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by a bishop called Adelm. Bede, “ the venerable,” who flourished in the beginning of the eighth century, made a Saxon version of the whole Bible. One of the earliest efforts at an English translation was commenced in the latter part of the ninth century, by King Alfred the Great, the patron of learning and religion among his rude people, but he died in the midst of the work. Others entered the same field ; but the most successful step was taken by Wickliffe, who rendered the whole Bible into English, about 1380.* He was called, on account of his commanding influence at that benighted period, the Apostle of England, and the Morning Star of the Reformation. The opposition against him rose, however, to such a pitch, because he labored to enlighten the great mass of the people, that he was obliged to flee into foreign parts. But he finally returned and died in peace. Forty years after, the old papal hatred broke out afresh; his bones were dug up and burnt, and the ashes thrown into the nearest river. The people were forbidden to read the Bible in English, and many were persecuted, and some were put to death, because they were guilty of doing it.
The translation of William Tyndale, the first New Testament in English ever printed, came out in 1525. This possesses great merits. The author was martyred by the Romish power, near Brussels, in September, 1536. A fine, accurate edition of this work, enriched with “the essential variations of Coverdale's, Thomas Matthews' (supposed to be a fictitious name for John Rogers, the Smithfield Martyr), Cranmer's, the Genevan, and the Bishops' Bibles, as marginal readings,” has been issued in this country, by Mr. Dabney. In general, the versions just mentionell, which came out after Tyndale’s, were of a high order, and contained some of the fruits of the best learning of their day.
In the commencement of the seventeenth century, James the First, king of England, committed the work of a new translation to fifty-four learned men of his kingdom, seven of whom died, or declined the labor. The result of their studies was published in London, in 1611, and consti
* A specimen of Wickliffe's Version. Matt. v. 1-5. " And Jhesus seynge the people, went up into an hil; and whanne he was sett, his disciplis camen to him. And he openyde his mouthe, and taughte hem; and seide, Blessid be pore men in spirit; for the kyngdom of hevenes is hereun. Blessid ben mylde men for thei schulen weelde the eithe. Blessid ben thei ihat roournen ; for thei schal be comfortid."
† A specimen of Tyndale's Version. Matt. v. 14-5. " When he sawe the people, he went vp into a mountayne, and when he was set, his disciples cam vnto hym, and he openned his mought, and taught them saynge : Blessed are the povre in sprete: for theirs is the kyngdlome off heven. Blessed are they that morne: for they shalbo comforted. Blessed are the meke : for tbey shall inheret the erth.”
tutes our present received version of the Holy Scriptures. They followed, in many cases, their predecessors, above mentioned, and where they varied from them, they did not always vary for the better: Criticisms upon, and amendinents of, their renderings have been made not unfrequently in the subsequent Notes. For, since it was executed, the English tongue has undergone some changes, and words then current are now obsolete. The ancient languages and sacred antiquities have been more profoundly investigated, and the light of new researches and discoveries has since their day been shed upon the pages of inspiration. Strongly bound as they were to a peculiar, and, as is believed, now waning system of theology, they occasionally let their doctrinal biases appear in the work. There is also a want of uniformity in the phraseology of different portions, attributable to the employment of many translators. But, consecrated as this version has been by the antiquity of its use, its acknowledged excellence on the whole, and the unanimity of its adoption by all sects of Christians, it has commanded a respect but little short of that paid to infallibility and inspiration. Its rhetorical merits are undoubtedly great, and no book has been a richer or purer repository of the sound old Saxon virtues of our tongue. But the imperfect Greek text on which it was grounded, together with the reasons above stated, obviously suggests the need of its revision, or of a totally new translation in its stead, if we would possess the Word of God in its greatest uncorruptness and simplicity.
For, since King James' day, besides the invaluable results of philology, sacred antiquities, and history, as explanatory of the Scriptures, the most fruitful and important critical researches have been carried on by Mill, Bengel, Wetstein, Matthäi, Alter, Birch, and especially by the celebrated Griesbach. But while their patient collation of manuscripts, versions, and fathers, has yielded many thousands of various readings of the Greek original, yet, as almost all of them are of minor consequence, they have materially strengthened the pillars of our faith in the Christian Scriptures. They have demonstrated that the sacred records have been preserved with an uncommon freedom from gross corruptions, more so than the classic works of antiquity, and in a purity, indicating that the providence of God, through the instrumentality of man, has watched over their preservation under the most disastrous circumstances, and brought out of dark and distant ages this great light of truth, to shine with undimmed splendor, and to spread over all coming generations,
CALENDAR OF OUR LORD'S MINISTRY.
BY LANT CARPENTER, LL. D.
[The precise dates are of course conjectural, but the general outlines of the table are based upon historical facts. N. B. The Jewish Sabbaths are marked $.]
A. D. 29.
2. John, Andrew, and Peter follow Jesus.
drives the traders from the Temple, and converses with Nico
demus. 27. Christ exercises his ministry in the country of Judea. Apr. 22. Conference with the Samaritan woman at Sychar.
27. Jesus, while at Cana, heals the youth lying ill at Capernaum. May 8. The PENTECOST begins.
14. § The cure of the infirm man at Bethesda.
28. § Christ rejected at Nazareth. June. During these months, our Lord appears to have been occu
pied in preparatory instruction in the synagogues of Galilee ; July. occasionally employing his miraculous powers; but awaiting
the fit season, and the signal given by the imprisonment of August. John, to commence the public announcement, and the series
of wonderful works, which immediately afterwards ensued.
OUR LORD'S MINISTRY:
Sep. 13. The FEAST OF TABERNACLES begins. A little before this, prob
ably, the Baptist was imprisoned by Herod Antipas.
He then goes to
25. First PROGRESS through Galilee. Oct. 16. Our Lord delivers the Sermon on the Mount, heals the lep
17. The widow's son at Nain raised from the dead.
restored to sanity, on the eastern shore, in the district of
Gadara. 21. Cure of the paralytic at Capernaum, and call of Matthew. 23. The day of Matthew's feast. (The 22d was a Sabbath.) - 24. Christ selects the Twelve, and begins his Second PROGRESS
through Galilee. Nov. 20. Mission OF THE TWELVE into Galilee. 21. The disciples of John come to Jesus. The visit to Simon the
Pharisee. 22. Mission OF THE SEVENTY into the Peræa. 25. The visit to Martha and Mary at Bethany. - 26. § Conference with the Jews near the close of the FEAST OF
DEDICATION. 27. Jesus withdraws to Bethabara, east of the Jordan. Dec.
Jesus exercises his ministry in the Peræa ; and there proba
bly many of the Seventy rejoin him, as also some of the Jan. Twelve. A. D. 30. Jan. 20. The RESURRECTION OF LAZARUS, at Bethany. 22. The Sanhedrim resolve to kill Jesus, and he withdraws to
Ephraim, in Samaria, till the death of the Baptist.
18. § Cure of the man with the withered hand,
Feb. 25. § Last visit at Nazareth, after which our Lord teaches in the
neighboring villages, and the rest of the apostles collect to
gether to him. Mar. 4. § The infirm woman healed in the synagogue, on the Sab
bath. 5. MIRACLE OF THE Five THOUSAND, near Bethsaida Philippi. 6. Discourse, the day following, in the synagogue at Capernaum. 7. Departure for the region of Tyre and Sidon. 9. Cure of the Syrophænician woman's daughter. 11. Our Lord again near Bethsaida in Philip's dominions. 14. Miracle of the Four Thousand. 15. Cure of the blind man at Bethsaida of Galilee. 17. Ayowal of Peter near Cæsarea Philippi. 25. § T'he TRANSFIGURATION, in the northern part of Galilee. 27. The Temple tribute paid at Capernaum. 29. Having been refused reception by the Samaritans, Christ enters
2. Sunday. Our Lord arrives at Bethany: the supper at the house
of Simon. 3. Monday Public entry into Jerusalem: Voice in the Temple. 4. Tuesday. Miracle on the barren fig-tree: the Temple cleared. 5. Wednesday. The last day in the Temple: prophecy on the
Mount of Olives. 6. Thursday. Christ at Bethany: in the evening he goes to Jeru
salem. (The Paschal Supper.) 7. Friday. The CRUCIFIXION. 8. Saturday. The (Jewish) Sabbath. The sepulchre sealed, and
a guard set. 9. Sundlay. Before sunrise our Saviour left the tomb; and not long
after, was seen by Mary Magdalene. 18. Second visit to the apostles, Thomas being present. May. - Christ appears to the apostles, and perhaps at the same time to
the Five llundred Brethren, on a mountain in Galilee. 18. The ASCENSION OF CHRIST, near Bethany. 27. The PENTECOST, The communication of the Holy Spirit to