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Alss eyr

Da ladelte ter Vater abermals 11nd
READINGS IN GERMAN.-IV.

sagte 311 Dah ley'-yel-tai dair fah'-ter ah'-ber-mahlss öðnt zaha-tai tsoo 4. Der Morgontra um.

ter Mutter : In Träumen und Thränen gleichen wir Großen Dair m 8r-gh en-tr 0 u m.

dair modt'-ter: In troi'-men dönt trey'-nen gli .yen veer gro'-ssen

wohl tem flcinen Polly Möchten wir auch nur in GenügsamEin Fleiner Knabe, Namens Leopold, fam

Morgens

vole daim kli'-pen pol'-lee. Möy'-ten veer onch noor in gai-du'y'-zahmIne kli'-ner knah'-bai, nah'-menss ley'-o-polt, kahm dess mòr-ghenss

feit und

bescheitener Freude an tem Kleinen und hernieter Schlaffämmerlein und

Wenigen aus seinem

weinte bitterlichy,

kite dont bai-shi'-dai-ner froi'-dai an daim kli'-nen dönt vey'-ni-ghen herr-nee-der ouss zi-nem shlahf'-kem-mer-line ošnt vine'-tai bit'ter-lyy, also daß ihm die Thrinen über die Wangen liefen. Sein Vater

ihin ähnlich sein.

eem eyn'-llý zine, al-zo dass eem dee trey'-nen ü"-ber dee vang'-en lee'-fen. Zine fah'-ter

VOCABULARY. aber und seine Mutter traten bestürzt hingu, tenn sie

Traum, m, dream. ah'-ber bënt zi-nai mõõt'-ter trah'-ten bai-shtürtst' hin-tsoo', den zeo

| Glied, n. limb.

Wir, we.

Knabe, m. boy. Fragen, to ask. Seufzer, m. sigh. meinten, es sei dem Sinde ein großes Hebel

oter mine”-ten, ess zi daim kin”-dai ine gro'-ssess ü"-bel bai geyg'-net, oder Pieter, down, nether. Fehlen, to ail, miss,' limouth, m. gloom.

Schlaf, m. sleep.

fail, lack.

Dit, often. es sei frant und empfinde heftige Schmerzen und Reißen im Kammer, f. chamber. Wer, interrogative' Wünsten, to wish; n. ess zi krank õõnt em-pfin'-dai hef-ti-gai shmerr'-tsen ðånt ri'-ssen im Bitterlidi, bitterly.

pronoun, who.

wishing. Haurt oder in den Gliedern. Und fie fragten tas Kind, und

Also, so.

Zu leide thun, to do Verlangen, to demand; houpt o'-der in dain glee'.dern. öðnt zee frahchy'-ten dass kint, čont Wange, f. cheek.

harm.

n. longing, deCaufen, to run. Auftbun, to open.

mand. sprachen: Liebesfiind, was feblet dir, wer hat dir was

zu

Treten, to step. Munt, m. mouth. Gleichen, to resemble. shprah'-den: Lee'-bess kint, vass fey'-let deer, veyr hat deer vass tsoo

Bestürzt, perplexed. Vorher, before.

(Cicich, alike.) Leite gethan? Da that tas Kind seinen Mund auf und sprach :

Meinen, to think, to Zwölf, twelve. Immer, always. li'-dai gai-tahn'? Dah taht dass kynt zi-nen moont ouf oổnt shprahch):

mean,

Nietlicy, pretty. Berathidlagen, to conAch ich hatte vorber zwölf nierliche weiße Schifchen, und Es sei, there was, Weiß, white.

sult. ach is hat-tai fore-heyr' tswölf neet-liy-yai vi'-ssai sheyf-yen, öõnt there had.

Schaf, a. sheep. Ernstlich, serionsly. sie gingen um mich her und Todten mir die Hand, und mit Begegnen, to meet, Pecten, to lick.

Suchen, to look for,

happen. zee ghing'-en öðm mij heyr bånt leck'-ten meer dee hant, öðnt ly

i Sißen, to sit.

to seek.

Groß, great, large, Unter, among, under. Camm, n. lamb. Taß unter ihnen mit einem Şirtenstab. Aber nun sind

big.

Ihnen, dative of sie, i Stellen, to place, to zahss õõn'-ter ee'-nen mit i'-nem hirr'*-ten-shtahp. Ah'-ber noon zint

liebel, n. evil.

to them, them. put. fie alle fort und ich weiß nicht, wo sie geblieben. A18

Orer, or.

| Hirte, m. shepherd. Erfreut, rejoiced. zee al- lai fort dönt jy vice niyt, vo zee gai-blee'-ben.

Es sei, it was, it Stab, m. staff. Scrzen, to caress. dicic gesagt hatte, begann er von neuem bitterlich

were. zu

Fert, away, forth. Ausschen, to look. dee'-zess gai-zahcht' hat-tai, bai-gan' eyr fon noi-em bit-ter-liy tsoo Krant, sick.

Wisjen, to know. Gilf, eleven.

Empfinten, to feel. weinen.

Wo, where.

Begobren, to demand. vi’-nen.

Heftig, violent. Or, he.

Genügsamkeit, f. con

Simerz, m. pain. Dieser, tiese, dicses, this. tentment. (Genug, merften tie Gitern die Noth tee Kinder und daß es

(Schmerzen, to pain, Merten, to perceive, enough.) Dah merrk'-ten dee el'-tern dee note dess kin'-dess öðnt dass ess

smart.)

to notice.

Bescheiten, modest. ein Traum gewesen, und sie lächelten unter cinanter beim. Neißen, n. tearing Noth, f.distress, need. Freute, f. joy. ine troum gai-vey'-zen, öðnt zee ley'-yel-ten oðn'-ter ine-an'-der hime'- (acute pains), v.a. Gewesen war, had Wenig, little. lich. Der Vater aber sprach : Wir lächeln wohl, Mutter, und

to tear.

been.

Ähnlich, like, resemJlý. Dair fab'ter ab'-ber shprahch: Veer ley'.yeln vole, mööt'-ter, čðnt Haupt, n. head, chief.! Heimlich, secretly. bling. toch find jinsre Seufzer und unser linmuth oft tie Thränen doch zint čðn'-zrai zoif-tser Čint ődn'-zer öðn'-moot oft dee trey'-nen KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. ter Kinder und unser Wunsden und Berlangen, gleichete

EXERCISE 99 (Vol. II., page 118). dess kin'-dess, oönt don'-zer vün'-shen öðnt ferr-lang'-en, gli'.yet ess

1. Lehrt Gure Kinder gute Sitten nach zuahmen. 2. Grabmt seinem nicht oftmals Polly's Träumen ?

Vater in allen seinen Gewohnheiten nach. 3. Vernünftige Eltern steuern nist 8ft -mahlss pôl-leess trọ?-men ?

tem unartigen Betragen ihrer Kinter bei Zeiten. 4. Steure muthig tas Polly aber war noch immer sehr betrübt um die zwölf Schiff durch die wogende See. 5. Es begegnete ihm oft, daß er sein Buch Pol-lee ah'-ber vahr nödi im'-mer zeyr bai-trü'pt' òüm dee tswölf sudite und es in seiner Tasche fand. 6. Die Schiffe, welche nach Australien Schäfchen. berathschlagten tie Eltern ernstlich, was zu

geben, müssen ten Aequator pafsiren. 7. Sie sollten das Beispiel Ihres sheyf'-yen. Dah bai-raht'-shlahch-ten dee el-tern errost-lly, vass tsoo

Brüters nachzuahmen suchen. 8. Ich sehe seine Unschuld in seinem Betr.:

gen. 9. Die Unsterblichfeit der Seele leugnen ist so viel als Gott abídwören. thun sei, und

ter
Pater

erhob sich und sprach: Pelly, ich 10. Die Polizei versicherte sich des Diebes. 11. ahme stets tas Gute nach, toon zi, dönt dair fah'-ter err-hope' zřý čönt shprahch: P31'-lee, YV aber nie tas boje. will gehen und bcinc Schäfchen suchen.

lind

ging und vill ghey'-hen cont di-nai sheyf'.yen zoo-chen.

EXERCISE 100 (Vol. II., page 118).

vùnt eyr ghink ošnt faufte ein lamm und brachte es 11716 stellte c8 so, tai

1. The prince who ill-treats, his people is called a tyrant. 2. He kouf-tai ine lam öönt brach'- tai ess õõnt shtell'-tai ess zo, dass

asks me about things which I cannot tell him. 3. Call me what you

like, but not a traitor, 4. Those people must be called hypocrites who te: Knabe el fab. Da ward tor Sinabe sehr crfreut und

speak fair but act basely. 5. They have christened the princess Louisa. dair knah'- bai ess zah. Dah vart dair kpah-bai zeyr err-froi't õónt 6. I did not ask him for this out of curiosity.

7. Attila, King of the lich hinzu 11910

Huns, called himself the scourge of God.
herzte tas lämmchen und sprac: :
tas

8. I call him a friend who leef hin-tsoo' cont herrts'-tai dass lem'-yen õõnt shprald: Yah, dass

does not remind me of my excellencies, but affectionately of my errors.

9. He calls all those who are not with him, enemies and rebels. 10. ist es, tas ist e8! ebenso jah 08 aus! und war sehr The teacher called the scholar a lazy boy. 11. I asked him his name ist ess, dass ist ess! ey'-ben-zo zah ess ouss! oönt eyr vahr zeyr in vain. 12. I do not deserve that the people should call me a traitor. crfreut, aber von den eilf andern Lämmern sagte

13. I give you this keepsake as a testimony of my love and respect. err-froit', ah'-ber fon dain elf an’-dern lem'-mern zahch--tai eyr niýts been committed, when they heartily repent of them.

er nichts

14. How gladly do parents pardon their children the faults that have

13. He narrated und begehrte ihrer nicht.

to me the history of his life several times. 16. They pardoned me my dont bai-gheyr'-tai ce’-rer niýt.

wrong, and held out their hands to me in proof of their reconciliation, 17. It is well for the man on whom nature bestows a healthy mind and

a clear understanding; but still better for him on whom it has be. • Like ir in mirror.

stowed a humble and modest heart.

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meadow.

EXERCISE 101 (Vol. II., page 119).

TRAINING, 1. Mentor lehrte Telemach die Kunst zu regieren. 2. Man wird ihn then, is the first subject to which we must invite our readers'

attention. tizie Srrade lehren. 3. Die Bergangenheit giebt dem Menschen die beste seite für die Zukunft. 4. In seinem lebten Briefe schrieb er inir folgende

As soon as you have made up your mind to enter into an Peugfeit. 5. Die Reichen sollten mit Freuden den Armen ein Weniges athletic competition, your first care must be to see that your sei ihrem lleberflusse mittheilen. 6. Er zeigte mir die Schönheit der general health is good, and that you are fit to undergo the Natur. 7. Io pertraute ibm das Geheimnis in der Absicht en, ieine Vero previous preparation, as well as to take part in the actual contest. furiosekeit und Treue zu erproben. 8. Gorgen wird von seinem eigenen A lad at school, who has any doubt about his own health, will Halte cin Berrátber scines Vaterlantes genannt, 9. Gr (malt mich

do well to consult his friends, who are better acquainted than einen Theren, ta ich mich weigerte, ten Grundfäßen zu folgen, welche mit himself with the character of his constitution, and, perhaps,

And if, either meinen Neigungen nicht übereinstimmen. 10. Der Popular Erucator the amount of fatigue he is fitted to hear. lekrt ric englijde, französiscye, und teutidhe Sprache auf die leichteste Wcisc. from his own experience, or as the result of such inquiries, 11. Mein Gegner reichte mir die Hand zum Zeichen seiner Versöhnung.

he has the least cause to suspect that he is subject to heart

disease or serious local derangement, he has no business what. EXERCISE 102 (Vol. II., page 119).

ever to direct his ambition to excellence in athletio sports, 1. The children could pot go out for a walk on account of the bad or to engage in such a competition. Ordinary field amusements weather. 2. On this side of the river there is a beautiful country house. will at all times afford him as much physical recreation as is 3. He does it for the sake of the honour. 4. Within the town hunger good for him. and despair prevail. 5. Beyond the mountain there is a beautiful

If, on the contrary, the aspirant to athletic fame be "sound ralles. 6. By virtue of his office he arrested the thief. 7. According in wind and limb,” he must turn his attention to the bringing to his letter we expect him to-day. 8. Along the stream stand many of his muscular powers to their highest development. First of poplar trees. 9. He drew him up by means of a rope.

10. He came into this house by means of a false key. 11. Above the bridge stands all, everything that his own sense tells him is injurious to the

12. Instead of coffee he drinks water. 13. In spite of the general bodily health must be shunned ; and everything that is heary rain, he takes a walk. 14. Below this village lies a beautiful favourable to it must be sedulously cultivated. He must be

15. Notwithstanding his father's prohibition, he went to clean in person, bathing or "tubbing" every morning; he must the theatre. 16. I saw a large bird near this forest. 17. He can assist be regular in his meals, and his diet (of which we shall have the poor by means of his riches. 18. He looked very pale lately more to say presently) must be good and plain; he must retire (during the last time). 19. The rich inhabitants fly on account of the to rest early, and take a short walk in the morning before breakyar. 20. He returned in consequence of his promise.

fast, if he has no set exercises to go through at that time in the EXERCISE 103 (Vol. II., page 119).

training process. He must also take open air exercise, or 1. Tros seiner Verwandten that er es. 2. Id) bejand michy ganz glüd, practice, at other suitable hours of the day. lich unter tem nierrigen Dahe jenes Landmannes. 3. Alles unter der training is to get rid of superfluous fat. This is effected partly

One of the great objects most persons have to accomplish in crane ist der Beränderung unterworfen. to quśct Melenen und Trauben ? 5. Die armen Quemanterer hoffen, by abstaining from fatty articles of diet, and substituting in jenseits des Meeres besser zu leben 6. Gr beharrte trop alles Widerstandes. their stead others which help to make muscular tissue; and 7. Die Gallier nahmen ihren mühevollen Warsch längs der Seefüjte. 8. partly by "sweating," or throwing off the surplusage by Ft ist unter der Wirbe cin:: chrlichen Mannes. 9. Greenwich ist inner perspiration, etc. The diet in such a case, as well as in training bulb funi Meilen von lonton. 10. Seines alters wegen sollte er geschont generally, should be confined chiefly to roast beef or mutton, metten. 11. Kraft seiner Geburt ist er ein Gtelmann.

pretty well done--for it is a mistake to suppose that half-raw meat is more strengthening than the same well cooked. Veal and pork must be avoided, but a little fish or poultry may be

taken as a change. Vegetables must be eaten sparinglyOUR HOLIDAY.

although a little green-meat assists digestion--and their place ATHLETIC SPORTS.-I.

must be partly taken by stale white bread. Pastry must be

shunned, but the cooked fruit of pies and puddings may be eaten; NEARLY akin to the gymnastics of which we have been treating the use of butter must be restrict and sugar, if possible, disin previous papers, but at the same time differing in design as pensed with. The drinks should be tea in preference to coffee well as in general character, are the Athletic Sports so frequent at breakfast, etc., and sound table-beer or porter in moderation at our colleges and schools in the winter and spring seasons. at dinner, if the person training is accustomed to stimula. Gymnastics may be regarded as simply a series of physical ting drinks. A glass or two of wine a day is permitted, if it exercises, in which individual training is the sole object sought; has been the practice to take it. But the plainest food and athletics are similar exercises in which individuals contend with drink are frequently the best. Thus, oatmeal porridge is an each other for pre-eminence, and are, therefore, in some degree excellent thing for training purposes, either at breakfast or the test of gymnastic proficiency.

supper. Requesting our readers to bear this distinction in mind, we Attention to these ordinary rules of training diet will suffice for will leave gymnastic studies for the present, and give our atten. general purposes. We do not anticipate that any of our readers tion to the exercises which form the subject of competition in will require more than instruction as to what is best to be done in athletic amusements.

These may be divided into walking, preparing for competition in such athletic performances as running, leaping, and the throwing of weights; and these, again, those which are common between school and school. To any may be subdivided under various headings, which we shall have who may read these lines, and require aid for more arduous and hereafter to notice.

ambitious tasks, we must recommend the perusal of the details Before describing the character of these exercises as usually contained in one or other of the existing treatises by standard seen in athletic sports, we think it necessary to give our reader authorities on the subject. a little advice as to the training which is generally requisito tu We apply the same remark to the subject of "sweating," enable any one to take part in them with benefit and success. which is intended, not only to reduce weight, but to free the It is true that occasionally a youth may be seen to enter into a muscles of the fatty tissues which may immediately surround public competition of this nature without any previous prepara- them, and consequently to give them greater ease and freedom in tion, and he may acquit himself creditably, or even carry off a their play. Sweating is usually accomplished by putting on prize ; bat success under such conditions is an exception to extra clothing, and either walking fast or running slowly until the general rule ; nor can any one expect to engage in such the body is in a profuse perspiration. When the exercise is over, sports without injury, unless he is already inured in some the body should be sponged with warm or tepid water-first degree to gymnastic pursuits and fatigues. And the more

the upper portion, then the lower, so as not to strip entirely arduous the character of the performance to be accomplished, while it is in a heated state—and well dried with a rough the greater and the more careful must be the training which towel. Young men engaged in the great public competitions precedes it. An untrained lad, who is used to activity in the place themselves under the care of a trainer, by whose advice field, may possibly show well in a "spnrt” of 100 yards ; but if they are entirely controlled as to the amount and character he should venture to engage in a mile or two-mile race, his want of their “sweating exercises, as well as all other matters of condition may tell wofully upon him.

affecting their general condition. The youth who has to train

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himself must exercise his own discretion, occasionally guided : lose a race, after contesting it fairly and honourably from by the advice of friends, as to the exact degree either of re. beginning to end, than to win one by such discreditable striction or fatigue which he should place upon himself—always manœuvres, should they be so successful as to escape the remembering that he must stop short of the point where the punishment of disqualification.

If you have the lead at first, strive all you can to retain it, is sometimes used as an excellent auxiliary for sweating pur. for competitors are often discouraged by the fact that some one poses; and the drinking of from half a pint to a pint of water is going well ahead of them. If you find, in the course of a early in the morning, before breakfast, is recommended by high long race, that there is a sufficient distance between you and the medical authority as a valuable aid in the re

nearest man behind you, ease your pace someduction of weight and fat.

what, thus relaxing the strain on your powers to The object of this general training is to get

recruit them for a fresh effort, but putting on the body into good healthy condition, and suc.

another spurt if you think your competitor cess is evidenced by a fresh-coloured, elastic

draws too rear. condition of the skin; by the muscles standing

If you are behind at starting, use your best out hard and firm; and by light and vigorous

speed with a steady determination to overhanl feelings both in body and mind. But beyond

your opponents, and if the race is of any conthis there is of course necessary a special train.

siderable distance you will probably have ample ing for the performance which has eventually

opportunity to do so. Especially press forward to be accomplished. This special training will

when there are signs of Aagging in those who be best treated of at the same time as the sub

are on in front; to pass one or two of them will ject to which it relates; and we shall, therefore,

give you fresh spirits and vigour; and the idea now pass on to the first and simplest of athletic

that a man is coming up well and vigorously sports, namely,

behind them will perhaps discourage those still WALKING.

left in advance. Nothing, it may be thought, is easier than to

The usual distances for walking races are walk; and this is true; but to walk well in

Fig. 1.-RUNNING.

from one to four miles. One mile has been an athletic sense is a science. It includes

done in 7 minutes; two miles, in 15, micutes; two objects of practice-style and speed. As regards style, four miles, in 314—all by young amateurs. the first thing is position, which should be with the head erect, the shoulders set back, and the chest thrown forward, the

RUNNING. arms well up with the elbows bent, and moving freely in The special training for running must be similas in its nature keeping with the action of the legs. In quick walking, the to that recommended for walking contests, with the exception motion of the arms is more vigorous, and assists the walker at that if a long race is before you it is not necessary to put forth each stride by helping to raise the weight of the body off the the powers for the same distance in the preliminary practice. heels. Tho body must not be inclined forward, as in running, Their highest efforts must be reserved for the race itself ; but and the knees must be kept straight. The contrary practice is shorter distances, such as an occasional mile or half mile, at inimical to fair" toe and heel " walking, which is the next thing full speed, may be practised with advantage. It must be to be studied. At each step the heel must first touch the remembered, too, that walking is itself a good preparation for a ground, boing dug into it, as it were, and then the ball of running contest, as it strengthens and developes the same muscles the foot; but neither the heel nor the toes should remain on of the body. Quick walking and slow running, with an occa. the earth for a perceptible space of time, and one foot should sional “ spurt” at the best pace, will, therefore, suffice to bring always be upon the ground. Unless both the too and heel you up to the proper pitch for a long race. touch the ground fairly, the competitor in a walking contest If, however, the running is to be in what is called a “sprint" is disqualified, and at once loses his chance of a prize. race-i.e., any distance from 100 to 400 yards—the whole distance The stride should be as long as can be practised with facility, should occasionally be practised at full speed; and it is also and should be accompanied by a corresponding forward move- well to practise starting at top speed, as a great deal depends ment of the shoulder. Bending the knees too much is sure to on this—even more than in the case of walking. lead to “lifting," or unfair walking, and the

The best positions in running are given in competitor must be especially on his guard

our illustrations (Figs. 1 and 2), which show against it when pressed in the race.

each side of the figure, and the alternate ad. Speed is acquired by practising certain short

vance of the right and the left limbs respec. distances, day after day, at the best pace you

tively. As the right leg is advanced, the left can command, and gradually increasing the

arm is thrown forward, and then brought back, length of the task until you reach the full limit

while a similar movement of the right arm ac. of that which you have eventually to accom

companies the motion of the left leg. The plish. In general practice, however, you must

arms are kept more close to the sides than in carefully avoid over-fatigue, for it is better to

walking; the body is inclined forward, tho do a short distance well, and without excessive

knees are well bent, the weight of the body is exertion, than to try a long spell, at the end of

thrown upon the balls of the feet, and the forwhich you are thoroughly exhausted. You will

ward impulse is froin the toes. Running is, in be able to do more as you go on. After the

fact, a succession of leaps; while walking is, or distance has been gradually increased, as before

should be, a series of steps caly. mentioned, you should, a few days before the

Sprint” races are very common in athletic race, do the entire distance at top speed, not

sports ; but a mile is a frequent distance, and only as a preliminary practice, but also that you

Fig. 2.-Ruxning.

from two to four or more miles are not rnusual. may take an accurato measure of your own pace

The following times are on record as the perand powers of endurance. But the three or four days immo. , formances of amateurs :-One hundred yards, 10 sec. ; two hun. diately preceding the race should be passed with less severe exer- dred yards, 20 sec. ; quarter of a mile, 50 sec.; half mile, 2 min.; tion, as you want a reserve of power to put forth in the actual one mile, 4 min. 20 sec.; two miles, 10 min.; three miles, 15 contest.

min.; four miles, 21 minutes. But these performances are ex: As to the race itself, a good deal depends upon the start, ceptional, being the authenticated times of some of the best which should be made with alacrity at the instant the signal is athletes who have engaged in University and other amateur given, and at the best pace in your power. But do not, in your competitions. The young and untrained amateur must expect, eagerness to get off well, allow yourself to attempt to gain an in his early attempts, to fall considerably short of such pernnfair advantage of your companions by anticipating the formances. proper signal in your movements. The anxiety and the dodging We must leave allusion to "heats” and “handicap races" to start before the rest, sometimes witnessed in such competi- until our next paper, wherein we shall also say something of tions, are in the highest degree unseemly; and it is better to hurdle-racing, “ hare and hounds," etc.

CALCIUM.

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY,-XIX. Strontium Carbonate (SrCo.) is called Strontianite, since it

occurs near Strontian, in Argyleshire, and hence the name of METALS OF THE ALKALINE EARTHS: BARIUM, STRON !

the element. TIUM, CALCIUM, AND MAGNESIUM,

The nitrate and chloride are both soluble in water, and are BARIUM.

used by pyrotechnists to impart to their fires the splendid SYMBOL, Ba COMBINING WEIGHT, 137.

crimson colour. The favourite red fire is a mixture of forty

parts of strontium nitrate, seven of potassium chlorate, thirteen Of this metal in a free state but little is known. It may be of sulphur, and four of sulphide of antimony ; but the greatest got by the action of electricity on fused barytic chloride, the caution must be used in its preparation. negative wire dipping into a globule of mercury, which is in the fused salt, and with which the liberated barium forms an amalgam. The mercary being driven off by heat, barium is SYMBOL, Ca --COMBINING WEIGHT, 40 — SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 1:56. left behind as a powder. This process must be conducted in an This metal may be got by the decomposition of its chloride by atmosphere not containing oxygen.

the galvanic current. It is of a light-yellowish colour, rather Baryta (BAO) is best obtained by decomposing bariam nitrate softer than lead, melts at a red heat, and is malleable. The by heat. It is a grey, porous mass, which combines energeti salts of this metal occupy a prominent place in the composition cally with water, forming the hydrate BaO,H,0. This com- of the earth's crust. pound is to some extent soluble in water, which then forms Calcium Oxide (Lime), Ca0.—This, the only oxide, is obtained barytic water, and offers a delicate test for carbonic and sul. by heating to redness any carbonate of lime. This process is phuric acids, barium carbonate and sulphate being white in. usually carried on in a lime-kiln, which is an egg-shaped cavity, soluble powders, which fall as precipitates. When barytic with a fire-grate at the bottom. Chalk or mountain limestone is water is evaporated, crystals of this composition are deposited— 'flung into the kiln, and the fire kept burning for three days and BaO, H.0 + 8H00.

nights. The carbonic acid is driven off, and lime

left. In this condition it is said to be quicklime. Barytic Peroxide (Ba0,) has twice been alluded

When water is added to it, the two chemically to. It is produced when baryta is heated to a red

combine, formingheat in an atmosphere containing oxygen.

Slaked Lime, or the Hydrate of Lime (Ca0,1,0). Barium Chloride (BaCl,) is obtained by dis.

- During this process great heat is evolved, which solving barium carbonate in hydrochloric acid.

has often proved sufficient to set fire to carts or It may be obtained in crystals containing two

ships laden with quicklime. Quicklime is soluble atoms of water of crystallisation. A solution of

in 700 parts of cold water, forming lime water. this salt is a usual test for sulphuric acid, with

When the hydrate of lime is mechanically diffused which it forms a white precipitate insoluble in

through water, milk of lime is produced. nitric acid.

Mortars and Cements. — Slaked lime, when Barium Sulphate (Baso.), or Heavy Spar, is

mixed with water, becomes a solid as it dries, the principal native mineral of baryta. From

but in this state it cracks and falls to pieces. its high specific gravity, 4:59, the element has

The addition of sand is found to remedy this ; taken its name (Bapus, heavy). It occurs in

hence ordinary mortar is prepared by mixing veins in mountain limestone. It is utterly in.

into a paste one part of lime and three parts of soluble in water and all acids except boiling sul

tolerably fine sand. The hardening of mortar is phuric acid. It is used as a permanent white by

scarcely understood. However, it is mainly due water-colour artists, and is the chief adulterate

to the absorption of carbonic acid from the air, of white lead.

the lime thus returning into its original state of Barium Carbonate (BaCO3), or Witherite, is

carbonate. There is also some action between abundantly found in the lead mines in the north

the sand and the lime, in which a silicate of of England. At a high heat it will part with

lime is formed. its carbonic acid, leaving barytes (Bao).

When lime contains from 20 to 30 per cent. of Barium Nitrate (Ba2NO3) may be prepared by Fig. 49.- a, QUARTZ CRYSTALS; finely-divided silica or clay, it possesses the prodissolving the carbonate in nitric acid.

b, FLUOR SPAR; C, Calc perty of hardening under water. The cause of Barium Sulphide (BaS) is obtained by heating SPAR.

the solidification of this, an hydraulic mortar, finely-ground coal mixed with barium sulphate.

appears to be the formation of a compound with A solation of this salt dissolves sulphur, forming Bas, (barium silica and alumina, which is insoluble in water. penta-sulphide). If cupric oxide be added to a solution of the Roman Cement is one of these hydraulic mortars, and is a sulphide, the copper takes the sulphur, leaving the hydrate of porous, volcanic material, originally obtained at Puzzuoli, near baryta in solution.

Naples. It is now chiefly prepared from nodules of septaria, There are some other salts of less moment. All the salts which are dug out of beds of clay in the valley of the Thames, of barium are colourless, and those which are soluble are on the coast of Yorkshire, and in other localities. powerful poisons. They are all recognised by giving the heavy Portland Cement is made from clay obtained in the valley of white precipitate with sulphuric acid. They tinge the alcohol the Medway, four parts of which are mixed with one part of fame yellow, and the spectrum of barium is characterised by chalk, and these thoroughly ground together with water; the green lines. Barium is distinguished from strontium by yield mixture is then dried and burnt, the mass is again ground, ing no immediate precipitate with oxalic acid. After some and when mixed with water, forms a cement of great hardness. time, however, tufts of acicular crystals of barium oxalate are It derives its name from the fact that when dried it resembles deposited.

Portland stone.

Calcium Carbonate (Caco,) appears as chalk, limestone, SYMBOL, Sr - COMBINING WEIGHT, 87.5.

marble, and coral. It also composes the shells of animals, Strontium closely resembles barium, but is found in much eggs, etc. When crystalline, it is known as calc spar, and, if less quantity. The metal may be procured in the same way transparent, as Iceland spar. The crystals are rhombohedrons 25 barium, and is found to be malleable, possessing a pale- of the hexagonal system, by which it is readily distinguished Fellow colour. Its chief sources are the sulphate (celestine) and from quartz and from fluor-spar. In Fig. 49, a represents a the carbonate (strontianite).

| cluster of quartz crystals, which are six-sided pyramids termiStrontia (Sro) is obtained by heating the nitrate. It slakes ' nating in prisms; b are crystals of fluor-spar, which are cubes, with water like baryta. There is no peroxide of strontia. all the angles being right angles ; c represents a' crystal of calo

Strontium Sulphate (Srso.) owes its mineralogical name of spar, which is a rhombohedron. celestine to the delicate blue tint which many of its specimens Iceland Spar possesses the property of double refractionpossess. It is frequently found with heavy spar. It is slightly that is, when a ray of light traverses it in any save one direcsoluble in water, which solution is capable of precipitating tion, the ray is divided into two. The phenomenon is exhibited barytic salts.

by the parallel horizontal lines in Fig. 49c.

61

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STRONTIUM.

VOL. MI.

There is a form of cale spar, called aragonite, which appears

READINGS IN FRENCH.-IV. in six-sided prisms; hence carbonate of lime is said to be,

MDLLE. DE LAJOLAIS. dimorphous. In the chapter on “Water," it was said that although carbonate of lime is insoluble in pure water, yet if

SECTION I. any carbonic acid be present, the water becomes capable of hold. La galerie que devait (a) traverser l'Empereur, pour se rendre ing this salt in solution, rendering the water hard. By using au conseil," était une vaste pièce longue, éclairée par des croisées such water, thick crusts become deposited in boilers. This evil, parallèles,: les unes ayant vue (6) sur la cour d'entrée, les autres however, may be obviated by the addition of a little sale sur les jardins. Neuf heures venaient de (c) sonner, et peu à ammoniac to the water. By a double decomposition, soluble peu les deux côtés de cette galerie se remplirent de (d) monde, calcium chloride and volatile ammonium carbonate are formed- de curieux, de solliciteurs, des officiers de service, des gens (e) CaCO, + 2NH,C1 = CaCl, + 2 (NH.) COs.

de la maison. Parmi tout ce monde deux femmes se faisaient Calcium Sulphate (Caso,) is found combined with two mole remarquer,' la première par sa beauté, et l'air gracieux avec

lequel elle accueillait () les saluts respectueux de tous ceux cules of water, as gypsum or plaster of Paris. When trang

qui passaient près d'elle ;8 et la seconde par son extreme parent it is named selenite. When heated to 130°, it decrepitates jonnesse, par la pâleur qui donnait à sa beauté un caractère on giving up its water of crystallisation. When this powder extraordinaire, et par ses beaux cheveux blonds tombant en (plaster of Paris) is made into a paste, the mixture " sots” in a boucles nombreuses sur ses épaules. few moments. Stucco is plaster of Paris mixed with a solution

“ Allons (g), du courage !” disait (h) la première à la seconde, of size.

“ du courage !” Calcium Chloride (CaCl,) is formed when marble is dissolved

“Je ne vous quitterai pas," disait encore la première. Puis, in hydrochloric acid. When crystallised it contains six atoms of water. When heated it parts with four of these atoms, and pour donner plus de poids à ses paroles, sa main allait chercher the porous mass which remains, exhibiting a great avidity for la main de la jeune fille et la serrait avec amitié. 10

Le regard le plus expressif et le plus triste répondait à cette moisture, is used in the laboratory for drying gasos, etc.

faveur ;'l et incontinent les beaux yeux de l'enfant de retour. Bleaching Powder has beon before treated of. Calcium Fluoride (Cav.), or Fluor-spar, the Blue-John of Toate cette ame jeune, aimante, exaltée, semblait avoir passé

naient vers la porte 12 par laquelle devait(i) paraître l'Empereur. the Derbyshire miners, crystallises in cubes (Fig. 496); Its dans ses yeux; tout le reste de son corps paraissait (1) inanimé. colour varies. Rose colour is the most rare, and purple the

Deux heures se passèrent ainsi ; 13 deux heures d'attente, de most common. It is sometimes used as a flux to reduce peines, d'angoisses, et, pendant ces deux heures, ni l'une ni metals; hence its name.

l'entre de ces enfants n'avait bougé. Calcium Phosphate (3Ca2P0.) forms of the bones of animals, and is the source from which phosphorus is derived.

La plus jeune, tenant (k) les yeux attachés sur cette porte Calcium sulphide may be formed by the action of sulphu. l'antre ne détournait pas les yeux de dessus sa compagne. !

fermée, attendait qu'elle s'ouvrit pour respirer, pour vivre: retted hydrogen on red-hot lime. It is not soluble in water, but Le plus profond silence régnait dans cette galerie ; on n'enis gradually decomposed by water. Thus

tondait que la respiration plus ou moins agitée de tout ce 2CaS + 21,0 CaH 0, + CaH,Sg.

monde, 16 qui attendait aussi. When milk of lime and flowers of sulphur are boiled together, Enfin onze heures sonnent, les deux battants de la porte a yellow solution is obtained, which consists of calcium penta- s'ouvrent,'? et un huissier annonce l'Empereur. 18 sulphide (Cass) and calcium hyposulphite (Ca0,8,0,). There

Plusieurs personnes paraissent (l) à la fois. are other salts of lime of less moment.

“Lequel ?” demande Maria dans la plus vive anxiété.
“Le seul qui ait (m) son chapeau sur la tête,"

;" 19 lui répond

vivement Hortense. SYMBOL, Mg - COMBINING WEIGHT, 26-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 1074. La jeune fille n'en écoute pas davantage; ne voyant (a)

Magnesiumn is closely allied to zinc and cadmium, but is gene. plus qu'un seul être dans toute cette foule qui l'environnait, elle rally placed in this class, since its oxide has au alkaline reaction. sort (o) des rangs, s'élance aux pieds de celui qu'on lai a Its salts occur in the sea; but dolomite, or mountain limestone, désigné,20 s'écrie : “Grâce! grâce!" et joint les mains avec force contains 35 per cent. of the carbonate. The metal may be pre- en les levant vers le ciel.21 pared by heating together the chloride with sodium. Sodium

COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE. chloride is formed whilst metallic magnesium distils into the 1. Pourquoi l'Empereur devait-il 11. De quelle manière l'enfant receiver. It is a white metal, fuses at a low red-heat, and traverser la galerie ?

répondait-elle à cette faveur? burns into MgO with great brilliancy at a higher temperature. 2. Comment était cette galerie ? 12. De quel côtó se tournaient les The magnesium light is so rich in “ actinic” rays, that it is 3. Sur quoi les fenêtres avaient. yeux de l'enfant ? used instead of sun-light for photographic printing.

elles vue ?

13. Combien de temps les deux Magnesia (MgO), the only oxide of the metal, is usually pro

4. Que vit-on lorsque neuf heures femmes attendirent-elles ? furent sonnées ?

14. Qu'attendait la jeune fille? cured by heating the carbonate as in the case of lime. Like that substance it forms an hydrate, but without an elevation of

5. Que remarquait-on parmi tout 15. Que faisait alors l'autre? ce monde ?

16. Entendait-on du bruit dans la temperature.

6. Par quoi se faisait remarquer galerie ? Magnesium Chloriile (MgCl,) is obtained for the manufacture la première ?

17. Qu'arriva-t-il à onze heures? of the metal by dissolving one part of magnesia in hydro- 7. À quoi pouvait-on distinguer 18. Qu'annonça l'huissier? chloric acid, and adding three parts of sal-ammoniac in solution, la seconde ?

19. Comment Hortense désignathen evaporating to iryness. By igniting this in a covered 8. De quelle couleur étaient ses t-elle l'Empereur ?

cheveux ? crucible, magnesium chloride alone is left.

20. Que

alors la jeune

fille ? Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO) is known by the name of Epsom

9. Que disait la première à la
plus jeune?

fit-elle

s'écriant, Salts, since it occurs abundantly in the springs at Epsom. It

10. Que faisait-elle pour donner "Grâce! grâce ?" is made in large quantities from sea-water, to which it imparts

plus de poids à ses paroles ? the bitter taste of all the soluble salts of this metal. Magnesium Carbonate (MgCO,) is found nativo as a mineral, (a) Devait, was.

(h) From dire. called magnesite. The common magnesia of the shops is pre- ) Ayant vue, looking towards. (i) Devait, was to. pared by boiling magnesium sulphate and a solution of sodium(c) Venaient de sonner, had just (j) From paraître. carbonate. It is sparingly soluble in water; but if the water struck,

(k) Tenant, keeping; from tenir. contain carbonic acid, it can take up a large quantity of the (d) De, with.

(1) See note j. salt, forming“ fluid magnesia."

(6) Gens de la maison, attondants (m) From avoir. Combined with silica, magnesia is found in many minerals. of the household

(n) From voir. Soap-stone, meerschaum are hydrated silicates of magnesia. From accueillir. [up! (o) From sortie. Serpentine, hornblende also contain magnesia. All the com

(9) Allons, du courage! come, cheer pounds of magnesia may be recognised by the fact that they

SECTION II. acquire a pink tinge when heated with the nitrate of cobalt in À ces cris, à cette action imprévue, l'Empereur s'arrête en the blow.pipe flame.

fronçant les sourcils.

MAGNESIUM.

fit

21. Que

en

NOTES.

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