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as in the war department, 4,000,000 whose every vow would not call for its france;

navy, 1,500,000; negociations, departure ; who being able to hasten 1,000,000; justice, 300,000; finan- this departure, would consent to delay cial operations, 7,267,000 ; army of it a day, an hour, an instant. Could occupation, 4,800,000; department. there exist an individual so mad as to al expences, 2,355,000. 'l'he total believe, that the presence of foreign amount of the proposed reductions was troops could be useful to the safety of 21,612,547 francs, or 905,000l. ster- the government, to the security of the ling,

throne? How contemptible would be M. Beugnot concluded with ex- that denationalized man, the apostate pressing his sanguine hopes, that the from his country, capable of conceination would speedily be relieved of a ving an idea so odiously false ! It is large proportion of these burdens, in France alone that can afford solid consequence of the evacuation of the support to a French monarch. It is French territory by the allied troops. by uniting himself to his people, by “ The King," said he, “ has permitted existing only with his people, and for us to hope, that these burdens may en- his people, that a King

of France finds tirely cease, and that our country may safety and strength, happiness and resume that .rank among the nations, glory." In criticising the military exwhich is due to the valour of the penditure, he took occasion to deplore French, and their fortitude in adver- the loss of the old army, and drew the sity. Let us hope also, that the al- following striking picture of the state lied sovereigns, for the peace of the of France: “All the generation," said world, will listen to the wish of France, he, “which is now in the vigour of age, which bursts forth at once from the has slept under the tent; the artizan palace and the cottage, in which all in his work-shop, the merchant in his ages, all ranks, all opinions, are con- counting-house, the labourer in his cotfounded, and which proves by its en- tage, talk over their battles, and look ergetic unanimity, that if a great na-round again for the chiefs who shewed tion may be plunged into misfortune, them the path to glory. What is their it can never lose the sentiment of its surprise, when they see all military dignity, and of its strength.”

honours bestowed on men who have The debates on this subject were done nothing either for their country nearly as long as in the others, but to without their King, or for their King us not equally interesting. The op- without their country," (Murmurs.) position eagerly called for the evacua. M. Bonald, the high royalist, conceition of France by the allied troops, ved that France must bear the penal. not without dark hints, as if ministers ties of that situation from which she had were not animated with the same zeal. not been able to save herself. “ From the “Who," exclaimed M. Bignon, “could excess of the evil,” said he, "arises the ever, without the bitterest affliction, remedy: France cannot perish. If this see his natal soil trampled beneath the eldest daughter of civilization could foot of the foreigner? In seizing our be blotted from the list of nations, all places, they have not reached our souls; Europe would not fill the void left by beneath the material forms of servi. its absence ; all its states, sooner or tude, the heart of the citizen preserves later, would sink into the abyss which all its pride. He would not be a they had opened.” Frenchman, whose heart was not wrung

In the course of the discussion, M. at the sight of a foreign army lording Ganilh, in estimating the power of it in our cities, and in our villages ; France, to bear the proposed contribu

xions, conceived the produce of its agri- disputations. By some it was repreculture, almost its only source of wealth, sented as the only means of restoring at 150,000,000l. sterling. Of this he the ancient sway of religion and order, allowed 80,000,000l. for the mainte- while others considered it as undera dance of the poor and laborious class, mining the liberties of the Gallican who might amount to 24,000,000, church, and laying it again open to affording to each man, only 31. 6s. 8d. ultra-montane influence. So vehement of annual income. From the remaining were the disputations, that the session 70,000,0001. he deducted 37,500,0001. elapsed without the public discussion of taxes; and thus allowed to the having ever been opened. 5,000,000 of persons whom he sup- The last subject of importance subposed to be in easy circumstances, only mitted to the Chambers, was of a 6l. 10s. per annum. Hence, he infer- grateful nature. The Duke de Richered, that the nation was daily beco- lieu announced an approaching Con. ming poorer, and must soon be ruined, gress of Sovereigns, and the sanguine without some fresh resource. On the hopes entertained by the King, that other hand, M. Delessert observed, before next meeting the French territhat the annual expenditure occasioned tory would be evacuated by the allied by the public debt, amounted in France powers. This, however, could be exto only 5,750,000l. or about 4s. 2d. to pected only in case of the full liquidaevery individual. In England, it was tion by France of the claims existing 48,000,0001., making 21. 16s. 8d. to against her by the treaties of 1814 and each individual. The French paid in 1815. The first of these consisted of taxes lll. 5s. a-head, the British 25l. the debts contracted by the French

After long debates, and several a- government, with individuals of the mendiments of minor importance, the countries no longer forming part of budget was carried by the great ma- her territory. This claim appeared jority of 176 against 30. In the evidently just, and had been acceded Chamber of Peers it was carried by to by the French government without

hesitation ; but its amount had proved A subject of secondary importance, much greater than had been at first susbut which excited some interest, was pected; and it was only by pleading tothe concordat concluded between the talinability of payment, that the French King and the Pope, for regulating the government could get it reduced to a constitution of the Gallican church. sum which could be provided for by The appointment of archbishops and 16,000,000 francs (625,000l. sterling). bishops, throughout the whole king- Of these, three millions were due to dom, was vested in the King, subject Britain, one to Spain, and the rest to to the ordination of the Pope; and no the other European states. The other bull or brief, emanating from the court claim consisted in the balance still due of Rome, could be promulgated in the of the 700 millions of war contribukingdom without his authority. Thosetion imposed by the allied powers at which concerned the general church, their last entrance into France. To or state of France, must be verified by provide for this, it was necessary that the Chambers. Seven bishoprics were the French ministers should have creto be added to the fifty already erected; dit to the extent of an annual revenue and two of those now existing were of 24 millions of francs, or one million to be erected into archbishoprics. sterling. The whole sum, thus neces

This measure, on being submitted sary, amounted to 40,000,000 francs to the Chambers, gave rise to warm (1,625,0001. sterling). Notwithstand

108 to 2.

ing the considerable amount of this sum, tirely omitted; and that the sovereigns its object was so dear to the French and ministers should meet and confer people, that not a single orator spoke in the same manner as any private peragainst it ; and the proposal was car- sons doing business together. ried by 162 votes, out of 179 that The grand question, which related were present.

to the evacuation of France, was very By the Convention of 20th Novem- quickly decided. There is little doubt, ber 1815, the military occupation of indeed, that it had been already priFrance by the Allied Sovereigns might vately agreed upon between the courts, extend to five years ; but if they should and only waited a final ratification. judge it expedient, it might terminate Serious remonstrances are indeed said at the end of three. On the same day, a to have been made from some quarters, private agreement was entered into by as to the dangers which such a step the Sovereigns themselves, according might involve ; but the decided opito which, this measure was only to be nion of the Emperor of Russia, who decided at a general Congress of them- held so prominent a place in the conselves or their ministers. The with. federacy, over-ruled every objection. drawing of a fifth of the army of oc. A partial evacuation, proposed by cupation, had already announced the some, was justly rejected, as keeping feeling of security which was beginning alive all the irritation, while it lessened to arise in the Allied Sovereigns; and the security; not even a fortress was when a general congress at Aix-la. to be retained. The decision was fi. Chapelle was announced for the close nally formed on the 21 October,-anof the present year, little doubt was nounced at Paris on the 5th,- and the entertained in Europe of this subject Convention for the evacuation of France being at least to be brought under signed at Paris on the 9th. By this consideration. Had there been any, act, the arrears of the war contribuit must have been removed by the last tion were fixed at 265 millions of francs proceedings of the Chamber of Depu. (11,040,0001. sterling), of which 100 ties, which clearly indicated the expec- millions were to be discharged by antations held out on this subject to the nuities, payable out of the French French monarch. .

funds, and the remainder by monthly On the 25th September, the mini- instalments, to be paid through the sters of the different powers were al. houses of Hope and Baring. The ready assembled at Aix-la-Chapelle. next object of consideration was upThe King of Prussia arrived on the derstood to be, to provide some secu26th, the Emperors of Russia and rity against France disappointing the Austria on the 28th. The Sovereigns expectations formed of it, and resuof France and England appeared only ming a warlike and revolutionary attiby their ministers, the former by the tude. This fear appeared somewhat Duke de Richelieu, the latter by Lord more urgent than before, in conseCastlereagh and the Duke of Welling: quence of the agitation which had maton, whose personal fame gave him nifested itself on occasion of the new a consideration equal to that of the elections. The formal renewal of the sovereigns. It had been previously quadruple alliance, of 20th November arranged, that all the formalities by 1815, was mentioned; but this meawhich diplomatic intercourse on such sure, besides being in a great degree occasions could be obstructed, and nugatory, was objected to as hostile which consumed more time than the and offensive to France, particularly to most serious discussions, should be en- the King, who was bimself considered;

by the potentates concerned, as one of which were maneuvred by the Duke their allies. At length, it was deter- of Wellington. They then, in commined to emit a declaration, signed by pliment to the King of France, paid the ministers of all the powers ; and a hasty visit to Paris. Although the which, with the other documents, will Emperor of Russia attempted to travel

found in the Appendix. It pro- incognito, he was soon recognized, and claims the principles upon which the received every where with the loudest allied powers are determined to act, acclamations. After an afternoon's the intimate union which subsists be- stay in Paris, and an interview of one tween them, their determination to ad- hour with the King, he returned to here to the principles of justice and Aix-la-Chapelle. the law of nations; and to maintain, The new elections, and the opening by every possible means, the tranquil- of the Chambers, took place as usual, lity of Europe.

at the close of the year; but in order The sovereigns of Russia and Prus- to exhibit a connected view of the ses sia, after having dispatched the main sion, we shall, as before, delay enterbusiness of the Congress, employed ing upon its proceedings till the next the days from the 20th to the 24th volume. October in reviews of their troops,



SpainRegulations concerning Exiles.-Finances.-Russian Fleet-Army.

GermanyProceedings of the Diet.New Constitution of Bavariaof Baden.— Differences between the two States.-Wirtemberg:-Prussia.Austria.- Sarony and Hesse.-The Netherlands - Meeting of the States.Poland-New Constilution and Assembly of the Diet.-Russian Finances.Sweden.- Death of the King.Norway.-Turkey.-Defeat of the Wahabis.-Disturbances at Constantinople.

SPAIN presented, during the present tion of the old, should have served the year, an aspect of outward tranquillity. French government in any of the The enemies of the existing order, dis- higher civil departments, and in the couraged by the abortive result of all army down to the rank of captain ; attempts to subvert it, appeared to also against those, who should in any have desisted from all further enter- shape have aided it by writing. It is prizes. The elements of the coming stated, that the goods of those offendtempest fomented in gloomy silence ; ers might justly be forfeited, yet the but to a superficial observer, Spain clemency of the sovereign orders them seemed quietly submitting to the yoke to be given to the nearest relations, on of Ferdinand. The dark and bigotted condition of their paying half of the system adopted by this infatuated income into the public treasury, and prince, was carried every day to a alimenting the emigrant proprietor. greater height. The Inquisition was All other exiles were allowed to return, restored to all its plenitude of power; within the period of six months, and to every thing connected with education be reinstated in their property, though and with public instruction, was placed not in their offices or decorations. under its sole superintendeuce; all its The circumstance, which pressed old privileges and jurisdiction, inclu- most immediately on the Spanish goding even the right of asylum, were vernment, was the embarrassed state restored to the church. In the course of its finances. The largest incum. of the year, however, some small mi- brance consisted of what was called tigation took place in the severity of the Royal Vales, a floating debt, of the laws against exiled Spaniards. By nearly fifteen millions sterling, which, an amnesty, published on the 15th Fe- as it bore no interest, and as there was bruary, the sentence of banishment was little prospect of its liquidation, had continued only against those, who, been grievously depreciated. A deunder new commissions, or a continua cree, published 3d Ápril, admitted the

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