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himself a prophet or spiritual, let him understand that what I write to 38 you is a commandment of the Lord. But if anyone disregards it-well,

let him disregard 1 it. 39 So then, my brothers, covet prophecy, and forbid not speech with

40 tongues. But let all be done with propriety and in order. 151 Now I make known to you, brothers, the gospel that I preached to

2 you, which also you received, in which also you stand, by which also

you are being saved, if you are holding fast the word that I preached to 3 you-unless indeed you believed in vain. For I handed on to you first

of all that which I also received : namely, that Christ died for our sins 4 according to the scriptures, and that he was buried, and that he rose on 5 the third day according to the scriptures, and that he was seen by 6 Kephas, then by the twelve ; after that, he was seen by upwards of five

hundred brothers all at once, of whom the greater number survive to this 7 day, but some have fallen asleep ; after that he was seen by James, then 8 by all the apostles, and last of all, by one misborn (as it were), he was seen 9 also by me. For I am the least of the apostles, I who am not fit to be 10 called “apostle,” because I persecuted the Community of God. But by the

grace of God I am what I am ; and the grace he showed to me did not

prove in vain. No, I laboured far beyond them all—yet not so much I, as 11 the grace of God along with me. Be it I then or they, so we preach, and

so you believed. 12 Now if the preaching of Christ is that he rose from the dead, how is

it that some people among you say “there is no such thing as a resurrection 13 of the dead”? If “there is no such thing as a resurrection of the dead," 14 Christ did not rise either; and if Christ did not rise, then ? vain is our 15 preaching after all, vain also your faith. Yes, and we are found to be

false witnesses of God, because we witnessed against God in saying that

“he raised Christ”-whom he did not raise, if dead men after all do not 16, 17 rise. For if dead men do not rise, Christ did not rise either; and if

Christ did not risc, your faith is futile, you are still in your sins. 18, 19 Besides, those who fell asleep in Christ perished after all. If in this life

we have nothing but a mere hope in Christ, we are of all men to be 20 pitied most.

But, as it is, Christ did rise from the dead, the firstfruits of those who are asleep. 21 For since through man came death,

Through man came also resurrection of the dead : 22 As all die in Adam,

So also shall all be made alive in Christ. 23 But each in his own rank: Christ the firstfruits, after that, all who 24 are Christ's at his arrival ; then comes the end, when he delivers up the

royal power to the God and Father, when he shall have put down all 25 rule and all authority and power. For he must reign until he has put 26 all his enemies under his feet. Last enemy of all, death shall be put 27 down. For he has made all things subject under his feet. Now, when it

says “all things are made subject," clearly that excludes the One who 28 made all things subject to him. But when all things are made subject

to him, then the Son himself shall also be inade subject to the One who

made all things subject to him, that God may be all in all. 29 Otherwise, what can be the meaning of those who get baptized on behalf of

the dead? If dead men do not rise at all, why do they get baptised on 30, 31 their behalf? And why are we ourselves in danger every hour? (Daily I die-I swear it by my exulting in you, brothers, in Christ Jesus our 1 Reading a grosita.

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32 Lord.) If, humanly speaking, I “fought with beasts” at Ephesus, what

use is that to me? If dead men rise not, let us eat and drink, for to33 morrow we die! Be not misled : “bad companionships are the ruin of 34 honest morals." Awake to uprightness, and sin not! For some are in

ignorance of God. I am speaking to rouse your shame. 35. But, one will say, “How do the dead rise ? With what kind of body 36 do they come ?” Senseless man! what thou sowest is not made alive 37 unless it dies. And in sowing, what thou sowest is not the body that is to

be, but a mere grain of wheat, for example, or of some other kind of seed; 38 yet God gives it a body even as he wills, namely, to each kind of seed a 39 body of its own. All flesh is not the same flesh. There is one flesh of

men, and another flesh of beasts, one flesh of birds, and another of fishes. 10 There are heavenly bodies and also earthly bodies; but the splendour of

the heavenly is one thing, and the splendour of the earthly is another. 41 There is one splendour of the sun, and another splendour of the moon, 42 and another splendour of the stars; for star excels star in splendour. So it is also with the resurrection of the dead.

It is sown in the perishing,

it is raised in the imperishable : 43

It is sown in dishonour,

it is raised in splendour :
It is sown in weakness,

it is raised in power :
It is sown a natural body,

it is raised a spiritual body.
If there is a natural,

there is also a spiritual body. 45 So also it is written :

The first man Adam became a living soul :

The last Adam, a life-making spirit.”
But the spiritual is not first, it is the natural :

After that the spiritual.
The first man is from the earth, material :

The second man is from heaven.
As is the material, so are those who are material :

And as is the heavenly, so are those who are heavenly.
And as we have worn the image of the material,

We are also to wear the image of the heavenly. 50 What I say is this, brothers.

Flesh and blood cannot inherit the reign of God,

Nor does the perishing inherit the imperishable. 51 Lo, I tell you a secret!

Not all of us shall fall asleep,
But all of us shall be changed-
In an instant, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet.

For the trumpet shall sound,
And the dead shall be raised imperishable,

And we shall be changed.
53 For this perishing thing must put on the imperishable,

And this mortal thing must put on immortality; 54 But when this perishing thing shall have put on the imperishable,

And this mortal thing shall have put on immortality, Thion shall come to pass the word which is written :

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Death is swallowed up in victory. 55 Death, where is thy victory?

Death, where is thy sting? 56 (The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 1 57

Thanks be to God who gives the victory to us through our Lord 58 Jesus Christ.

So then, iny beloved brothers, be firm, immovable, abounding at all times in the work of the Lord ; since you know that

your labour is not vain in the Lord. 161 Now in regard to the collection for the saints, do you also follow the

2 instructions that I gave to the Communities of Galatia. On the first day

of the week let each of you be laying by him in store whatever gain he may have made; so that collections may not have to be made when I 3 come. When I arrive I will despatch with letters whatever persons you 4 think fit, to convey your bounty to Jerusalem ; and if it be worth while 5 for me also to make the journey, they shall accompany me.

I will visit you when I have passed through Macedonia. Through Mace6 donia I am to pass, but possibly I shall remain awhile with you, or even

pass the winter; that you may speed me on whatever journey I may under7 take. I do not wish to see you at this moment merely in passing by; 8 my hope is to stay for some time with you, if the Lord permit. But I 9 will stay on at Ephesus till Pentecost; for a great door of activity is open 10 to me, and adversaries are numerous.

If Timotheus comes, see that he need have no fear with you; for he works at the Lord's work like 11 myself. Let no one despise him then. Speed him on his journey in

peace, that he may come to me; for I expect him along with the brothers. 12 In regard to Apollos the brother-I made an urgent appeal to him to visit

you with the others, but he was not quite inclined to visit you just now.

However, he will come whenever he finds time. 13 Watch, stand fast in the faith, quit yourselves like men, be strong. 14 Let all that you do be done in love. 15 I appeal to you, brothers-you know that the household of Stephanas

is the firstfruits of Achaia, and that they have laid themselves out for 16 ministering to the saints. Be you also in subjection to such, and to 17 everyone who shares their work and labour. I am glad that Stephanas

and Fortunatus and Achaicus have arrived, for they have made up for 18 the lack of you. They have refreshed my spirit and yours. Pay regard

to such men therefore. - 19 The Communities of Asia salute you. Aquila and Prisca heartily

salute you in the Lord, with the Community which is in their house. 20 All the brothers salute you. Salute one another with a saints' kiss. 21, 22 The salutation is by the hand of me, Paul. If anyone loves not the

Lord, let him be accursed. Maran atha. 23 The grace of the Lord Jesus be with you. 24 My love be with you all in Christ Jesus.


When Paul despatched i Co from Ephesus, he evidently contemplated a visit to Corinth which for all its salutary consequences might prove painful to his friends and to himself (1 Co 419-21, éneúoopai de taxéws a pòs vpās ... ły pásom én aw; cp. 1134 167). That this visit actually took place is a fair inference from passages in the later epistle (2 Co 21 1214, idoũ Tpítoy TOÛTO ÉToluôs exw erdeiv, 13', tpitov TOŪTO ēpxouai). These imply two previous visits-at least that is a legitimate and highly natural, if not a necessary, conclusion from their language. Now, as Paul had only visited Corinth once before the composition of 1 Co, the second visit must have taken place between 1 Co and 2 Co. From this visit Paul returned to Ephesus, saddened and bafiled (2 Co 25£). His journey had been fruitless and unpleasant. But what he had been unable to effect by a personal visit (1010 1221) he tried to carry out by means of a letter (24 78) written éx mollis Axixews kai ouvoxas kapdías dià mollôr dakpúwy with passionate threats and appeals; it was so sarcastic and severe, 2 indeed, that the recollection of his language afterwards caused the apostle some qualms of conscience. This letter of disturbed feelings has been partially preserved in 2 Co 101310. These chapters are written out of the tension felt by one who is not yet sure of his ultimate success. They vibrate with anger and anxiety. Paul's authority and actions had been called in question, while his converts in Corinth were exposed to licentious errors. Yet both attacks sprang from the same overbearing, unscrupulous party who had gained a footing (1120) within the church, possibly headed by some ringleader (o TOLOŬTOS, TIS, 2 Co 25 712) who had been able to inflict severe and public humiliation upon the apostle by charging him with unscrupulous dealing, overbearing conduct, unfounded pretensions to the ministry of Christ, and so on. Since the attack on his character involved his gospel, Paul

i Those who (like Schmiedel, Zahn, and recently G. G. Findlay, ExGT, ii. pp. 736738) deny this, are forced to the expedient of placing this visit previous to 1 Co, a device which contradicts the silence both of Acts and 1 Co. Paul's first visit to Corinth was on the occasion of his founding the church, and when writing 1 Co he refers to no other than this diflident and successful visit of his ministry (1 Co 22). He had no cause for aúrn then, and betrays in 1 Co no sense of any.

9 To make this in any sense an adequate or apt description of 1 Co as a whole, is an idea which scarcely merits serious discussion. That epistle naturally contains words of blame, but blame is not its argument and object; it contained nothing to make Paul uneasy. If the above theory is discarded, the letter in question must be regarded as lost. On the other hand. 1 Co is probably alluded to in 2 Co 101. 101. possibly 2 Co 10-13 in the later epistle 2 Co 313 (tárov), and 13: 10 in 128 21. At any rate chaps. 10-1310 form the only extant passage in Paul's Corinthian correspondence which answers to the twofold description of a letter composed in personal distress and with a severe intention. It is a deceptive method to start the discussion upon the two Corinthian epistles with their superficial resemblances, as these exist in the extant and canonical form.

found a method 1 of defence ready to hand against slander and censure.2 He proceeded to exhibit his own titles to credit and honour as an apostle Self-exultation is the keynote : kavgão da déī. “In great religious move ments the leaders are often compelled to assert themselves pretty peremptorily, in order that their work may not be wrecked by conceited and incapable upstarts”(Drummond). These pages thus form the apostle's apologia pro vita sua. But like Newman's it rises above the narrow controversies and personal issues of the struggle. Instead of merely expostulating and demanding reparation from the Corinthians for insults and outrages, he was concerned to expose the futility and shamelessness of all such attacks upon himself, thereby hoping to effectively discredit the influence of such opponents upon his friends. “I wrote," he told them afterwards (2 Co 29), iva yvô tņu dokouny úuwv, ei eis távta útrýkoól éote. His appeal was a test of their obedience,s carried by Titus (2 Co 213 76. 13-14). It was addressed to the Community as a whole, and intended to counteract the tyrannising and plausible influences of the Judaising party. Possibly only a fragment of it is preserved in 2 Co 10–1310, but even if it is complete we need not be surprised that Paul leaves the offender (25 712) alone. His attention is concentrated on the broader issue of which that man's case formed merely one expression. The case had now fallen to the Corinthians to deal with, and Paul strove rather to raise in them a proper conscience for such a process of discipline.

From a subsequent epistle (2 Co 1-9), written from Macedonia shortly after he had left 4 Êphesus to meet Titus on his return journey from Corinth, it is plain that the Corinthians had regained their loyalty and vindicated Paul at the expense of his opponents (2 Co 213 713). Their reception of

1 I do not understand how these chapters can be described as “wholly taken up with what the apostle means to do, when he comes to Corinth for the third time" (Denney). References to a further visit are to be expected under the circumstances, but they are mostly incidental allusions (102 1214 131), and not at all the continuous or absorbing theme of the epistle. Nor does 123 imply (as Sanday thinks, EBi, i. p. 906) that the painful letter was in lieu of a personal visit. As 21 shows, the painful visit had already been made. Paul simply says he preferred not to inflict on them again such an unpleasant experience, and therefore wrote a letter instead, until such time as he could pay a visit with comfort. The resemblance of style and expression (Holtzmann) between chaps. 10-13 and chaps. 1-9 are patent, but they have no bearing on the question of the date and order of these pieces. Both were written close together by the same man. Finally, the two passages 817-24 and 1218 do not refer to the same event (Jülicher). The latter touches & visit already paid. The former refers to another mission of Titus and his companion, for which Paul seeks to pave the way. Belser (TQ (1894), pp. 15–47) makes Paul visit Corinth four times, in 53, in 57 (summer), in 58-59 (winter), and finally in 65-66 after his release.

2 Paul seems to have found in some of the Corinthians the same “indecent freedom” which Thomas Boston met with among the Ettrick people; who also, “generally speaking, were naturally smart, and of an uncommon assurance; selfconceited and censorious to a pitch, contemners of me and of my ministry, who often kept not within the bounds of common civility.” Indeed, it is remarkable that Boston actually compares them twice over in his Memoirs to the church of Corinth, “burnt up with the fire of division, and drenched in fleshly abominations ... seeing we so much resemble that church in her three grand evils, self-conceit, a divisive temper, and sins of uncleanliness." See Dr. Kennedy, (as below) pp. 98-110.

3 The omission of this whole period and intercourse in Acts proves either that the author was ignorant of the affair, or more probably that he chose to pass over so unedifying and discreditable a passage in the life of the carly church.

4 The storm of aflliction (2 Co 1-2) in which Paul was tossing at this crisis was due partly to recent experiences, partly to anticipations. He had been driven from his anchorage in Ephesus, and as yet was uncertain whether Corinth, his old harbour, would have a welcome for him. The relief felt by Paul is indicated by the recurring idea of superheroes (which occurs eleven times in this epistle).

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