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nature, to be without which denotes in man the lack, in an important sense, of the true moral image of God, who is at once thought, love and wisdom.

Man, then, being a person, is a moral being with a knowledge of good and evil, and he is this even when he cannot be said to be good morally. Personality is fundamentally the intellectual image of God in man, in and through which alone, by the grace of God, he can attain to moral excellence, or, in other words, can realize in himself a true knowledge of the wisdom and love of God, and so, in the highest moral sense, be made a partaker of the divine nature.' Only a person can love wisdom, and so only a person can be a philosopher.

Love is not mere feeling and affection-for the animal possesses the instinctive impulses of feeling and affection—but its being, its life, its soul is thought. Thought also is the life and soul of wisdom, as it is the life and soul of personality and of the universe. Love, wisdom and truth are elements in true knowledge ; but in knowledge there is an important distinction between a knowledge of moral good, and a knowledge of moral evil. Will as will, as freewill, is thinking will, and as such can will either good or evil. The animal, because it is not a rational being, cannot will either good or evil.

There is also the distinction between a knowledge of facts and a knowledge of the relations of ideas -which is the essence of facts. The animal knows only sense facts, but cannot know their rational necessary nature. Only a being whose thought is infinite and absolute can be a moral being and can know the truth in its universal and fundamental nature. A knowledge of mere fiction may be very extensive, but it is not a knowledge of the Truth, and therefore not philosophy. Philosophy, then, properly understood in relation to man, is not merely earnest human search for the knowledge of the Truth, but is possession of the Truth itself. In the history of human inquiry after truth there have been many false theories advocated, and thus theory as theory has come to be very disparagingly spoken of, as if a true theory were impossible. We cannot but take for granted that the existence of truth is a fact; that there is a true theory of truth, and further, that this theory may be known with absolute certainty by man. If truth, then, exists and can be an object of human knowledge, it must of necessity take a theoretical form which must also be logical, for the science of Logic is fundamental in all true science.

Philosophy, to be worthy of the name, must be capable of being reduced to a logical system, otherwise our knowledge will be a mere aggregate of odds and ends, connected only in a rhapsodical manner. True philosophy is not only systematic knowledge, but it is essentially logical throughout its entire range, for the illogical is necessarily the untrue. Sound philosophy, then, may be named logical philosophy. According to Dr. Stirling : 'It is to thinking or thought that philosophy as a whole is due.' By his brilliant and elaborate exposition of the Science of Logic, he has revealed in the fullest sense the sure path by which a knowledge of the real and true may be obtained. He says : name for Philosophy in this case would be Logic.'

Logic in an important sense is the science of thought, because thought is the middle term ' that contains in a rational unity All that is. Further, logic is the science of reason, because reason is the essential element of thought. Again, logic is the science of truth, for truth is the essential


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element in both reason and thought. In a higher sense and including these three definitions, logic is the science of the Ego and the Begriff (Notion), for, as Dr. Stirling says : ‘Hegel's Begriff is conditioned, so to speak, by the personality of the Ego.' This logic, however, must not be mistaken for formal logic, or the logic of the understanding : it is the Logic of Reason-Concrete Logic; the unity of form and matter. If the science of Logic is the science of the Ego, the science of the Ego must be the science of God, for God to be God must be perfect thought and perfect reason. Indeed, as Dr. Stirling says: * The all of things would simply be reduced to Logic. Nay, Logic would supplant and replace Theology itself. The chaos of this universe, in fact, that stands before ordinary intelligence, would shapingly collapse into the law and order and unity of a single life--a life which we should understand-a life in which each of us should participate—modally.'

And why should not Logic constitute the principle of the whole ?—what God has created must be an emanation of His own thought, of His own nature; and do we not know that man, so far as he is a Spirit, is created in the likeness of God ?—why, . . . then, should not Logic, which is the crystal of man's thought, be the crystal also of God's thought, and the crystal as well of God's universe ?'

Logic, then, being the science of truth, reason, and thought, is also essentially speculative philosophy. The term speculative' properly means to see, that is, to see the whole as whole—not merely in fragments, for the whole is seen in the part. It is reason-vision, and therefore exactly the opposite of mere guessing, conjecture, or hypothesis. It has no place for mere opinion any more than has mathematics. Speculative philosophy, then, is the


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absolute unity and process of intuition, and reason in true reflection. (Speculative philosophy belongs more especially to the exposition of the Ego, and is treated more exhaustively elsewhere.)

The Bible teaches the knowledge of God both as a possibility and a necessity in the attainment of human welfare, and certainly God can only be known in and through thought, which to be true must be logical. Paul teaches : 'that which may be known of God is manifest in them’(men), ‘for God hath shown it to them,' and 'the invisible things of God are clearly seen' (in reason-vision) 'in the things that are made,' .for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the depths of the Godhead. The Spirit is thought, reason, which alone constitutes the substantial nature of man.

Man's thought, man's reason, only needs to be purified or cleansed from all erroneous and impure thoughts, and then he will see God, for the pure in heart shall see God.' Rightly understood, logic is the true purifier, for God reasons with man in order to make him whiter than snow.'

• With the pure, God shows Himself pure.

It has been said that states are not ruled by logic : no, but they ought to be. Until this is the case we will continue to move on false lines in seeking a true knowledge of pure Reason, of the nature of pure thought, of the essential nature of God and man, and of the essential nature of the universe. Apart from a close study and an acquired knowledge of Logic, science, in its subordinate sense, can never have a solid and substantial basis, but will be based chiefly on shifting hypotheses.

It is not difficult to see that the chief aim in Dr. Stirling's writings is the vindication of the truth of the Christian religion. He says:

* Kant and Hegel are the very reverse of the so-called “ German Party”


with which in England they are very generally confounded. It is the express mission of Kant, in effect, to replace the negative of that party by an affirmative; or Kant and Hegel—all but wholly both, and one of them quite wholly directly-have no object but to restore Faith—Faith in God-Faith in the immortality of the soul and the freedom of the will Faith in Christianity as the revealed religion and that, too, in perfect harmony with the right of private judgment, and the rights, or lights, or mights, of Intelligence in general.' Again : Christi

* anity is the revelation. It revealed to a world that sat amid its own ruins, with its garments rent, and its head in ashes, the religion of Vision, of Love, of sweet Submission. The Hegelian system supports and gives effect to every claim of this religion. And this, too, without any necessity to put out the eyes of the mind and abdicate reason.' • The philosophies of Kant and Hegel only give definiteness and distinction to the religion of Christ. In Christ the Vision was so utter into the glory and the beauty of all, that it passed into love; which, in its turn, was so rich and utter that it passed into submission, also itself the richest and sweetest; and thus Perception, Emotion, Will, coalesced and were the same, and the triple thread of man had satisfaction in every term. Now to all this Vision, and Love, and Submission, Kant and Hegel give only the definiteness of the intellect; that is, they assist at the great espousals of Reason and Faith.'

With regard to this principle Hegel says : ‘In the Christian Religion, however, this is peculiar—this person of Christ, his Character to be the Son of God, does itself belong to the very nature of God. Were Christ for Christians only a teacher like Pythagoras, Socrates, or Columbus, then there were no universal

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