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clauses simultaneously, imitating teacher; (5) by periods simultaneously, imitating teacher; (6) by periods individually, without the teacher's assistance_except to correct mistakes; (7) pick out a boy or two to read through the lesson. For the first-class boys who are more perfect, (1) and (2), and sometimes (4) and (5), are omitted; and in this case there is more time to be devoted to the other part: each boy can then read the whole lesson, and should he make a limited number of mistakes, say three, he forfeits his place in the class.
The lessons must necessarily be short. Those in reading-books are almost always too long. In this case I divide one into three or four, as convenient. I have never found 40 minutes too long for one lesson.
With many thanks for the insertion of my last letter, and many apologies for trespassing so much on pages which might, perhaps, be better occupied-I remain, &c.
THE SCHOOL CONSIDERED AS A SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT.
SIR, I am satisfied that a large share of the disorder prevailing in some schools, particularly Sunday-schools, is owing to the scanty measure of authority intrusted by the master to the teachers acting under him.
It has been remarked, that the schoolmaster is "emphatically a ruler." This is true; but how is he to rule? Not directly, as the private tutor, but through the medium of others; his school must be a system of government, wherein he governs the teachers, and the teachers govern their several classes of children. This is the only principle whereby large bodies, whether of children or of men, can be properly directed. In the army, the commander-in-chief cannot personally inspect each soldier's accoutrements, or guide each detachment of his troops; therefore he conveys his order to the proper officers, and they see it carried out in their several departments.
Viewing school government in this light, we are forcibly struck by two considerations.
The first is the importance of that function in the master which consists in selecting and training the subordinate officers of the scholastic system, whether voluntary assistants, pupil-teachers, or monitors, in such a manner that they may act harmoniously one with another, and all with the common head. He will do well to make them partakers of his counsels, gradually unfolding to them the principles which are at the root of his methods, and inviting them to state their difficulties, and to offer any suggestions arising in their minds.
The second thought is the necessity of clothing the subordinate officer with authority equal to his work. This cannot be done merely by punishing disobedience to him whenever you happen to notice it. By this course you enforce your own authority only, not his. When your eye is removed, the children will treat him with contempt as a mere puppet, devoid of all power to control them. It can be done by intrusting to each teacher the power of inflicting at his own discretion certain punishments suitable for him to administer, and for his class to receive; and by bidding him report to you any case of misconduct which he may think deserving of a heavier penalty. But remember, whenever your teacher reports, you must punish; the only question for you is the degree. Thus armed, the teacher will be recognised by his class as possessing a real authority.
If it be urged, that many teachers will abuse this power of punishing, I reply that I have expressly limited this power to such penalties as are suitable for him to inflict; that even the youngest monitor, when well trained and treated with confidence, will seldom be unfaithful to his trust; and that it is the duty of the master to ascertain by frequent surveys of his dominions how each officer administers his province, and to point out to him in the private training-lessons any indiscretions he has observed.
I shall be glad to see in your columns any remarks by an experienced schoolmaster upon the details of a good system of authority, such as the degrees of power which he has found suited to the various kinds and ages of subordinate officers.-I am, &c. A LOVER OF Order.
SIR,-Having received and put into practice several hints from your valuable Paper, perhaps you would kindly permit me, through the same medium, to make a few remarks which may prove acceptable to some of my brother schoolmasters. It is well-known what a difficulty a master experiences in obtaining good teachers in our villages; yet I am sure there are plenty of well-disposed young men and women who are willing to put
their backs to the work, and would do so by a little exertion and management on the part of either the clergyman or schoolmaster. But the worst of the matter is, the generality of those who are willing to lend us a helping hand are quite incompetent to do little more than hear the children read. Now we want something more than this; and it seems evident to me, if we wish to lay a good foundation, that we must begin with the teachers first, and teach them what we wish taught to the children in the school. This might easily be done by opening a teachers' class one evening or so in the week. The advantages of such a plan must be obvious to any one; but the ultimate success of it would very much depend upon the manner and tone of mind of the master. He must endeavour to gain their entire confidence, and make them feel that he is in every respect their friend. He should have a deep interest in the welfare of his school, and let the teachers see that he looks upon his work as a labour of love; that it is, in fact, "angel's work," and therefore a privilege to join in it. Besides, an evening-class would give a master such a glorious opportunity of gaining an influence over the minds of his teachers to win them over to his way of thinking, which is so very desirable, so that they may work together. Such a time, too, it would be for encouragement and sympathy, and which any master, who is not overburdened with work already, should not overlook.
Another thing I should like to mention, as it is one which has been attended with very beneficial results in my Sunday-school. I make a point of giving a lesson every Sunday morning for about twenty minutes or so to the whole school, with a view to the improvement of the teachers. The subjects of my lessons (which I vary according to circumstances) are, explanation of the Lord's Prayer, Apostles' Creed, Baptismal Covenant, Ecclesiastical Seasons as they occur, and we are now going through the Liturgy. I ask questions upon what I have previously explained, the teachers and scholars answering simultaneously. Sometimes, instead of a lesson, I talk to them upon the duty of private prayer, reverence in God's house, or such other things as may seem likely to do them good; and, by way of encouragement, I occasionally read some very interesting and instructive tale to them, which they consider to be an immense treat. The result of this kind of treatment is, that I hardly ever have a case of bad behaviour in church, my Sunday-school is in a very flourishing condition, and I think I may honestly say the tone of it is much altered for the better.
Should you think these few remarks of sufficient importance to insert in your highly useful Paper, I may be induced to trouble you with a few more for some future number.I am, &c. J. W.
CORRESPONDENTS' ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES.
SIR,-It does not clearly appear whether Mr. Tuck's elder boys sing the tenor part at its own proper pitch or an octave above. The idle and unscientific plan of using the treble or G clef for the tenor part has led many persons into error: Mr. Tuck may possibly have been misled by it. If, under the influence of this mistake, he makes his boys sing the tenor part as it is written in the treble clef (viz. an octave above its pitch), he must be pronounced wrong, since he is inverting the harmony, and (in reality) substituting another melody for that written by the composer.
If, however, the boys sing the tenor as written in its own clef, there can be no objection whatever to the arrangement, except the weakness of the boys' voices on such low notes, and their actual inability to sing many of the notes which constantly occur.
Women, most certainly, never sing the bass. They may sing the notes of the bass part an octave higher; in which case they cease to be bass at all, and become a kind of "second," or alto, inverting and marring the harmony just as the boys invert and mar it by singing the tenor an octave higher.
Mr. Tuck will pardon me if I add my impression that he is not fully alive to the distinctions existing between the different clefs. He will find them admirably pointed out in an early number of Chambers' Papers for the People:-I regret that I cannot refer him to the exact No. and vol.
It is unquestionable that a great deal of choral music may be correctly sung by a choir consisting of 3 sets of boys (treble, alto, and tenor), accompanied by men's bass voices; but such music will be poor and unsatisfactory when compared with the bold, rich effect produced by a due admixture of adult male voices to sustain the tenor and bass part.-I am, &c. W. E. DICKSON.
SIR,-Some time since, it was asked in your Monthly Paper what was the best mode of pointing pencils? For slate or lead pencils I find nothing better than a piece of rub-stone. It will last for years; and the process of pointing is so simple and speedy, I cannot conceive any thing better for the purpose can be used in a national school; and it is so desirable to dispense with the knife. I use nothing else. I am, &c. H. B. O.
"S. D. S." will find nothing better for his purpose than selections from the Prayer-Book: and I think he will find an arrangement for daily use at the Prayer-book and Homily Society's Office. Manuals are for the most part meagre, and the best of them but unsatisfactory.-I am, &c.
H. B. O.
It is No. 7, vol. i.-ED. M. P.
INQUIRIES BY CORRESPONDENTS.
"W. W. H." wants a physical map that describes the basins of the principal rivers of England or Europe; and any work that gives particulars as to the dimensions of these basins, and the rain-fall upon them.
"J. L." wants a little instruction as to the best method of teaching writing: (1) whether from a line written on the black-board, or (2) from a line written in each copy; and (3) how much should be written by each child in a week.
Schoolmasters' and Schoolmistresses' Associations,
NORTHERN DISTRICT ASSOCIATION.-The members of this Association held their spring meeting in St. Oswald's School, Durham, on Friday, March 23d. They spent the morning in examining the school, and in listening to lessons given by Mr. W. Lawson, master of the school; Mr. J. Fish, of the Blue-Coat Schools, Durham; and Mr. Dodds, of Stockton. Dinner was kindly provided for them in the Training Institution; and the afternoon was devoted to the transaction of business.
In the course of the criticisms on the school and lessons, many practical remarks were made as to the best method of giving reading and Scripture lessons; and a very animated discussion arose as to the best method of teaching geography. It was generally agreed that the best means of giving Scripture lessons was by taking the historical and practical parts hand in hand; and whilst fixing the facts in the memory by a systematic course, to explain to and enforce upon the children their faith and duty. As regards geography, the great principle of proceeding from the known to the unknown was fully recognised, though there might exist some slight differences of opinion as to its application.
Next morning the Association held an adjourned meeting in the Training Institution, when it was agreed to extend the limit of the Association by admitting as members untrained masters holding certificates. It was also resolved to offer prizes to pupil-teachers apprenticed to members for the best essays on some given subjects. The subjects fixed for the ensuing year are:
1. "The duties of a pupil-teacher," to be competed for by pupil-teachers in the second year. 2. Paraphrase and grammatical analysis of some portion of Cowper's "Sofa" or "Timepiece," for pupil-teachers of the third year. 3. An essay on some subject taken from the first 106 pages of Brewer's Guide to Science, for pupil-teachers of the fourth year. 4. An essay on some portion of the Consulate and Empire of Napoleon, for pupil-teachers of the fifth year.
GLANDFORD BRIGG ASSOCIATION.At the April meeting of this Association, held in the new Schoolroom at Brigg, a paper, "How to teach singing in schools," was read by Mr. Winter, of Grassby. Five additional members were elected, and the usual business of the Association transacted. The meeting was very numerously attended; and the Rev. J. R. West, vicar of Wrawby-cum-Brigg, opened and closed it with prayer.
YORK AND RIPON TRAINING COLLEGE. -On Friday evening, the 13th instant, a meeting of the Students of this College was held for the purpose of establishing a society for promoting the study of British classic literature. The Rev. H. G. Robinson, M.A., the principal, took the chair. He very ably pointed out the use and advantages of such a society; and stated, that though he was very far from discouraging in the slightest degree the study of the Latin and Greek classics, in the reading of which he had spent many happy hours, yet he thought that the very careful reading and study of the British classics would in a great degree afford that mental culture which was the great object aimed at in the study of ancient literature. The society wished to accomplish that desirable end by careful reading, examination, and discussion of the works of British classic authors, by lectures, and by the formation of a library of standard British literature, in addition to the College library. He was glad to see that the students had spontaneously formed themselves into such a society; and he wished them success in their laudable object.
Certain students were chosen to act as officers and serve on the committee; and the Rev. the Principal and the Rev. F. Watkins, B.D., her Majesty's Inspector of Schools, kindly accepted the invitation of the committee to become patrons of the society. The Masters of the College have intimated their intention of becoming honorary members; and it is hoped that many of the former students in the College, and clergymen interested in the study of British literature, will follow their example. It was announced that Mr. Fowler, Normal Master of the College, would deliver an introductory lecture on "British literature previous to the time of Chaucer;" and a general wish was expressed that the society might be able to accomplish its object, the promotion of the study of our own national literature; and that the example set by this College might lead to the formation of societies in other of our Training Colleges with a similar object. The proceedings terminated with a vote of thanks to the Rev. the Principal for his kindness in taking the chair.
EDUCATION OF PAUPER CHILDREN.-A bill to provide for the education of pauper children, brought in by Mr. Evelyn Denison, Mr. Labouchere, and Mr. J. W. Patten, enacts that the guardians of any union or parish wherein the relief to the poor is administered by a board of guardians, may, if they deem proper, grant relief for the purpose of enabling any poor person lawfully relieved out of the workhouse to provide education for any child of such person between the ages of 4 and 16 in any school, to be approved by the said guardians, which shall be open to the inspection of one of Her Majesty's inspectors of schools for such time and under such conditions as the said guardians shall see fit. The Poor Law Board may issue orders at any time to regulate the proceedings of the guardians with reference to the relief to be given or the education received. It is also provided that such education shall not be imposed as a condition of relief. The guardians must not compel any child to attend a school to which its parents may object. The cost of the relief to be given for the education of any child is to be charged to the same account as the other relief granted by the guardians to the same poor person, and may be given by the guardians and recovered by them as a loan under the same circumstances and in like manner as such other relief.-Times.
APPOINTMENTS.-Mr. W. SMITH, from Pitminster, to Cannington School, Bridgwater.
Mr. W. FIELD IVES, from Mortlake, to St. John's School, Limehouse.
Mr. J. T. ALSOP, from Barnes, to St. Paul's. School, Shadwell.
Mr. A. A. FITTAN, from Kington, to be Second Master of the Commercial School, Rectory Park, Bishopwearmouth.
Mr. MYERS, from the London Society's Hebrew School, to the Yorkshire Society's School, Westminster Road.
Mr. J. JONES, from St. John's, Limehouse, to Reigate National School.
TESTIMONIALS.-To Mr. and Mrs. NUTH, on resigning the charge of the Chipping Sodbury Schools, a copy of Cobbin's Domestic Bible, a Common Prayer, and a Pair of Globes, by the Children, Sunday-School Teachers, and a few Friends of the Schools.
To Miss WOODZELL, on her appointment from the Infant School, Dulwich College, to the National School, Sheering, Essex, a Church Service and a Present in Money.
To Mr. J. JONES, a Barometer, by the Pupil-teachers and Elder Boys in the St. John's School, Limehouse.
To Rev. H. BENSON, a Copy of the Christian Year, by the Teachers and Children of the Parochial Schools, St. Mary Church, Devon.
To Mr. W. J. A. BALL, a Present in Money and Silver Pencil-Case, &c., by the Vicar, SundaySchool Teachers, and Children.
To the MASTER and MISTRESS of the National Schools, Sutton-at-Hone, an Inkstand and Occasional Table, from the Vicar and Sunday-School Teachers at the opening of the new school premises on Easter Monday.
To the Rev. T. WOODWARD, a Silver Inkstand, by the Teachers and Pupil-teachers of the Central School, Bath.
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
We cannot undertake to notice anonymous communications, nor to insert letters or information received after the 20th. The name and address of our correspondents should always be sent, though not necessarily for publication.
"A Subscriber" is referred to E. Butterworth, Pianoforte Seller, Leeds, for a Price List of Harmoniums. "R. S.," "H. P. B.," "A. C.," "J. R.," "G. H. L.," "Iago," "Lashoran," declined with thanks. "T. B. V." The Committee of Council's next volume of Minutes, &c. will be likely to contain the Report you wish to see. It is usually published in the course of the summer. Price uncertain.
"School Flooring." We have not inserted a vicar's inquiry. If stone or brick be used, and a grant is afterwards wanted from the Committee of Council, it is probable that one condition of aid would be that a wood floor should be substituted for the stone or brick, both of which experience proves to be objectionable.
"S. B." We have not inserted your inquiry, because an answer to it depends entirely upon your agreement with the managers of the school.
"J. H." Your failing at one Examination would not prevent you from trying again at another. The manager of your school should apply to the Committee of Council on your behalf, preliminary to your presenting yourself for examination.
"G. H. H." We do not insert your inquiry because the information is not to be obtained. The best guide, probably, is to study the Examination Papers used on the last occasion.
"J. G." The questions you want answered must be determined by the managers of each separate school.
"E. E. J." Sacred vocal music, Scripture reading and lectures, are already among the subjects of instruction in evening schools. Evening scholars are already admissible gratuitously to such institutions as the British Museum; but of course such institutions could not be kept open at extra hours for them. The children of foreigners are not excluded from National Sunday or Evening Schools. You are in error with respect to the advertisements in the April Number. There are more from managers than teachers.
"L. B." The paper which you have to fill up with respect to your income will show you what exemptions there are, and what deductions may be made. Money received from Government for certificates, pupil-teachers, &c., we conclude is not exempt from the tax, unless the whole income is under 1001.
"T. T.," "R. Corke," "Magister," are thanked for their letters. They will perceive that we have inserted a reply to Mr. Tuck.
"H. D. Blanchard." A line of inquiry addressed to Ven. Archdeacon Wigram, Southampton, would, we think, secure you the information you want.
"Kingsdon" is thanked; but at present the space we can give to such subjects is already preengaged. "Long Row." Your inquiry should be addressed to the Secretary of the Committee of Council on Education, Downing Street, London.
"An Old Subscriber." Your inquiry has already been answered in p. 388 of Monthly Paper for 1854. Sullivan's Introduction to Geography is there recommended as containing an appendix and vocabulary on the pronunciation of geographical names.
"E. J. B.," "W. J. L.," " and "A. Cox." Your papers are in type, and we hope may appear in
The Llandaff and Monmouth Board Report in our next.
THE Meetings of the Committee of the National Society have been attended during the last month by his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Earls of Powis and Romney, the Bishops of London, Winchester, St. Asaph, Chichester, St. David's, Gloucester and Bristol, Lichfield, Llandaff, Oxford, Worcester, Sodor and Man; Lords Redesdale and Lyttelton, Lord Robert Grosvenor, Rev. Lord John Thynne, Rev. Sir Henry Thompson, Bart.; Sir Thomas Phillips, the Dean of St. Paul's, Archdeacons Sinclair and Harrison; C. B. Adderley, Esq., M.P.; T. D. Acland, Esq., William Cotton, Esq., R. Twining, Esq.; and Revs. Canons Wordsworth and Jennings.
The Annual Meeting of the Society has been fixed to take place in the Central School-rooms, Sanctuary, Westminster, on Wednesday, the 6th June, at 12 o'clock. * Members of the Society are invited to attend the Meeting. Tickets of admission will be issued to Members on application at the Society's Office, Westminster.
The Balloting List for Members to serve on the Committee has been formed by the President and Vice-Presidents in accordance with the terms of the Society's Charter.
The four vacancies to be filled up are occasioned by the death of two Members, and the retirement, in rotation, of Richard Twining, Esq., and the Dean of St. Paul's.
R. Twining, Esq.
The Dean of St. Paul's.
Candidates for Election.
The Earl of Carnarvon.
The Hon. Arthur Gordon, M.P.
The Right Hon. J. W. Henley, M.P.
C. W. Puller, Esq.
Rev. W. Cureton.
Rev. J. E. Kempe.
The Rev. W. Downes Willis has given notice that he will move the following resolution at the Society's Annual Meeting:
"That the inquiry lately undertaken as to the alleged withholding of the Catechism in schools in union with, and receiving grants from this Society, has proved inadequate to exonerate the managers of such schools, and the Society itself generally, from the charge of violating the pledge given to their supporters of educating the children of the poor in the principles of the established Church.'
"That therefore a more full and efficient investigation of this charge is necessary, for the vindication of the character of the Society, and for the satisfaction of its friends."
Meeting of Secretaries.
The Annual Meeting of Secretaries and Treasurers of Diocesan and District Boards will take place at the Central School, Sanctuary, Westminster, on Tuesday, 5th June, at 12 o'clock.