Imágenes de páginas

met a friend in the person of one of the partners in the gro

In his youth, till a comrade he slew in ire; cery establishment which had first given him employment, and

Since then he forswore helmet and glaive, who, like himself, had sought a home in the wilderness. This

And, leaving his home, had crossed the wave, man had some money, but, unfortunately for himself, never And taken the cross and cowl at Saint Finbar's spire !" having " turned the Vosther” or learned anything in accounts,

Three monks sat by a bogwood fire ! was unable to put it to any use that would require a know

Swift through the glen ran the river Lec! ledge of what a facetious alderman once called the three R's,

And Alleyn next, by that bogwood fire, reading, writing, and 'rithmetic. Now, these happened to be

Told his tale--a woeful man was he: Dinny's forte. So when his quondam employer was one day

Alas, he had loved unlawfullie lamenting to him the deficiency which forbade him to apply The wife of his brother, Sir Hugh Maguire ! his capital to the lucrative uses which he otherwise might,

And he fled to the cloister to free Dinny modestly suggested a method whereby this desirable

His soul from sin :' and 'twas sad to see object might be effected: the other, after a little considera

How sorrow had worn the youthful friar ! tion, thought he might do worse than adopt it, and accord

Three monks sat by a bogwood fire ! ingly, before many days elapsed, a grand new store appeared

And red the light on the rafters shone, in the township of Prishprashchawmanraw, in which Dinny And the last who spoke by that bogwood fire was book-keeper and junior partner. Having brought him

Was Giles, of the three the only one thus far by our assistance, we shall allow him to conclude his

Whom care or grief had not lit upon; letter after his own way:

But rosy and round, throughout city and shire “ And so you see, dear mother, that notwithstanding all

His mate for frolic and glee was none ; the neighbours said, it's as lucky after all that I turned the

And soon he told how “ A peasant's son, Vosther, for it has made a man of me, and with the help of the He was reared to the church by their former Prior !" holy St Patrick I am well able to spare the twenty pounds

T'hree monks sat by a bogwood fire ! you will get inside, which is half for yourself to make your

The moon look'd o'er all with clouded ray; old days comfortable, or to come out to me, if you'd like that

And there they sat by that bogwood fire. better, and the other half for my poor darling Nelly, the colleen

Watching the wicket till break of day ; dhas dhun, that I am afraid spent many a heavy hour on my

And many that night did call, and stay, account; but you may tell her that with the help of God Whose names-if, gentles, ye do not tire-I will live to make up for them all. I will expect her at New

In next strain shall the bard essayYork by the next ship, and you may tell her that the first

(Many and motley I ween were they i-thing she is to buy with the money must be a grand guold Till then, pardon he craves for his humble lyre ! ring, and let her put it on her finger at once, without waiting

And to cach and all, for either priest or parson, for I'm her sworn husband already,

Benedicite! and will bring her straight to the priest the minute she puts her foot on America shore, and until then who dare sneeze at her? You must write to me to say where I am to meet her, COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BLACK BOYS IN and by what ship she will come out ; and above all, whether

AMERICA AND IRELAND. she is to bring any thing out with her besides herselfyou know what I mean. And, dear mother, when you write to | It has not unfrequently occurred to us as a thing somewhat me, you are to put on the back of the letter, Dennis M‘Daniel, remarkable, that there is a vast difference in the comparative Esq. for that's what I am now—not a word of lie in it. So value of the black boys of America and those of Ireland; and wishing the best of good luck to all the neighbours, and to this was very forcibly proved to us on a recent occasion. The yourself and to Nelly, I remain, &c. &c. &c.”

American little blacks are, as we have been credibly informed, Glory to you, Dinny!" was ejaculated on every side, to be bought for forty dollars and upwards, according to their while they all rushed tumultuously forward to congratulate health, strength, and beauty; the Irish blackies for about a the unwedded bride. In their uproarious hands we leave her, twentieth of that sum; and as everything is valued in propordrawing this moral from the whole thing, that it's very hard tion to its cost, it follows as a matter of course that the Ameto spoil

an Irishman entirely, if there be any good at all in him rican urchins are vastly more prized and better taken care of originally.

A. M'C. than the Irish. It is not very easy to account for this, but

perhaps it is only a consequence of difference of race. The

American black boys are supposed to be the descendants of THE THREE MONKS.

Cham-true woolly-headed chaps, with the colouring matter " It was with the good monks of old that sterling hospitality was to be

of their complexion deposited beneath their outer skin, and found."-HANSBROVE's Irish GAZETTEER.

not washoffable by means of soap and water. The Irish black

boys generally are believed to be of the true Caucasian breed Three monks sat by a bogwood fire :

--the descendants of Japhet; and their blackness is on the Shaven their crowns, and their garments grey ;

outer surface of the skin, and may, though we believe with Close they sat to that bogwood fire.

difficulty, be removed. But we will not speak dogmatically Watching the wicket till break of day

on this point. In other respects they agree tolerably. They Such was ever the rule at Kilcrea :

have both the power of bearing heat to a considerable degree, For whoever passed, be he baron or squire, Was free to call at that abbey, and stay,

and of dispensing with the incumbrance of much clothing. Nor guerdon or hire for his lodging pay,

But it is in their relative value that they most differ, and this Though he carried a week with the Holy Quire !

is the point we desire to prove, and what we think we can do

to the satisfaction of our readers by the following anecdote :-Three monks sat by a bogwood fire

Being naturally of a most humane and benevolent character, Dark look'd the night from the window-pane !

as all our readers are—for none others would support our They who sat by that bogwood fire

pennyworth—we have often lamented the abject condition and Were Eustace, Alleyn, and Giles by name :

sufferings of our black urchins, and have come to the resolution Long they gazed at the cheerful fame,

never to assist in encouraging their degradation, but on the Till each from his neighbour began to inquire

contrary to do everything in our power to oppose it. With The tale of his life, before he came

this praiseworthy intention we recently sent for a gentleman To Saint Bridget's shrine, and the cowl had ta'en :

who professes the art of increasing our domestic comforts by So they piled on more wood, and drew their seats nigher !

the aid of modern science as developed in our improved maThree monks sat by a bogwood fire !

chinery-or in other words, we sent for him to clean the chimLoud wailed the wind through cloister and nave!

ney of our study, not with a little boy, but with a proper moWith penitent air by that bogwood fire

dern machine constructed for the purpose. The said profesThe first that spake it was Eustace grave,

sor came accordingly, but to our astonishment not merely And told, “ He had been a soldier brave

with his sweeping machine, but also with one of the objects of

our pity and commiseration-a little black boy! The use of • Kilcrea Abbey, near Cork, was dedicated to Saint Bridget, and founded, this attendant we did not immediately comprehend, nor did A. D. 1494, by Cormac Lord Muskerry. Its monks belonged to the Fran- we ask, but proceeded at once to inquire of the professor the ciscan order commonly called “the Grey Friars."

price of his services in the way we desired.

for us,

“ Three shillings,” was the answer.

to that striving of the will, that conflict with difficulty, which “ Three shillings!" we rejoined, with a look of astonish- we call effort. Easy, pleasant work does not make robust ment;

" why, we had no idea that your charge would be any minds, does not give men a consciousness of their powers, thing like so much. What," we asked, "is the cause of this does not train them to endurance, to perseverance, to steady unusual demand?".

force of will, that forne without which all other acquisitions “ Why, sir, the price of my machine. But I'll sweep the will avail nothing. Manual labour is a school in which men chimney with the boy there for a shilling."

are placed to get energy of purpose and character-a vastly “ And pray, sir, what did your machine cost 7"

more important endowment than all the learning of all other “ Two pounds!"

schools. They are placed indeed under hard masters, physi. “ Indeed," I replied ; “and what was the cost of the boy?” cal sufferings and wants, the power of fearful elements, and

“ Ten shillings; and do you think, sir, I could sweep with the vicissitudes of all human things; but these stern teachers my machine, which cost me so much, at the same rate as I do a work which no compassionate indulgent friend could do could charge for the boy, that cost me only ten shillings?”

and true wisdom will bless Providence for their sharp There was no replying to logic so conclusive as this ; and we ministry. I have great faith in hard work. The material think it right to give it publicity, in the hope that it may meet world does much for the mind by its beauty and order ; but the eyes of some of our readers at the other side of the Atlan- it does more by the pains it inflicts; by its obstinate resisttic, who may be induced to rid us of some of our superabun- ance, which nothing but patient toil can overcome ; by its dant population, by importing our black boys, which they can vast forces, which nothing but unremitting skill and effort cas get, even including the expense of carriage, at so much turn to our use; by its perils, which demand continual vigicheaper a rate here than they can procure them at home! G. lance; and by its tendencies to decay. I believe that difficul

ties are more important to the human mind than what we call

assistances. Work we all must, if we mean to bring out and perELEVATION OF THE LABOURING CLASSES.

fect our nature. Even if we do not work with the hands, we We have to express our thanks to the Westminster Review must undergo equivalent toil in some other direction. for the publication of two MS. letters to Leonard Horner, You will here see that to me labour has great dignity. Alas Esq. one of the factory inspectors, from the proprietor of a for the man who has not learned to work? He is a poor crea. cotton mill in the north of England, whose modesty it is to be ture; he does not know himself.” regretted prohibits the publication of his name, and has That the labouring classes can be greatly, immeasurably hitherto prevented the publication of these letters.

elevated in the social scale, without relieving them from the The introductory article in the Review contains some ad- | least portion of that labour entailed upon the race of Adam, mirable strictures upon the radical defect of governments fail- is beautifully exemplified in the mill-owner's letters which ing to perceive that the elevation of the people, in a moral and follow the article from which the foregoing has been extracted. physical point of view, is not only one, but the fundamental We regret that their length far exceeds the utmost space duty of legislators. The writer points out that in all coun- which we could afford them, or we should present them to our tries and ages to the present time, those who have been placed readers in full. The account which they give of the social at the head of public affairs have bad little or no leisure, if they condition of the operatives employed in the writer's factory, possessed the inclination, to study schemes of human improve- more resembles the details of a Útopian scheme than of one ment; their time has been occupied in maintaining order, actually carried into effect by a single philanthropic individual. making war, and raising a revenue for these and similar ob- The first letter describes the wretched and dilapidated state jects, whereas the necessity for police and armies would be les of the mill, and destitute condition of the few persons living sened by striking at the root of the evil, and elevating the about it, at the time (1832) that the writer and his brothers “hewers of wood and drawers of water” in the scale of intel- took it, and proceeded to rebuild and furnish it. This and the ligence and happiness.

collection of the necessary hands occupied two years. In em"Melancholy,” says the writer, “is the result of centuries ploying operatives they selected only the most respectable, such of mischievous and often wicked legislation, in the impression as were likely to settle down permanently wherever they should it has left upon the mind of the public. Long after a govern- feel comfortably situated ; and in order to hold out inducement has ceased to do evil, it is left powerless for good by the ments, these gentlemen broke up three fields in front of the universal distrust with which it is regarded. The people have workmen's cottages into gardens of about six roods each, sepayet to learn to place confidence in their own servants, and to rated by neat thorn hedges. Besides which, each house had support when needed in their persons their own authority, / a small flower-garden either in front or rear, and the houses instead of seeking to overturn it as that of tyrants or masters. | themselves were made as comfortable as possible. So numerous have been the evils which have arisen from un- When the mill was completed and the population numerous, wise interference, that an opinion very widely prevails that a the proprietor called a meeting of all the workmen, and progovernment can do nothing but mischief; and the almost uni- posed the establishment of a Sunday school for the children. versal prayer of the people is to be left alone.” Again he 'The proposal was gladly received, and some of the men were says, “Why should it not be borne in mind that there are appointed teachers. He then built a schoolroom for the girls, higher objects for human exertion, whether for individuals or and the boys had the use of a cellar; but he subsequently built communities, than the greatest possible aggregate of wealth ? a schoolroom for them also. In the girls' school were 160 And although the realization of those objects in our time may children, and in the boys' 120. Each was placed under the be but the visionary dream of the philanthropist, let no one management of a superintendent and a certain number of say that good will not arise from keeping them steadily in teachers, whose services were given gratuitously; and they view."

relieved each other, so that each was obliged to attend only And to explain his sentiments upon the subject of the every third Sunday. They were all young men and women elevation of the labouring classes, he quotes the following pa- belonging to the mill

, the proprietor taking no further part in ragraph from Dr Channing's first lecture, delivered at a meeting the management than spending an hour or two in the room. of the Mechanic Apprentices' Library Association at Boston : As soon as the school was fairly established, the proprietor

" By the elevation of the labourer I do not understand that turned his attention to the establishment of games and gym. he is to be raised above the need of labour. I do not expect nastic exercises amongst the people, and having set apart a field a series of improvements by which he is to be released from he called together some of the boys one fine afternoon, and com. his daily work. Still more, I have no desire to dismiss him menced operations with quoits, trap and cricket balls, and leapfrom his workshop and farm, to take the spade and axe from frog. The numbers quickly increased, regulations and rules his hand, and to make his life a long holiday. I have faith in were made, the girls got a portion of the field to themselves, labour, and I see the goodness of God in placing us in a world and there were persons appointed to preserve order. The folwhere labour alone can keep us alive. I would not change, lowing summer he put up a swing, introduced the game called if I could, our subjection to physical laws, our exposure to Les Graces, and bowls, a leaping-bar, a tight-rope, and a seehunger and cold, and the necessity of constant conflicts with Quoits became the favourite game of the men, hoops the material world. I would not, if I could, so tenper the and tight-rope of the boys, and hoops and swing of the girls, elements that they should infuse into us only grateful sensa- the latter being in constant requisition. He at first found tions, that they should make vegetation so exuberant as to some difficulty in checking rudeness, but being constantly on anticipate every want, and the minerals so ductile as to offer no the spot, it was soon corrected, and gradually quite wore awas. resistance to our strength or skill. Such a world would make The play-ground was only opened on Saturday evenings or a contemptible race. Man owes his growth, his energy, chielly I holidays during the summer. He next got up drawing and

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singing classes. The drawing-class, taught by himself, on provided of sufficient variety to supply the different tastes and Saturday evenings during the winter, from six to half past capacities which are to be dealt with. It is with these views seven-half the time being spent in drawing, and the remain that he provided various objects of interesting pursuit or inder with geography or natural history. To those pupils he nocent amusement for his colony, and established prizes for lent drawings to copy during the evenings of the week, thereby their horticultural exhibitions ; and to show how the taste for giving them useful and agreeable employment for their leisure music had progressed, he mentions that a glee class had been hours, and attracting them to their home fireside.

established, and a more numerous one of sacred music that The breaking up of the drawing-class at half past seven meets every Wednesday and Saturday during winter, and a gave room to the singing-class until nine. The superinten- band had been formed with clarionets, horns, and other wind dent of the Sunday school took charge of this class, which instruments, which practised twice a-week, besides blowing became at once very popular, especially with the girls. But nightly at home; and a few families had got pianos, besides what he seems to consider the most successful of his plans for which there were guitars, violins, violoncellos, serpents, flutes, the civilising of his people, was the establishment of regular and dulcimers, and he adds that it must be observed that they evening parties during the winter, the number invited to each are all of their own purchasing. He goes on to observe that being about thirty, an equal number of boys and girls, and his object is “not to raise the manufacturing operative or laspecially invited by a little printed card being sent to each. bourer above his condition, but to make him an ornament to This afforded a mark of high distinction, only the best be- it, and thus elevate the condition itself-to make the labourhaved and most respectable, or, as he calls them, “the aristo- ing classes feel that they have within their reach all the elecracy,” being invited. These parties are held in the school- ments of earthly happiness as abundantly as those to whose room, which he fitted up handsomely, and furnished with station their ambition sometimes leads them to aspire—that pictures, busts, &c, and a piano-forte. When the party first domestic happiness, real wealth, social pleasures, means of assemble, they have books, magazines, and drawings, to amuse intellectual improvement, endless sources of rational amusethem. Tea and coffee are then handed round, and the pro- ment, all the freedom and independence possessed by any class prietor walks about and converses with them, so as to render of men, are all before them—that they are all within their their manners and conversation unembarrassed; and after tea, reach, and that they are not enjoyed only because they have games are introduced, such as dissected maps or pictures, not been developed and pointed out, and therefore are not spilicans, chess, draughts, card-houses, phantasmagoria, and known. His object is to show them this, to show his own others, whilst some prefer reading or chatting. Sometimes people and others that there is nothing in the nature of their there is music and singing, and then a wind-up with Christ- employment, or in the condition of their humble lot, that conmas games, such as tiercely, my lady's toilet, blindman's-buff, demns them to be rough, vulgar, ignorant, miserable, or poor &c, previous to retiring, the party usually breaking up a little - that there is nothing in either that forbids them to be well after nine. These parties are given to the grown-up boys bred, well informed, well mannered, and surrounded by every and girls, but he sometimes also treats the juniors, when they comfort and enjoyment that can make life happy; in short, to have great diversion. The parties are given on Saturday ascertain and prove what the condition of this class of people evenings about once in three weeks, the drawing and singing might be made, what it ought to be made—what it is the inbeing given up for that day.

terest of all parties that it should be made.”. He next established warm baths at an expense of £80, and In the name of our common humanity we thank him for the issued bathing tickets for ld. each, or families subscribing Is. experiment which has so satisfactorily proved the truth of his per month were entitled to five baths weekly; and with an propositions ; and whilst wishing him God speed, we shall do account of the arrangements of the baths, the receipts, &c, he what in our power lies to promote the benevolent object, by concludes his first letter, which appears to have been written directing the attention of philanthropists to the good that may about the year 1835.

be effected by the unassisted efforts of a practical individual. In the second letter, dated March 1838, he developes the

N. principles upon which he acted, and the objects which he had in view, in answer to the request of Mr Horner. His object he avows to be " the elevation of the labouring classes,” or, to

THE FORMATION OF DEW. use his own language, “promoting the welfare of the manu- DURING summer, when the weather is sultry, and the sky asfacturing population, and raising them to that degree of in- sumes that beautiful blue tinge so entirely its own, dew is tellectual and social advancement of which I believe them ca- formed in the greatest abundance, owing to the phenomena pable." And amongst the matters which he considers necessary which are requisite for its deposition being then most favourto the attainment of the object in view, he enumerates fair ably combined. It was long supposed by naturalists that this wages, comfortable houses, gardens for their vegetables and precipitation depended on the cooling of the atmosphere toflowers, schools and other means of improvement for their wards evening, when the solar rays began to decline ; but it children, sundry little accommodations and conveniencies in was not properly understood until M. Prevost published bis the mill, attention to them when sick or in distress, and inte. theory of the radiation of caloric (which has since been generest taken in their general comfort and welfare." He says rally adopted), which was as follows :-" That all bodies rathat attention to these things, and gently preventing rather diate caloric constantly, whether the objects that surround than chiding rudeness, ignorance, or immorality-treating them be of the same temperature of themselves, or not." Acpeople as though they were possessed of the virtues and man- cording to this view, the temperature of a body falls whenever ners which you wish them to acquire—is the best means of it radiates more caloric than it absorbs, and rises whenever attaining the wished-for end; and that he has little faith in the it receives more than it radiates ; which law serves to produce efficacy of mere moral lectures. He established the order of an equality of temperature. Such is exactly the case as rethe silver cross amongst the girls above the age of 17. It im- gards the earth : during the day it receives a supply of heat mediately became an object of great ambition, and a power- from the sun's rays, and as it is an excellent radiator of caful means of forwarding the great object of refining the minds, loric, as soon as the shades of evening begin to fall, the earth tastes, and manners of the maidens, and through their influ- | imparts a portion of its caloric to the air, and the atmosphere ence, of softening and humanising the sterner part of the po- having no means of imparting its caloric in turn, except by pulation. He says that he does not want to establish amongst contact with the earth's surface, the stratum nearest the earth the humbler classes the mere conventional forms of politeness becomes cooled, and consequently loses the property of holdas practised in the upper, but he would refine them consi- ing so much moisture in the state of vapour, which becomes derably. He would have the most beautiful and tender forms deposited in small globular drops. The stratum of air in imof Christian charity exhibited in all their actions and habits, mediate contact with the earth having thus precipitated its and mere preaching, rules, sermons, lectures, or legislation, moisture, becomes specifically lighter than that immediately can never change poor human nature if the people are not per above it, which consequently rushes down and supplies its mitted to see what they are taught they should practise, and place; and in this manner the process is carried on until some to hold intercourse with those whose manners are superior to physical cause puts a stop to it either partly or wholly. It is their own. He points out the necessity of supplying innocent, well known that dew is deposited sparingly, or not at all, in pleasing, and profitable modes of filling up the leisure hours cloudy weather, the clouds preventing free radiation, which of the working-classes as the best mode of weaning them from is so essential for its formation; that good radiators, as grass, drinking, and the vulgar amusements alone within their reach. leaves of plants, and filamentous substances in general, reduce He also points out that merely intellectual pursuits are not their temperature in favourable states of the weather to an suited to uncultivated minds, and that resources should be l extent of ten or fifteen degrees below the circumambient air ;

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and whilst these substances are completely drenched with dew, ginner, but it would not do—he wanted fat. No man much others that are bad radiators, such as rocks, polished metal, under the episcopal standard of girth should think of blowing: sand, &c., are scarcely moistened. From the above remarks of this I feel a perfect conviction. it will appear evident that dew is formed most abundantly in As for my solitary second-class man, the unique character hot climates, and during summer in our own, which tends to of his blowing, or breathing, may have been but an emanation renovate the vegetable kingdom by producing all the salubri- of his unique mind. He was, as the song says, “werry peous effects of rain without any of its injurious consequences, cooliar”-an extensive medical practitioner among the poor, when all nature seems to languish under the scorching influ- though not a medical man—the editor of an agricultural jourence of a meridian sun.

nal, though unacquainted with farming-a moral man, yet the Hoarfrost is formed when the temperature becomes so low avowed admirer of the lady of an invalid whose expected as 32 degrees Fahrenheit; the dew being then frozen on falling, death was to be the signal for their union : the death came,

; sometimes assuming very fantastic forms on the boughs and but the union was never effected. leaves of trees, &c., which sparkle in the sunshine like so many Groping then, as I do, in the dark, I would with great diffi. gems of purest ray.

M. dence submit, that certain individuals, being encumbered with

PRIDE, WEALTH, and Fat, are hence, somehow, under both a

mental and physical necessity of blowing: why all individuals RANDOM SKETCHES.

thus encumbered do not adopt the practice, is matter for consideration. As a further clue to investigation I may add, that

although the union of the above three qualifications in one inWhat makes men blow? “I'll be blowed if I know.” Such dividual is by no means peculiar to Dublin, yet in Dublin might be the answer in nine hundred and ninety-nine cases alone have I ever seen men blow, and that none of my quaout of a thousand; and the object of this paper is to invite ternion of blowing men was of Milesian descent: one was of that thousandth individual who is versed in the philosophy of Saxon, another of Scottish race, and the remaining two were blowing to come forth and settle the question.

sprung from Huguenots. Every body knows why butchers blow, and flute-players, I now conclude, submissively craving "a word and a blow" and glass-blowers, &c, and why some men puff at auctions; from any of the readers or writers of the Irish Penny Journal but the question is, why, without any conceivable motive either who may be able to give them to me in the shape of facts or of business or pleasure, certain men, while circulating through fancies likely to lead to the full solution of a question which the streets of Dublin perhaps on a breezeless day, have been has been for years my torment, namely—“What makes men seen to distend their cheeks, and discharge a great volume of blow?"

G. D. breath into the face of the serene and unoffending atmosphere.

One of the introductory chapters in Tom Jones is devoted to proving that authors always write the better for being ac

HEAPING UP WEALTH. It is often ludicrous as well as quainted with the subjects on which they write. If this posi- pitiable to witness the miserable ends in which the heaping up tion be true (as I believe it is), I may seem deserving of a of wealth not unusually terminates. · A life spent in the blowing up for venturing on my present theme. However, my drudgery of the counting-house, warehouse, or factory, is exobject (as I have already hinted) in this, as in my first sketch, changed for the dignified ease of a suburban villa ; but what is rather to court than to convey information. If my brief a joyless seclusion it mostly proves ! Retirement has been notices of Fox and Smut contained in said sketch could at all postponed until all the faculties of enjoyment have become serve to promote the study of catoptrics, I would not consider effete or paralysed. Sans eyes, sans teeth, sans taste, sans the time it cost me misspent. (And, by the bye, Mr Editor, everything,” scarcely any inlet or pulsation remains for old, I know somebody who, if he chose, could inform your readers much less new pleasures and associations. Nature is not to how he once saw one of his own cats actually assisting at a be won by such superannuated suitors. She is not intelligisurgical operation !) In like manner, if the following meagre ble to them ; and the language of fields and woods, of murresult of my attempt towards developing the philosophy of muring brooks, mountain tops, and tumbling torrents, cannot blowing should excite inquiry on a subject never, I believe, be understood by men familiar only with the noise of crowded broached before, I would feel very thankful for any informa- streets, loaded vans, bustling taverns, and postmen's knocks. tion anent it that might reach me through the medium of the The chief provincial towns are environed with luckless pyrites Irish Penny Journal.

of this description, who, dropped from their accustomed sphere, Blowing men form a small, a very small, part of the com- become lumps and dross in a new element. Happily their race munity. During some forty years experience of the Dublin is mostly short; death kindly comes to terminate their weaflags, I have met with only four specimens of this genus. Yet riness, and, like plants too late transplanted, they perish from limited as is the number of my specimens, I am constrained to the sudden change in long-established habits, air, and diet. distribute them into two classes-one consisting of three indi

AN OLD NEWSPAPER.–There is nothing more beneficial viduals, the other, of the remaining one. My first-class men to the reflecting mind than the perusal of an old newspaper, blew all alike_right ahead,” as the Americans say; my Though a silent preacher, it is one which conveys a moral fourth man protruded his chin, and breathed rather than blew

more palpable and forcible than the most elaborate discourse. somewhat upwards, as if he wanted to treat the tip of his As the eye runs down its diminutive and old-fashioned conose to a vapour-bath.

lumns, and peruses its quaint advertisements and bygone paWhat characteristics, then, did my triad of blowers possess ragraphs, the question forces itself on the mind—where are in common, and from what community of idiosyncrasy did they now the busy multitudes whose names appear on these pages ? agree in a practice unknown to the generality of mankind? —where is the puffing auctioneer, the pushing tradesman, The latter question I avow my inability to answer: on the the bustling merchant, the calculating lawyer, who each ocformer I can perhaps throw a little twilight. The principal cupies a space in this chronicle of departed time? Alas ! their man among them in point of rank-a late noble and facetious

names are now only to be read on the sculptured marble which judge-was by far the most inveterate blower in the class :

covers their ashes! They have passed away like their forehis puff was perpetual, like the mahogany dye of his boot-tops. fathers, and are no more seen! From these considerations the One point of resemblance I have traced between the peer and mind naturally turns to the period when we, who now enjoy his two compeers : he was a proud man. In proof of this alle

our little span of existence in this chequered scene, shall have gation I have the evidence of his own avowal :-“ I'm the first gone down into the dust, and shall furnish the same moral to peer of my family, but I'm as proud as the old nobility of Eng- our children that our fathers do to us! The sun will then land.” Of the other pair, one I know to be proud, the other shine as bright, the flowers will bloom as fair, the face of naI believe to be so. Here then is one element--PRIDE : an

ture will be as pleasing as ever, while we are reposing in our other I conceive to be WEALTH. My first-class blowers were

narrow cell, heedless of every thing that once charmed and deall rich men: nay, the youngest among them never ven- lighted us ! tured on blowing, to the best of my belief, till he had gotten a good slice of a quarter of a million whereof his uncle died

Printed and published every Saturday by GUNN and CAMERON, at the Office possessed. I was standing one day at the door of a booksel

of the General Advertiser, No. 6, Church Lane, College Green, Dublin.ler's shop in Suffolk Street, deeply intent upon nothing, when Agents :-R. GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley, Paternoster Row, London; my gentleman passed by on the opposite side. My eyes, ready Simms and DiNham, Exchange Street, Manchester ; C. Davies, North for any new object, idly followed him, and as he crossed to

John Street, Liverpool ; J. DRAKE, Birmingham; SuoCOMBE & Simus, Nassau Street he blew. The offer was fair enough for a be

Leeds; FRAZER and CRAWFORD, George Street, Edinburgh ; and
DAVID ROBERTSON, Trongate, Glasgow.


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THE CASTLE OF DONEGAL. The ruins of the old castellated Mansion of Donegal are not, is derived. In this poem, which was composed at the comonly interesting as affording, to use the words of Sir R. Colt mencement of the tenth century, the poet relates that Eg. Hoare, “a good subject for the pencil,” but still more as a neachan, the father of Donnell, gave his three beautiful daughtouching memorial of the fallen fortunes of a long-time pow- ters, Duibhlin, Bebua, and Bebinn, in marriage to three Danish erful and illustrious family, the ancient lords of Tirconnell. princes, Caithis, Torges, and Tor, for the purpose of obtainThese ruins are situated on the north bank of the little ing their friendship, and to secure his territory from their deriver Easky, or the fishy river, at the extremity of the town predations; and these marriages were solemnised at Donegal, to which, as well as to the county, it has given its name. where Egneachan then resided. This name, however, which signifies literally the Dun, or Fort But though we have therefore evidence that a fort or dun of the Foreigners, is of much higher antiquity than the castle existed here from a very remote time, it would appear cer. erected here by the O'Donnells, and was, there can be no tain, from a passage in the Annals of the Four Masters, that doubt, originally applied to a fortress, most probably of earth, a castle, properly so called, was not erected at Donegal by raised here by the Danes or Northmen anterior to the twelfth the O'Donnells till the year 1474. In this passage, which century; for it appears unquestionable that the Irish applied records the death of Hugh Roe, the son of Niall Garve the appellations Gaill exclusively to the northern rovers, ante- O'Donnell, at the year 1505, it is distinctly stated that he rior to the arrival of the English. Of the early history of was the first that erected a castle at Donegal, that it might this dun or fortress there is nothing preserved beyond the bare serve as a fortress for his descendants; and that he also erected fact recorded in the Annals of Ulster, that it was burnt by as it would appear, at the same time, a monastery for Obser. Murtogh M'Loughlin, the head of the northern Hy-Niall race, vantine Franciscans near the same place, and in which he was in the year 1159. We have, however, an evidence of the con- interred in the seventy-eighth year of his age, and fortynection of the Danes with this locality more than two centu- fourth of his reign. From this period forward the Castle of ries earlier, in a very valuable poem which we shall at no re- Donegal became the chief residence of the chiefs of Tirconmote time present to our readers, addressed by the Tircon- nell, till their final extinction in the reign of James I., and was nellian bard, Flan Mac Lonan, to Aighleann and Cathbar, the scene of many a petty domestic feud and conflict. From the brothers of Domhnall, from whom the name of O'Donnell' a notice of one of these intestine broils, as recorded in the

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