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corrupted almost all the French, Italians, and English with his depravities. When Gregory VII had, both by letters and by a council held at Rome in the year 1074, strictly forbidden the marriage of the clergy, it raised (4) great commotions among the ecclesiastics in Germany; who not only complained of the pope for imposing this yoke, but likewise accused him of advancing a notion insupportable, and contrary to the words of our Saviour, who faith that all are not able to live in continence, and to the words of the apostle, who ordereth those who have not the gift of continence to marry. They added that this law, in forcing the ordinary course of nature, would be the cause of great disorders ; that they would rather renounce the priesthood than marriage ; and the pope should provide, if he could, angels to govern the church, fince he refufed to be served by men. This was the language of these corrupt ecclesiastics, as (5) Dupin hath called them: but the decree of the pope was no less

opposed

ter apud Ufier. ibid. Sect. 34. Roffen. in anno 1087. Uffer,

(3) Eodem tempore, Beren- ibid, Sect. 27. garius Turonenfis, in hæreticam (4) Dupin. ibid. Chap. 5, prolapsus pravitatem, omnes Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 7. Sect. 4. Gallos, Italos, et Anglos, fuis (5) C'est ainsi que ces ecclejam pene corruperat pravitati. fiaftiques corrompus parloient, bus, Matt, Weftmonalt, et Hift. Dupin, ibid. p. 36,

(6) Collier's

M 3

opposed in France, in Flanders, in Italy, and England, than in Germany. A council was held at Winchester in the year 1076, wherein it was (6) decreed indeed, that no canon should marry; but the priests in the country, , who were already married, were allowed to cohabit with their wives; whereas the pope had injoined all priests without distinction to put away their wives, or to forbear the exercise of their office. Whereupon Mr. Collier hath made this just reflection;

" From hence it appears “ that the papal supremacy had not reached its zenith in this century, and that the English bishops did not believe the patriarchal power

arbitrary and unlimited, but that a national “ church had some reserves of liberty, and

might diffent from the constitutions of the “ fce of Rome upon occafion.”

Europe hitherto wasinvolved in the dark night of popery, with only fome stars appearing here and there in the horizon; but in the twelfth century there began to be visible fome streaks of the morning light, fome dawnings of a reformation. Here in England, during the reign of Henry II, the famous constitutions of Clarendon were

sworn

(6) Collier's Ecclefiaft. Hift. (7) Platina in vita Paschal. B. 4. p. 248, 249. Spelmanni II. Spanhemii Hift. Christian, Concil. Vol. 2

Sæc. XII. Cap.5. Sect. 2. Cave

sworn to and signed both by the clergy and the laity, in recognition of the rights of the crown, particularly forbidding all appeals to Rome without the king's licence, and appointing the trial of criminal clerks before secular judges : But the best account of this as well as of the other me-, morable transactions of this reign the public expects with some impatience from one of the most masterly and elegant writers of the present age, a friend to religion and virtue, a friend to liberty and his country. Fluentius bishop of Florence (7) taught publicly, that Antichrist was born, and come into the world: whereupon pope Paschal II went to Florence, held a council there in the year 1105, and severely reprimanded the bishop, and strictly forbad him to preach any such doctrin. St. Bernard himself, devoted as he was and bigotted to the church of Rome in other respects, (8) yet inveighed loudly against the corruption of the clergy, and the pride and tyranny of the popes, saying that they were the ministers of Christ and served Antichrist, that nothing remained but that the man of sin fhould be revealed, that the beast in the Apocalyps occupied St. Peter's chair, with other expressions to

the

Hift. Litt. Sæc. XII. Concilia. (8) Spanhem. ibid. Uffer de Vol. 2. p. 258. Calmet. Dict. Christian Ecclef, successione et in ANTICHRIST.

ftatu. Cap. 7. Sect, 5, 6.

(9) Rogeri

M4

the fame effect. While our King Richard I was at Meslina in Sicily, going upon his expedition to the holy land, he (9) fent for the famous abbat Joachim of Calabria, and heard him with much satisfaction explain the Apocalyps, and discourse of Antichrist. He said that Antichrist was already born in the city of Rome, and that he would be advanced to the apostolical chair, and exalted above all that is called God or is worshipped. So that some true notion of Antichrist began to spread even among the members of the church of Rome; and no wonder that it prevailed among thofe, who more directly opposed the doctrips of that church. Peter de Bruis and senry his disciple (1) taught in several parts of France, that the

body and blood of Christ were not offered in the theatrical mass; that the doctrin of the change of the substances in the facrament is

false ; that sacrifices, that is masses, prayers, ! alıns, and other works of the living for the

dead, are foolish and impious, and profit them

nothing; that priests and monks ought rather I to marry than to burn; that crosses are not

to (9) Rogeri de Hóveden An- bus facramenti, ipfis nimirum nal. Pars Pofterior p.681. Edit. fubftantiis mutatis, esse falsam. Francof. 1601. Jam natus est in Sacrificia, id eft miffas, oratiocivitate Romana, et in sede apof- nes, eleemofynas, et reliqua vitolica sublimabitur, &c. Col vorum opera pro defunctis, effe lier's Ecclef. Hift. B. 6. p. 491. ftultitiam et impietatem, nibil.

(!) Corpus & fanguinem que eis prodeffe. Sacerdotes Chrifti in theatrica miffa non

et monachos debere uxores poofferri. Doctrinam de specie- tius ducere, quam comburi..

Cruces

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"to be adored, or venerated, and so many

crosses, serving to superstition, ought rather to

be removed than retained :' and they both were martyrs, the one being burnt, and the other imprisoned for life, on account of their doctrins. Other heresies were laid to their charge, and their own writings are not extant to speak for them ; but these things they taught and professed, their enemies themselves being judges. Arnold of Brescia (2) held opinions contrary to those of the church concerning the sacrament, and preached mightily against the temporal power and jurisdiction of the pope and the clergy; for which he was burnt at Rome in the year 1155, and his ashes were thrown into the Tyber, to prevent the people from expressing any veneration for his relics. But the true witnesses, and as I may say the protestants of this age, were the Waldenses and Albigenses, who began to be famous at this time, and being dispersed in various places were distinguished by various appellations. Their first and proper 'name seemeth to have been

Vallenses, Cruces non adorandas aut ve Remarks upon the ancient nerandas : et tot cruces super- churches of the Albigenses. ftitioni fervientes, potius amo- Chap. 14. vendas quam retinendas, &c. (2) Otho Frising de Gettis Hift. Ecclef. Magdeburg. Vol. Frederici. Lib. 1. Spanhem. 3. Cent. XII. Cap. 5. p. 331. ibid. Cap. 7. Sect. 4. Dupin, &c. Edit. Bafil. 1624. Spanhem. ibid. Allix's Remarks on the ibid. Cap. 7. Sect. 2. Dupin. ancient church of Piedmont. XIļ. Siecle. Chap. 6, Allix's Chap. 18.

(3) Vallenses

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