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Die heilige Schrift des Allen und Neuen Testamentes, übersetzt von Dr. W. M. L. De Wette. Heidelberg: 1832, large 8vo., three volumes.

This edition, which is, perhaps, the best German translation now extant, contains the Apocrypha. The poetical books are not metrically arranged as in the former edition of Augusti and De Wette. The annotations are also omitted, and only the variations of other translators briefly marked at the bottom of the page.

Another good German translation is the revision of Luther's, by the learned senator of Frankfort on the Maine, Friedrich von Meyer, which has lately been printed several times, with and without notes at the bottom of the page.

Some persons do not quite approve of the English of the following work; but we consider it on the whole a good translation.

The Book of the Prophet Isaiah, translated from the Hebrew Text of Van der Hooght. By the Rev. John Jones, M.A., Præcentor of Christ Church, Oxford, 1830, p. 204, price 5s.

Mr. Jones availed himself of the great work of Gesenius on Isaiah, which we have mentioned.

Das Buch Hiob. Uebersetzung und Auslegung nebst Einleitung über Geist, Form und Verfasser des Buchs von D. Friedrich Wilhelm Carl Umbreit, Ordentlichem Professor der Theologie an der Universität zu Heidelberg. Zweite verbesserte und vermehrte Auflage. Heidelberg, 1832, 8vo. p. lviii. 387.

This is the best philological work on Job.

The best specimen of the art of translating with which we have met is,

Hebräische Propheten, übersetzt und erläutert von Friedrich Rückert. Erste Lieferung. Uebersetzung von Jesaia, 40-66. Uebersetzung von Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadja, Micha, Nahum, Habakuk, Sephanja, Haggai, Zacharia, Maleachi. Leipzig, 1831, 8vo., p. 144. Costs in London, 4s. 6d.

This translation is the most perfect which we have ever seen in any language. Friedrich Rückert has used the German with a freedom which will not be approved by those who require for every expression some precedents from the writings of Lessing, Schiller, and Göthe, but which is similar to the boldness of biblical writers in Hebrew and Greek. Mr. Rückert's surprising command of language is already known, which enables him not only to express the metre and the rhymes, but even the lusus verborum, assonances and alliterations of Persian poetry.

The Roman Catholics of Germany have of late also shown

OCT. 1833,-JAN. 1834.


that their knowledge of Hebrew did not die with Jahn. The author of the following work is already known as a philological traveller in the East, and as editor of the Greek New Testament.

Die Zwölf Kleinen Propheten als Fortsetzung des Brentano Dereser'schen Alten Testamentes aus dem Hebräischen übersetzt und erklärt von Dr. J. Martin Augustin Scholz. Frankfurt am Main, 1833, 8vo. p. xiv. 410.

The same portion of the Old Testament has been lately published under the title,

A Literal Translation from the Hebrew of the Twelve Minor Prophets, with some Notes from Jonathan Yarchi, Aben Ezra, D. Kimchi, and Abarbanel. By A. Pick, London, 1833, p. xii. 177, price 14s.

The preface says:

'The excellences of the authorized translation of the Scriptures have been much extolled, and have been diffused through society by the recommendation of men able to decide on the subject. It has, however, often been acknowledged, that this translation is not faultless; and though superior as a whole to anything that has yet appeared, many of its parts are capable of improvement. The translators aimed continually at catching the spirit of the original languages, and in most instances they have succeeded to a wonderful extent. Nevertheless, in the attempt they have sometimes lost sight of the literal meaning of the inspired writer. The design, therefore, of any new translation should not be to set aside the authorized version, but to act as an assistant to it, by directing the reader to the plain grammatical reading of the original. Thus he may be enabled to enter more simply into the mind of the spirit, unshackled by the views of men. This is the chief design of the present work.'

If this was the chief design, whoever compares its execution with the Hebrew text will admit that Mr. Pick has missed his mark, because his translation is less literal than the authorized version. It both omits and adds some words, and others are taken in a sense in which they never occur in the Bible. We will only mention of the latter kind, one instance taken from the first chapter of his book: I will break the bow of Israel for the deep iniquity of Jezreel' by pay. The authorized version is in the valley of Jezreel.'-sapienti sat. The book abounds with unphilological innovations of this kind.

It appears that Mr. Pick, in his translation of the Minor Prophets, like Mr. Bellamy in his Pentateuch, had a strong inclination to differ from the authorized version. The word pay, which, according to other translators, is vallis, 'regio depressa longe lateque patens,' Badus rozos, and according to the authorized version valley, Thal, is according to Mr. Pick, deep

iniquity. Picus Mirandola seems to have prophetically announced Pick's, as well as Bellamy's translation, 'Movent mihi stomachum grammatistae quidam, qui quum duas tenuerint (vel tenuisse sibi videantur) vocabularum origines, ita se ostentant, ita venditant, ita circumferunt jactabundi, ut prae ipsis eruditos, quotquot antea operi institerant, pro nihilo habendos arbitrentur.'

We hope that Mr. Bellamy, who is undoubtedly a man of learning, but of wild and unsound learning, and who formerly, by a sort of Rabbinical sagacity, was enabled to miss the sense of the plainest passage, will improve those parts of his translation which he is just now publishing, according to the instructive, but rather harshly expressed lessons of the Vindiciae Hebraicue; or a Defence of the Hebrew Scriptures, as a Vehicle of revealed Religion. Occasioned by the recent Strictures and Innovations of Mr. Bellamy, and in a Confutation of his Attacks on all preceding Translations, and on the Established Version in particular. By Hyman Hurwitz, London, 1820, 8vo., p. 270, price 9s.

The perusal of this severe but deserved reproof, by which Mr. Hurwitz became generally known among Christian divines in England, is strongly recommended to future translators.

To these translations from the Hebrew we add the following translation into Hebrew:

A New Revision of the New Testament in Hebrew, by Dr. Neumann, of Breslau, edited by the late Mr. Greenfield, was published in 1831 by Mr. Samuel Bagster of Paternoster Row for eight shillings, under the title,

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This is an uncommonly beautiful volume. Several mistakes of earlier editors have been avoided. In the editions of the

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.Londini ברית חדשה על פי משיח נעתק מלשון יון ללשון עברי

Typis excudebat. A Macintosh. 1821. 8vo., there remained several mistakes even after the most distinguished scholars of Great Britain and Germany had been employed in the revision of this edition of the Hebrew New Testament. An almost ridiculous blunder was the constant use of the word 12, which means in the Old Testament back or middle, for the Greek σãμa. For instance, Mat. vi. 22.

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the light of the back is the eye; therefore, if thy eye be perfect, thy whole back will be light.'

וְאֶס עֵינְךְ רָעָה כָל־גֵיִךְ יִהְיֶה חֹשֶׁךְ And if thy eye be evil, thy *

whole back shall be darkness.'

Since the word oua is of very frequent occurrence in the New Testament, it is of no small importance, that Neumann and Greenfield have translated it correctly by


We have not heard of any metrical compositions in Hebrew being published in England since the np. A Hebrew Dirge, chaunted in the Great Synagogue, St. James's Place, Aldgate, on the Day of the Funeral of her Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte, by Hyman Hurwitz, with a translation in English verse, by S. F. Coleridge, Esq. London, 1817, 8vo., and p. The Tears of a Grateful People, a Hebrew Dirge and Hymn, chaunted in the Great Synagogue, St. James's Place, Aldgate, on the Day of the Funeral of his late most sacred Majesty King George III. of blessed memory, by Hyman Hurwitz, translated into English verse by a Friend. London, 8vo.

The philological influence of composition in Hebrew may be compared to that of Latin and Greek composition. Whoever understands a language thoroughly is able to write it, and the practice of writing tends to produce a still more complete acquaintance with the language.

In Britain, where the public instruction in Hebrew has been more defective than in Germany, Holland, and in the United States, literature has endeavoured to make up the deficiency of masters by the publication of Claves.

Davidis Regis Lyra Prophetica, sive Analysis critico practica Psalmorum, in qua Voces omnigenæ ad regulus artis revocantur, earum Significationes explicantur, et Elegantiæ Linguæ evolvuntur. Additæ sunt Harmonia Hebræi Textus cum Paraphrasi Chaldæa et Versione LXXII. ; et brevis Institutio Linguæ Hebrææ et Chaldææ. Studio Victorini Bythneri, Ling. Hebr. Prof. The last edition of this well-known work of a learned Pole is that of Glasgow, 1823, 8vo. price 20s. pages 370, and the Index and Institutio, pages 126.

This useful book has passed through many editions in England, and is now again out of print, which is also the case with the Clavis Pentateuchi, &c., of Robertson. A new edition of this work has been published. Ex recension

Josephi Kinghorn, cum Notis, necnon ultimis Animadversionibus Auctoris doctissimi. Norvici, 1824, 8vo. pages xxv. 714. Index 43. price 28s.

Books of this kind seem to sell better in England than in Germany. They are useful to those beginners who are debarred from vivá voce instruction.

Similar works are:

Narratio de Josepho e sacro Codice desumta. Textum Hebraicum Punctis appositis Maioreticis ad Analysin revocavit Notisque philologicis instruxit Stephanus Reay, A.B., Oxonii. E Typographeo Clarendoniano, 1822, p. viii. 218.

This work is adapted to Schroderi Institutiones Linguæ Hebrææ, and is therefore now less useful, although in itself superior to the following work :—

An Analysis of the Text of the History of Joseph, upon the Principles of Professor Lee's Hebrew Grammar. By the Rev. Alfred Olivant, M.A. Second Edition. London, 1833, 8vo.

The German Claves to the Psalms, by Professor Paulus of Heidelberg, and by Dr. De Wette, are not written for mere beginners; this is also the case with the German Clavis by Professor Paulus to Isaiah, which has been superseded by the work of Gesenius on Isaiah.

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