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IV. On irrigation, (with a plate). By Edward Wilkinson, Esq. of Potterton Loilge, Yorkshire. Ý. On soiling cattle, by J. C. Curwen, Esq. M. P.' These two papers are marked “ claio, for premium;" it is not stated whether the premiums were allowed : the facts, bowever, detailed in them, warrant the conclusion that they were. VI. On stall-feeding cows in summer, by John Collett, Esq. of Ullevold, Norway. This mode was adopted principally for the purpose of obtaining manure for the improvement of an uncultivated estate, of which the author took possession in 1792. The experience of ten years has confirmed Mr. C.'s approbation of this practice. VII. On fine
wolled sheep, by Edward Sheppard, Esq. This gentleman appears to be one of those liberal-minded clothiers mentioned by Dr. Parry, see Ecl. Rev. vol. iv. p. 982.) who have determined to keep Hocks of Spanish or fine-woolled sheep of their own. A gold merial was voted to hin for this communication, from which however litle information is to be gleaned in addition to that which is furnished in Dr. Parry's 'Essay. VIII.
VIII. On the mode of cult vating flar and hemp in Russia, Prussia, and Poland. By James Durno, Esq. British Consul at Memel. IX. On the culture of flar. By the late Robert Somerville, Esq. of Haddington. It is twelve or fourteen years since, to our knowledge, Mr. Durno, then British Consul at Memel, bestowce his atiention upon this subject ; and the memoir of the lute Mr. Somerville ap. pears to have outlived its author. Neither of these papers deserved the long oblivion in which, though they have 10 date, we apprehend they have been doomed to remain.
X. Memoir on the Irish Fiorin grass. By W. Richardson, D. D. This grass, the agrostis stolonifera of botanists, is well known and much valued ' to be indigenous ; according to reland, where it appears possesses many very prominent claims to attention, as a proJific and hardy esculent. The author think; it probable, that it is the same grass with that which has been so much ada mired in the celebrated Orcheston meadow near Salisbury, which so many botanists went to examine, without agreeing among themselves on its name or species. Two coloured plates accompany this memoir, which is addressed to Mr. Davy,
XI. Expence and produce of four (cres, By A. H. Cham. bers, Esq. Foịr 'acres at Enfield-chace, cultivated in a most. expensive manner, yielded a profit of 112. 158. d. or about 24s. 6d. per acre per annum; the paper contains no informa. tion of the smallest value to practical farniers, and was quite unworthy of publication. XII, Communications on Turious crops. Under this head are seven papers, dated from 1791 to 1799 ; which never had many pretensions in the public ngreral readers. As a series of dissertations, they are perhaps gratifying enough to the man of mere intellect, the being of cool speculation, who can pursue a long train of proofs and reasonings, and accurately estimate their bearings and results : yet even such a reader would not have condemned Mr. P. if he had now and then illumined his arguments with the rays of fancy, or-had discovered so much of the inspiration of his subject, as to have impressed the heart while he convinced the judgement.
Having thus stated our opinion of the general merits and defects of the volume, we think that a more concise and accurate analysis of the argument, and its historical illustrations cannot be presented, than what is contaived in the last discourse: it is also a happy specimen of perspicuous arrangement and neat specification; and we shall therefore make no apology for the length of our quotation.
In whatever respects the preceding discourses may have been chargeable with defect or error, I am willing to hope that the exposition of the general argument may have been deemed sufficiently accurate and perspi. cuous. By that argument the truth of Christianity has been inferred from the distinction between crafty and wise policy, between particular and general expediency. It is the part of wisdom and integrity to be guided by extensive prospects.
Craft and selfishness are directed by partial • It accordingly was shewn, that the genuine religion of Christ is of an enlarged and liberal character, wisely suited, not to the narrow interests of ambitious individuals, but to the nature and condition of mankind. It was asserted, and, I trust, proved, that the ineans which were originally employed for its propagation, are characterised by the same spirit, and are such as an enthusiast, or impostor, not only would not have chosen, but could not have devised. This argument and position were illustrated by an enquiry into the circumstances
of the age in which Christianity was first promulged; into the prejudices of both the Jewish and Gentile world, and into the religious history of mankind. It was shewn that other teachers of religion, and other pretenders to the name and office of Messiah, have proposed to themselves objects, and availed themselves of means, which Christ refused to recognise or to adopt; but which it is presumable that he would have grasped with eagerness, if he had not been enlightened by knowledge more than human. It was shown also that, if any part of the policy of Christianity seemed to have only a temporary reference to the period of its establishment, yet it did not militate against -the general principle which was advanced ; but rather, from its modified conformity to that principle, was calculated to confirm its truth.
• The argument being thus completed and explained, 1 proceeded to compare the history of the origin of Christianity with the history of those early compliances with superstition, which were afterwards introduced into the church. I attempted to pursue the progress of these first corruptions of our religion, to their cinsummation in the idolatries of Papal Rome, and then to examine the rise of Papal tyranny, and to shew the
nature and magnitude of the evils which those idolatries and that tyranny have produced. It was my next endeavour faithfully to delineate the more important features by which the society of the Jesuits was distinguished,
trace the establishment of its power, to expose the profligacy of its moral discipline, and to exhibit the bright contrast which is apparent in the character of Christ.
• But that part of the history of the Jesuit order, which connected itself most naturally with the argument before unfolded, seemed to consist in the methods resorted to by its missionaries for the propagation of Christianity in foreign countries. The policy was examined, by which their establishments in Japan, in China, in Hindostan, and in the southern continent of America, were distinguished. They were shown in some cases to have permitted accommodations to existing superstition and idolatry, which, however conducive to present, were inimical to permanent
In other instances, the conduct of these zealous ecclesiastics was seen either to warrant the supposition, or to admit the probable imputation, of having been dictated by interest or ambition : while the conduct of Christ, on the contrary, both in respect of its wisdom and its disinterestedness, was every way, and evidently unexceptionable.' Serm. ix. pp. 245~248.
From this ample recapitulation of reasonings and facts, it will be seen that the origin and progress of the Jesuitical power occupy a large proportion of Mr. P.'s discourses, Indeed, this subject appears to bave extended beyond its proper limits, and to have contracted that range of discussion which ought to have been allowed to other topics. The miniature sketch, presented in our extract, does not exhibit so clearly the disproportion of which we complain ; but an idea may be formed of it, when we state, that tire of ihe nine serions, and nearly thirty of the appendices, relate almost exclusively to this subject. Had Mr. Penrose combined his historical illustrations to the facts connected with the establishment of the Jesuits, he might have stated still more distinctly the comparison of their principles and plans with those of the Christian system; and at the same time preserved the unity and proportions of his design. The work might then have been intitled, “a Comparison of Jesuitisin with Primitive Christianity ;' but as it now appears, even the author's favourite subject has not scope enough for its complete developenent, and the topics comprehended in the beginning of his plan lose much of that interest which would have arisen from a níore extended discussion. this circumstance more strongly, because we are persuaded that Mr. Penrose is well qualified to pursue the progress of the first corruptions of Christianity to their consummation in the idolatries of Papal Rome;' and because an ample detail of those important facts, connected either with the history of the times, or the operations of humau thought, which
We regret tice, and certainly have no new ones. XIII. This number includes three several papers on embankments, which should have been published long ago, if published at all. The first is, On the embankments of Strasburgh, by P. Howard, Esq. dated 1795; he is also the author of a paper, No. XXI. On Agriculture in Flanders, dated the year before. 2. On embankments, by W. A. Madocks, Esq. of Caernarvonshire; which details the embankment of ioso acres of marsh-land, for which Mr. M. put in a claim for premium. This paper ought to have been classed with Nos. XXVIȚI. and XXIX. stating the respective improvements by embankment, of 175 acres by Lord Boringdon, (with two plates) and of 180 acres by Admiral Bevtinck (with one plate:). 3. On small Canals. By Mr. Robert Fulton, of Stockport
. Mr. F.'s plan in this paper, which is also dated 1795, is to have small boats of four tons burihen each, which may be linked together to any number, in the same manner as trucks are linked on the iron railways; and canals without locks adapted for such small vessels only; the place of locks to be supplied by wheels fixed to the bottoms of the boats, by which they are to be conveyed from one bason to another, where the acclivities of the land regije it. The plan is liable to many objections; which ingenuity, however, might be worthily employed in endeavouring to obviate. Reference is made to a plan and apparatus, engravings of which should have accompanied the article.
XIV. Destruction of insects. Three papers of old dates. . XV. On Planting, Sc. Four papers, as before, which ought to have remained in the obscurity whence they have, most unaccountably, bren drawn ; particularly the last, a long, irrelevant, desuitory, and scarcely English letter, from one Christopher Wilson, of Red Lion-street, on combining timbers for ship-building. XVI. A Table of the Cycle of the Noor. By Mr. Pat. Robertson, writer of Glasgow; a paper which should have been transferred to Moore's Almanack. The following one, On Roads, by the Rev. Charles Whetley, Aston Ingham, near Gloucester, 1798, is local and temporary: XVIII. Account of Holy Island. By the Rev. L. Wilson, 1798. This paper contains some statistical, but little general, or agricultural information, respecting that sequestered spot. The following papers are also sa perannuated. XIX. On Improvement of waste-land, By John Prideaux, Esq. of North Tawton, 1797. XX. Considerutions concerning the Poor of the City of Edinburgh. By the late Lord Șwin
XXII. Communications by Sir John Call, Bart. i. On the Agriculture of India. 1797 : ii. Account of improving 34 acres of waste, 1798. ii. and iv. Population in Cornwall, &c. 1795, 98.
XXIII. Contents of England, Wales, and Scotland, in acres. XXIV. Account of Swedish Turnips in Cheshire, in 1806. By Lord Sheffield. XXV. Additional Communication from Mr. Cramp, regarding the produce of his Cow. XXVI. Mode of gaining a Settlement in Cheshire. By G. Wilbraham, Esq. It is some time since we have seen any
kind encumbered and disgraced with “make weights.”
XXX. On the culture of Potatoes. By Baon Hepburn. The beneficent purposes of Providence are scarcely in any instance better exemplified, than in the amazing reproduetive power possessed by the potatoe; its root, its shoots, its seeds, and even its haulm, generate in every mode of vegetable propagation.
When the stem, (says the author) grows luxuriantly, and is full of sap, and consequently easily lacerated by the wind, I have observed, that from these lacerated branches, which still remained attached to the stem by a slight hold, they continued to grow, and at every joint put out small excrescences, shaped somewhat like a potatoe, of a dark olive or bottle-green colour. These excrescences l gathered at reaping, and planted them the next year, and universailly the crop was abundant ; and like a renovated seed, it continued for fully' three years to resist the curl.'
This author thinks, and appears to have experienced, that the curl will not attack potatoes raised from seed, we mean the seed from the apples, for an improper mode has been introduced of calling the roots or sets planted for reproduction, the seed) at least for several year. The following is the mode pursued and the result produced by Baron Hepburn, in propagating potatoes from the apples.
As the seed in the apple is very minute, I rubbed the apple mixed with dry sand, perhaps a dozen of times, between my hands, merely for the
purpose of separating them (it); and this mixture I sowed on a border in my garden ; and where the plants rose too thick, I transplanted them. The return was many potatoes about the size of pigeon's eggs, particularly from the transplanted ones, and a still greater number of various lesser sizes. I selected the largest, and planted them the next season in my garden, and my return was very abundant of tolerably sized potatoes. The year following, viz. the third season, I cut the larger into two, for I am partial to large sets, as the best matrix for the nascent plant; the smaller I planted whole, and I planted them in the field, and gave
them the same culture with my crop. The return from this planting was most abundant, nearly double the weight, ground for ground, than (of) my crop planted in the ordinary way. In the fourth year I had abundance of seed (sets) for my whole crop of several acres, and the return was so astonishingly abundant beyond all my neighbours, tha: I had a very great demand for seed.”
Referring the reader to the paper itself for further infora mation, we gladly proceed to notice the two last communications. - XXXI." Economical dwellings for small proprielor's