopted from the Greek, the ancient white, and at first exhibited a rosy tint, which as is usual Latin name as used by Pliny being Gavia. Brisson (1763) quickly faded after death ; rump and tail white; upper parts applies Larus to some of the larger species, and Gavia to a pearl grey, the secondaries and quills being tipped with white; multitude of others; but there is much confusion in his idenlegs and toes bright red; bill of a reddish brown, rather than tifications of species, and the line of separation was not well of the deep lake of Temminck, or arterial blood-red of Selby; considered. Modern writers also subdivide the gulls, for the its length ten inches, or somewhat more than one-half of that of sake of convenience, into two sections—the larger, or those the blackheaded gull (Larus ridibundus), its nearest congener. varying from nineteen to twenty-six or more inches in length,

Little has been added to the history of this bird as briefly the “Goelands” of Temminck; and the smaller, or “Mouettes" given by Temminck as follows :—“'It inhabits the rivers, of Temminck. But this system of division is imperfect, as it lakes, and seas of the eastern countries of Europe ; is an occa- veils the remarkable relation existing between many of the sional visitant of Holland and Germany; is common in Russia, larger and smaller gulls, which should not therefore be sepaLivonia, and Finland ; and very rarely wanders to the lakes rated from each other. This relation was noticed by some of of Switzerland. It feeds on insects and worms, and breeds in the earlier writers. Willoughby designates under the name the eastern and southern countries."

Larus cinereus marimus both the herring and the lesser blackIn America the Little Gull was noticed on the northern backed gulls; and under that of Larus cinereus minor, the journey of Sir John Franklin, and it is numbered by Bona- common sea-gull. This kind of relation is indeed strikingly parte amongst the rarer birds of the United States-render- displayed amongst British gulls—as in the greater and lesser ing it probable that the American continent includes also its blackbacked gulls, the Glaucous and Iceland gulls, the herbreeding habitats. To this we may reasonably add—consi- ring and common gulls, and, we may add, the blackheaded dering the state of plumage of the Irish specimens, the season and little gulls ; and it is very probable that further research of their discovery, the inland locality in which they were seen, will show that it exists still more widely. and the analogy in habits between them and the other black- From Aristotle or Pliny little can be gleaned of the hisheaded gulls with which they were associated—a belief and tory of these birds. Aristotle states that the Gaviæ and hope that the Little Gull will yet be found to breed on some Mergi lay two or three eggs on the rock—the Gaviæ in of the wide expanses of the Shannon, or on the lakes of Ros- summer, the Mergi in the beginning of spring-hatching the common, Leitrim, and Sligo.

eggs, but not building in the manner of other birds. Pliny To understand the relation of this gull to the other species says that the Gaviæ build on rocks, the Mergi sometimes on of the same genus, it is necessary that we should take a rapid trees ; from which remark it appears probable that the genus survey of the whole family; and happy are we to indulge our - Mergus then included not merely the various divers, but also selves in such mental rambling, as many a gladsome reminis- the cormorants, as was formerly conjectured by Turner. cence will be awakened both in our own and in our readers' Whilst, therefore, the ancient Latin name of gull, Gavia, minds by the mention of these well-known birds. Few indeed has been entirely removed from modern nomenclature, the are there who at some period of their lives have not wandered word Mergus has obtained a signification very limited in comto the sea-side to enjoy the exhilarating influence of the sea parison to that which it enjoyed among the ancients, being breeze, and to revel, perchance, on the rich feast of knowledge now applied to the Mergansers alone, although for a time rewhich the many strange but admirably formed creatures of stored by Brisson to the Colymbi, which, as possessing the the deep must ever present to the inquiring and contemplative property of diving in its highest perfection, seem most entimind. To them the sea-mew or gull must be familiar, both tled to retain it, whilst the term Merganser might be judici. in those of the larger species, which are seen heavily winging ously applied to the genus now called by some, Mergus, as their way over the waters, or poised in air, wheeling round to was done by Aldrovandus, Willoughby, Brissod, and Stephens.

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The remarkable differences in the habits of gulls, which form in part the basis of separation, as suggested by Boië in the case of the blackheaded gulls, were early noticed. Old Gesner (1587) says that some gulls dwell about fresh waters, others about the sea ; and from Aristotle, that the grey gull seeks lakes and rivers, whilst the white gull inhabits the sea. Every one indeed must have noticed the flocks of gulls which occasionally appear inland, and share with the rooks and other corvidæ the rich repast of grubs which is afforded by the fresh-ploughed land. The common gull (Larus canus) is one of those which indulge in these terrestrial excursions ; but the blackheaded gulls (Xema) select even the inland marshes as their breeding-places. The more truly maritime gulls select islands or rocks, on the surface of which they deposit their eggs, as the kittiwake the narrow ledges of precipitous cliffs, the young being reared with safety, where it would seem that the least movement must plunge them from the giddy height into the abyss below. This beautiful illustration of the power of instinct to preserve even the nestling from danger, is admirably displayed on the northern coast of Mayo, where at Downpatrick Head the whole face of the perpendicular limestone cliff is peopled by line above line of gulls, flying, when disturbed by a stone thrown either from mischievous or curi. ous hand, in screaming flocks from their eggs or young, and as quickly settling upon then again, without, as it were, disturbing the equilibrium of either in a place where to move would be to tumble into destruction. The clamour of the kittiwake is indeed so great on such occasions that it has given rise in the Feroe Islands to a proverb, “noisy as the Rita in the rocks." The eggs of several species of gulls are used as food, being regularly sought for as such on the coast of Devonshire and other maritime places, but those of the blackheaded gulls are considered the best, and often substituted for plover eggs. The flesh of gulls was considered by the ancients unfit for the food of man; not so by the moderns, who, though probably no great admirers of it, have not entirely rejected it. Hence Willoughby tells us (1678) that “the seacrows (blackheaded gulls) yearly build and breed at Norbury in Staffordshire, in an island in the middle of a great pool, in the grounds of Mr Skrimshew, distant at least 30 miles from the sea.

About the beginning of March hither they come ; about the end of April they build. They lay three, four, or five eggs of a dirty green colour, spotted with dark brown, two inches long, of an ounce and half weight, blunter at one end.

The first down of the young is ash-coloured, and spotted with black. The first feathers on the back, after they are fledged, are black. When the young are almost come to their full growth, those entrusted by the lord of the soil drive them from off the island through the pool, into nets set in the banks to take them. When they have taken them, they feed them with the entrails of beasts; and when they are fat, sell them for fourpence or fivepence a-piece. They take yearly about one thousand two hundred young ones; whence may be computed what profit the lord makes of them. About the end of July they all fly away and leave the island.” And in Feroe, according to Landt (1798), the flesh of the kittiwake is not only eaten, but considered “ well-tasted.” As pets, gulls have always on the sea-coast been favourites, Gesner quotes from Oppian, “ That gulls are much attached to man-familiarly attend upon him ; and, when watching the fishermen, as they draw their nets and divide the spoil, clamorously demand their share." In our own boyish experience we knew one, poor Tom, which grew up under our care to maturity, and, unrestrained by any artificial means, flew away and returned again as inclination impelled it-recognising and answering our voice even when flying high in air above. But, alas ! like too many pets, he fell a sacrifice to the loss of that instinet which would have led him to shun danger. He joined a crowd of water-fowl on a small lake on the Start Bay Sands. His companions, alarmed at the approach of the fowler, flew unharmed away; but poor Tom, with ill-judged confidence, left the water and walked fearlessly towards the enemy of all winged creatures, who could not allow even a gull to escape, and, alas! he was the next moment stretched lifeless on the sand. Here we shall arrest our pen. Perhaps we have dwelt too long on this interesting genus of birds, and yet we would hope that some of our readers may profit by our remarks, and be led to watch with an inquisitive eye the many animated beings which surround thein, and thus to read in Nature's nevertiring, never-exhausted volume, new lessons of wisdom-new proofs of the exalted intelligence which has created every thing perfect and good of its kind.

J. E. P.


O son of Calphruin! thou whose ear
Sweet chant of psalms delights to hear,

Hast thou ere heard the tale,
How Fionn urged the lonely chase,
Apart from all the Fenian race,
Brave sons of Innisfail ?

O royal born! whom none exceeds
In moving song, or hardy deeds,
That tale, to me as yet untold,
Though far renown'à, do thou unfold

In truth severely wise,
From fancy's wanderings far apart:
For what is fancy's glozing art
But falsehood in disguise ?

O! ne'er on gallant Fenian race
Fell falsehood's accusation base:
By faith of deeds, by strength of hand,
By trusty might of battle-brand,
We spread afar our glorious fame,
And safely from each conflict came.
Ne'er sat a monk in holy chair,
Devote to chanting hymn and prayer,

More true than the Fenians boid :
No chief like Fionn, world around,
Was e'er to bards so gen'rous found,

With gifts of ruddy gold.
If lived the son of Morné fleet,

Who ne'er for treasure burned;
Or Duiné's son to woman sweet,

Who ne'er from battle turned, But fearless with his single glaive A hundred foemen dared to brave : If lived Macgaree stern and wild,

That hero of the trenchant brand;
Or Caoilte, Ronan's witty child,

Of liberal heart and open hand;
Or Oscar, once my darling boy,
Thy psalms would bring me little joy.
If lived, the Fenian deeds to sing,

Sweet Fergus with his voice of glee;
Or Daire, who trilled a faultless string,

Small pleasure were thy bells to me. If lived the dauntless little Hugh,

Or Fillan, courteous, kind and meck, Or Conan bald, for whom the dew

Of sorrow yet is on my cheek,
Or that small dwarf whose power could steep
The Fenian host in death-like sleep-
More sweet one breath of theirs would be
Than all thy clerks' sad psalmody.

Thy chiefs renowned extol no more,
O son of kings—nor number o'er ;
But low, on bended knee, record
The power and glory of the Lord;
And beat the breast, and shed the tear,
And still his holy name revere,
Almighty, by whose potent breath
Thy vanquished Fenians sleep in death.

Alas ! for Oisin-dire the tale !

No music in thy voice I hear;
Not for thy wrathful God I wail,

But for my Fenians dear.
Thy God! a rueful God I trow,
Whose love is earned by want and woe!
Since came thy dull psalm-singing crew,
How rapid away our pastimes flew,

And all that charmed the soul !
Where now are the royal gifts of gold,
The flowing robe with its satin fold,

And the heart-delighting bowl? Where now the feast, and the revel high, And the jocund dance and sweet minstrelsy, And the steed loud-neighing in the morn, With the music sweet of hound and horn,



And well-armed guards of coast and bay ?
All, all like a dream have passed away;

And now we have clerks with their holy qualms, THE boasted civilization which Mehemet Ali has introduced
And books, and bells, and eternal psalms,

into the countries under his sway is entirely superficial, and And fasting--that waster gaunt and grim,

has no origin whatever in any real improvement or amelioraThat strips of all beauty both body and limb. tion in the condition or for the benefit of their respective po

pulations; and the reason why a contrary impression has so Oh! cease this strain, nor longer dare

generally prevailed amongst late travellers is as follows :Thy Fionn, or his chiefs, compare

When travellers arrive at Alexandria, and more particularly With him who reigns in matchless might,

those of name or rank, they immediately fall into the hands The King of kings enthroned in light.

of a set of clever persons, some of them consuls, who having 'Tis he who frames the heavens and earth;

either made their fortunes by the Pacha, or having them to 'Tis he who nerves the hero's hand;

make, leave no effort unemployed to impress them with fa'Tis he who calls fair fields to birth,

vourable opinions of his government. They are then preAnd bids each blooming branch expand :

sented at the Divan, where, instead of a reserved austere. He gives the fishy streams to run,

looking Turk, they find a lively animated old man, who con.. And lights the moon and radiant sun.

verses freely and gaily with them, talks openly of his projects What deeds like these, though great his fame,

to come, and of his past life, tells them that he is glad to see Canst thou ascribe to Fionn's name?

them, and that the more travellers that pass through Egypt,

the better he is pleased; that he wishes every act of his goTo weeds and grass his princely eye

vernment and institutions to be kn and seen, and that the My sire ne'er fondly turned;

more they are so, the better will he be appreciated. He then But he raised his country's glory high,

turns the conversation to some subject personal to them, for

he is always well informed of who and what they are, and When the strife of warriors burned. To shine in games of strength and skill,

what they know, and at last dismisses them with an injunction

to visit his establishments with care, and to let him know To breast the torrent from the hill, To lead the van of the bannered host

their opinion of them on their return; and if they happen to These were his deeds and these his boast.

be persons of distinction, he offers them a cavass to accomWhere was thy God, when o'er the tide

pany them on their journey. All this is done in a simple Two heroes hither bore

pleasing manner, which can bardly fail to captivate when Of Lochlin, king of ships, the bride,

coming from so remarkable a man. Instructed by the clique,

and won by the Pacha, they proceed on their journey to And carnage heaped the shore ? When Tailk on Fenians hacked his brand,

Cairo, where the delusion begun at Alexandria is completed; 'Twas not thy God's, but Oscar's hand

for travelling through the country is now easy, and comparaThat hero prostrate laid ;

tively safe to what it was, and establishments of various When rough-voiced Manus swept the coast,

kinds, such as polytechnic schools, schools of medicine and If lived thy God, the Fenian host

general instruction, and manufactories, have been formed in Had triumphed by his aid.

Cairo and those parts of the country which are most freWhen Aluin, Anver's son of fame,

quently visited. These are under the direction of foreigners, Round Tara rolled the bickering flame,

chiefly Frenchmen, and are open to those who choose to vj-it Not by thy King's, but Oscar's glaive

them; consequently, as the greater proportion of travellers The warrior sank in a bloody grave.

seek for sights more than instruction, these gentlemen, won When haughty Dearg advanced in pride

at Alexandria, and delighted at the facility of their journey With his shields of gold o'er Lochlin's tide,

from that place, neither turn to the right nor the left from the Why lingered then thy cloud-borne Lord

beaten track, but, judging of what they do not see by that To save our host from his slaughtering sword ?

which is purposely prepared to be shown them, return to EuOh! glorious deeds arise in crowds,

rope, and on grounds such as I have above described, and

without looking an inch beneath the surface, proclaim the Of the gallant Fenian band;

Pacha the civilizer and regenerator of Egypt. How far such
But what is achieved by thy King of the clouds-
Where reddened he his hand ?*

is the case, you will be able to judge from what follows, in
which there is no exaggeration. The journey I made extended

up to the second cataract on the Nile, throughout Egypt and Here let this vain contention rest,

Nubia, and then through Palestine, the whole of Syria, and For frenzy, Bard, inspires thy breast.

the Libanus. I consequently visited very nearly all the counSupreme in bliss God ever reigns :

tries under the domination of Mehemet Ali, and as I did not Thy Fionn groans in hell's domains-

allow myself to be influenced at Alexandria, and missed no In penal fire--in lasting chains.

occasion of informing myself of the state of things whilst on

my journey, I may fairly say that I can give an unbiassed Small glory to thy potent King

opinion as to what is going on in that unhappy part of the His chains and fires on our host to bring !

world. Oh! how unlike our generous chief,

In Egypt the whole of the land belongs to the Pacha ; be. Who, if thy King felt wrong or grief,

sides himself there is no land-proprietor, and he has the abso. Would soon in arms, with valour strong,

lute monopoly of every thing that is grown in the country. Avenge the grief, redress the wrong.

The following is the manner in which it is cultivated :-PorWhom did the Fenian king e'er see

tions of land are divided out between the fellahs of a village, In thraldom, pain, or fear,

according to their numbers; seed, corn, cotton, or other proBut his ready gold would set him free,

duce, is given to them; this they sow and reap, and of the Or the might of his victor spear ?

produce seventy-five per cent. iš immediately taken to the This arm, did frenzy touch my brain,

Pacha's depots. The remaining twenty-five per cent. is left Their heads from thy clerks would sever,

them, with, however, the power to take it at a price fixed by Nor thy crozier here, nor white book remain, the Pacha himself, and then resold to them at a higher rate. Nor thy bells be heard for ever.

This is generally done, and reduces the pittance left them TO BE CONTINUED.

about five per cent. more; from this they are to pay the capitation tax, which is not levied according to the real nuriler

of the inhabitants of a village, but according to numbers at Dextera sacras jaculatus arces

which it is rated in the government books; so that in one inTerruit urbem,-lor.

stance with which I was acquainted, a village originally rated Heaven's eternal Sire, With red right-arm, at his own temples hurl'd

at 200, but reduced by the conscription to 100, and by death His thunders, and alarm'd a guilty world.---FRANCIS.

or flight to 40, was still obliged to pay the full capitation; Some of Oisin's expressions might justly shock the picty of St Patrick. But and when I went there, 20 of the 40 had been just bastinadoed let it be remembered that Oisin is no convert to Christianity; on the conwary, he is opposed to it, principally because it had put an end to his favou: to extort from them their proportion of the sum claimed. rite pastiines,

After the capitation comes the tax on the date-trees, raised




from 30 to 60 paras by the Pacha, and that of 200 piasters the wheels, is a luggage-box or hold, descending to within a a-year for permission to use their own water-wheels, without few inches of the ground, in which it is proposed to stow all which the lands situated beyond the overflow of the Nile, or heavy commodities, for which purpose it is well adapted, too high for it to reach, would be barren. Then comes an opening as it does at either end, and its flooring close to the infinity of taxes on every article of life, even to the cakes of surface of the ground. At each end of the lower part of the camels' dung which the women and children collect and dry framing of this luggage-box, are fixed horizontal guide or for fuel, and which pay 25 per cent. in kind at the gate of friction wheels, working against the supports of the bearing Cairo and the other towns. Next to the taxes comes the wheels and pullies, by which arrangement curves will be tracorvee in the worst form, and in continual action; at any mo- versed with little friction, and it will be impossible for the ment the fellahs are liable to be seized for public works, for framing to quit the track. The framing of timber will be the transport of the baggage of the troops, or to track the about 19 feet in length, so that it will rest alternately on six boats of the government or its officers, and this without pay and eight wheels, but never on less than six. On this framing or reference to the state of their crops.

the passenger carriages are erected, which, in its progression When Mehemet Ali made his famous canal from Alexandria forward, it is thought will be kept steady and free from to the Nile, he did it by forcibly marching down 150,000 men lateral motion by the weight in the luggage-box, assisted by from all parts of the country, and obliging them to excavate the horizontal guide-wheels. Locomotion is produced by putwith their hands, as tools they had not, or perhaps could not ting the wheels in motion by means of machinery at either be provided. The excavation was completed in three months, end, which would be effected for an immense distance with a but 30,000 men died in the operation. Then comes the curse moderate power, as there would be very little more friction of the conscription, which is exercised in a most cruel and due to the wheels than that arising from their own weight ; arbitrary manner, without any sort of rule or law to regulate and the frame which bears the carriage would not be run it. An order is given to the chief of a district to furnish a on to the bearing-wheels until the whole were in motion, certain number of men; these he seizes like wild beasts when its weight would act almost after the manner of a fly. wherever he can find them, without distinction or exemption, wheel, resting as it would on the periphery of the bearingthe weak as well as the strong, the sick as well as those in wheels. It will be perceived that by this plan the bearings health ; and as there is no better road to the Pacha’s favour of the wheels must be kept perfectly in the direction of the than showing great zeal in this branch of the service, he if plane of the road, whether inclined or horizontal; otherwise possible collects more even than were demanded. These are serious concussions would occur. But this would not be the chained, marched down to the river, and embarked amidst the case by the depression of one wheel, or even by its entire retears and lamentations of their families, who know that they moval, as the framing will be constructed sufficiently stiff as shall probably never see them again : for change of climate, not to deflect by having the distance of the bearings doubled. bad treatment, and above all, despair

, cause a mortality in If this plan should be found to answer, it will present the Pacha's army beyond belief; mutilation is not now con- facilities of transport never before thought of, as carriages sidered an exemption, and the consequence of the system is, might be continually dispatched without a chance of collithat from Assouan, at the first cataract, to Aleppo, you lite- sion, either by stoppage or from increased speed of the last rally speaking never see a young man in a village ; and such beyond the preceding. It also promises to remove the present is the depopulation, that if things continue as they now are great drawback to railway progression, viz. the being able to for two years more, and the Pacha insists on keeping up his surmount but very slight acclivities by locomotive power with army to its present force, it will be utterly impossible for the any profitable load ; but by the rotative system, inclines may be crops to be got in, or for any of the operations of agriculture surmounted of almost any steepness without the chance of accito be carried on.

dent. If a band should break, the action of this railway would The whole of this atrocious system is carried into action by not be impeded, as the power being transmitted from either the cruelest means-no justice of any sort for the weak, no end, rotation would take place throughout its whole length, security for those who are better off : the bastinado and other but the power would not be transmitted from either end

past tortures applied on every occasion, and at the arbitrary will the disjunction. Even should two bands be destroyed at a of every servant of the government. In addition to this, the distance from each other and on the same side of the track, natives of the country are rarely employed-never in offices of its action would not be destroyed, for although the isolated trust-and the whole government is entrusted to Turks. In portion of wheels would be dead, those on the other side of short, the worst features of the Mameluke and Turkish rules the track would be in action, which, with the horizontal guideare still in active operation ; but the method of applying them wheels, would move forward the carriage, although, on such is much more ingenious, and the boasted civilization of Mehe- portion, at a diminished speed. Instead of an increased outmet Ali amounts to this : that being beyond doubt a man of lay being required in the formation of railways on this system, extraordinary talents, he knows how to bring into play the it is estimated that a very considerable saving will be effected, resources of the country better than his predecessors did, but as a single track will be sufficient, with sidings of dead wheels like them entirely for his own interest, and without any refer.

at the termination of the several portions into which a long ence to the well-being of the people, and that with the aid of line would be divided. In crossing valleys, a framing of piles his European instruments he has, if I may say so, applied the to support the bearing-wheels would be quite sufficient, and screw with a master-hand, and squeezed from the wretches the road might be left quite open between each line of wheels, under his sway the very last drop of their blood.

as it would be impossible for the carriage to quit the track, Such is the state of these two countries. Syria is perhaps and therefore no necessity for making a solid road for safety the worst off of the two: for the Egyptians used to oppression sake.—Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal. bear it without a struggle ; whilst the Syrians, who had been less harshly treated in old times, writhe under and gnaw their laga in 1487, when in possession of the Moors, a circumstance

MAGNANIMITY.- When the Spanish armies invested Machain. From the Sun newspaper.

occurred in a sortie from the city, indicating a trait of cha

racter worth recording. A noble Moor, named Abraher Rotation Railway. This invention aims at effecting a wandered from their quarters. Without injuring them, he

Zenete, fell in with a number of Spanish children who had complete revolution in the present mode of railway construction and locomotion. In place of having the ordinary rails touched them gently with the handle of his lance, saying, and wheeled carriages, two series of wheels are fixed along

“Get ye gone, varlets, to your mothers." On being rebuked the whole length of the road at about two yards apart, and by his comrades, who inquired why he had let them escape so

“ Because I saw no beard upon their at an equal distance from centre to centre of each wheel. easily,, he replied, These wheels are connected throughout the whole length of chins.” An example of magnanimity (says the Curate of Los the line by bands working in grooved pullies keyed on to the Palacios) truly wonderful in a heathen, and which might have same axle as the wheels, but the axles of one side of the line reflected credit on a Christian hidalgo. -Prescott's History are not connected with those of the opposite line

The axles of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, Boston, 1839. of the wheels are raised about one foot from the ground; the top of the wheel, which is proposed to be of 3 feet diameter, Printed and Published every Saturday by Gunn and Cameron, at the Office

of the General Advertiser, No. 6, Church Lane, College Green, Dublin.will be therefore elevated 2 feet above the surface. On

Agents :--R. GROOMBRIDGB, Panyer Alley, Paternoster Row, London ; these wheels is placed a strong framing of timber, having an Simms and DINHAM, Exchange Street, Manchester ; C. Davies, North iron plate fastened on each side in the line of the two series of

John Street, Liverpool: J. DRAKB, Birmingham ; M. BINGHAM, Broad

Street, Bristol ; Fraser and CRAWFORD, George Strect, Edinburgh; wheels. A little within this bearing frame, so as just to clear and DAYID ROBERTSON, Trongate, Glasgow.

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PADDY CONEELY, THE GALWAY PIPER. We need hardly have acquainted our Irish readers that in the fully finished, and the very instrument made for Crump, the prefixed sketch, which our admirable friend the Burton has greatest of all the Munster pipers, or, we might say, Irish of made for us, they are presented with the genuine portrait of a modern times, and from which he drew his singularly delipiper, and an Irish piper too—for the face of the man, and cious music. Musical reader ! do not laugh at the epithet we the instrument on which he is playing, are equally national have applied to the sounds of the bagpipe: the music of and characteristic—both genuine Irish : in that well-pro- Crump, which we have often heard from himself on these very portioned oval countenance, so expressive of good sense, gen- pipes, was truly delicious even to the most refined musical ears. tleness, and kindly sentiments, we have a good example of a These pipes after Crump's death were saved as a national form of face very commonly found among the peasantry of the relic by our friend the worthy and patriotic historian of Galway west and south of Ireland—a form of face which Spurzheim -need we say, James Hardiman—who, in his characteristic distinguished as the true Phænician physiognomy, and which spirit of generosity and kindness, presented them to their preat all events marks with certainty a race of southern or sent possessor, as a person likely to take good care of them, Semitic origin, and quite distinct from the Scythic or northern and not incompetent to do justice to their powers; and the Indo-European race so numerous in Ireland, and character- gift was nobly and well bestowed ! Yet, truth to tell

, Paddy ized by their lighter hair and rounder faces. And as to the Coneely is not to be compared with John Crump, who, accordbagpipes, they are of the most approved Irish kind, beauti- ling to the recollections of_him which_cling to our memory,

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