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these so fully, so appropriately be imparted, as in and by our universities?
Besides, a university, to be what its name implies, must embrace all sciences, make provision for all inquiries, researches, speculations, that can interest the mind, that tend directly or indirectly to benefit the individual and society. How many subjects are there in morals, history, languages; how many in philosophy, science, literature, that lie out of the department of common study, which yet are matters of most curious and useful investigation, and which also are of the utmost consequence in their last results and general bearings on other subjects of immediate interest and common pursuit. Still they require, in order to be successfully studied, an apparatus of rare and costly books, a series of instructive and learned lectures, which individual means cannot furnish, and which, therefore, the university, as a promoter of learning and science, is in a measure bound to supply. It is not alone the instant and pressing demands of the times which a university should satisfy. It is not alone the popularity of different branches of learning, or of particular departments in philosophy, which should determine what professorships should be founded. It is not the number of students alone that should fix the number and courses of lectures, the kind and sum of instruction, given in our universities; but equal regard, in our opinion, ought to be paid to the difficulty, importance, and recondite nature of the subjects investigated.
We have now hinted at defects in our best universities, and from a brief statement of facts it will appear, that these are the very wants, which the highest literary institutions of Germany aim especially to supply.
The University at Berlin, to which the details here given will be confined, was founded by order of cabinet given at Königsberg in Prussia, August 16th, 1809. Of the six universities in the kingdom of Prussia this was the last, save Bonn, in its origin, and has already surpassed the others in popularity and
patronage, and in the extent of its means and advantages. It is in the centre of a royal city of more than two hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants, remarkable for their intelligence and pacific habits. The students do not occupy college buildings, but are dispersed over the whole town, living generally at the rate, including all expenses, of 300 thalers, or about 210 dollars of our money, per annum.
The palace of Prince VOL. XXI. — 3D S. VOL. UI. NO, II.
Henry, brother of Frederic the Great, is now converted into the university-hall, and is adequate to the present wants of this vast institution. Io Prussia, the government has, to a greater or less extent, taken on itself the support and care of elementary schools, seminaries, gymnasia, universities, and academies. The expenses of the elementary and district schools are borne in common by the government and by those who enjoy their privileges; but this is much less the case in regard to universities. The latter are far more dependent on the state in external and internal relations, and are endowed and mainly supported by the state. Professors and Teachers of every class are appointed by the state, and the former receive from the state their principal incomes. The University at Berlin now obtains from the public treasury 97,244 thalers, or about 68,070 Spanish dollars. Inclusive of fees, &c., her income and disbursements are set down at 99,346 thalers, or about 69,891 dollars.
Connected with this University for purposes of instruction, there were, in 1834, 149 teachers in all departments. In the Theological Faculty, 5 ordinary professors, 2 extraordinary professors, 8 private teachers. In the Law Faculty, 8 ordinary professors, 1 extraordinary professor, 3 private teachers. In the Medical Faculty, 16 ordinary professors, 10 extraordinary professors, 14 private teachers. Philosophical Faculty, 22 ordinary professors, 30 extraordinary professors, 23 private teachers. The philosophical department embraces all those studies proper to a university, which do not fall within the peculiar province of the other three. Philology, practical and speculative philosophy, civil and political history, geography, æsthetics, natural bistory, mythology, chemistry, astronomy, economy, mathematics, and many other subjects belong to this Faculty.
The average number of students in all the departments during the six semesters, from 1832 to 1834, was 1777. of these, 1297 were natives; 480 foreigners. They were divided as follows: in Theology, 561; Law, 598; Medicine, 352; Philosophy, 275. In this account all those who hear Lectures, without being matriculated as regular students of the University, are not reckoned.
From the above statement it appears there are 149 teachers to 1777 students, or 1 teacher to about 12 students.
By dividing the University disbursements, 99,846 thalers, by the number of students, 1777, we obtain 56 thalers 5 groschen, or about 31 dollars, as the expense which each student costs the University.
Among the 149 teachers, only 74 received salaries. 65,550 thalers remain, after deducting the other expenses of the University, to be apportioned among these, which gives, on an average, 585 thalers 24 groschen, or about 620 dollars, to each teacher. The largest salary of professors is 2500 thalers, or about 1750 dollars; the smallest 100 thalers, or about 70 dollars. Ordinary professors average 1203 thalers, or about 842 dollars. Extraordinary professors 368 thalers, or about 233 dollars.
To this, however, are to be added certain perquisites growing out of matriculation, promotion, and similar fees, which vary every year. The whole amount according to the latest estimate was 14,401 thalers; of which 5,815 were divided among 15 professors, 5,727 were given to the University Rector and the deans of the several Faculties, 1080 went into the treasury, and the rest was paid to servitors. Three professors enjoy, moreover, other emoluments in their capacity of directors of particular University Institutes, which are estimated for each at 300 thalers.
The Honorare, or private lecture fees, paid by students, amounted, on an average during six semesters, to 45,450 thalers 10 groschen, yearly, to be divided, on an average, among 82 teachers. Accordingly, on an average, each would obtain 554 thalers 8 groschen. The bighest Honorar in one semester, that is, the largest sum paid for the lectures of one man, was 1840 thalers, the lowest 5 thalers. On an average, in each semester, 3 teachers obtained from this source over 1200 ihalers ; 1 teacher, between 1000 and 1200; 3 teachers, between 800 and 1000; 5, between 600 and 800 ; 5, between 400 and 600; 13, between 200 and 400; 14, between 100 and 200; 41, between 50 and 100; and 24, under 50.
Instruction is given in the Prussian universities by lectures. Recitations are not practised. The Professor is the proper student. He comes before his audience with the fruits of long, patient, arduous research ; and the words which he utters, in slow, distinct delivery, are caught up, and written out in full, by constant and devoted listeners.
Lectures are public and private. Public lectures are required only of Professors; and are understood to constitute that course of instruction for which they receive their regular salaries. Other teachers deliver public courses, but from choice, and without any other compensation than the reputation which they acquire by them. For admission to a private course the usual fee is a Frederic d'or, or about 4 dollars. In general, Professors read two or three courses in a semester, and each lecture occupies three quarters of an hour. The number of hearers varies with the popularity of the lecturer, and the importance and interest of his subjects. The most popular men, such as Dr. Neander in Theology, and Von Savigny in Law, usually attract 300 hearers. Of the students it may be observed, that they are remarkably constant and punctual in their attendance, although it is almost wholly voluntary, and unusually quiet, attentive listeners. Some among them contrive to hear six or eight lectures every day. The notes which they take are copious and accurate. In some cases, the books which we get from Germany, purporting to be the lectures of eminent Professors, are abstracts taken by students in the lecture rooms; and sometimes, but not always, revised and corrected by the Professors themselves.
The public courses do not fall much short of the private in interest and importance; for by them especially reputation is won and kept. The young lecturer knows, that it is his public course which will give him a name, and crowd the hall for his private lectures; and the veteran Professor does not willingly sink in respect and esteem, when a little more care and effort might prevent it.
The Berlin University numbers illustrious names among its teachers and Professors. Fichte, Schleiermacher, De Wette, , Hegel, have laid their honors at her feet. Of these De Wette alone still survives, and toils industriously at Basle to heighten the glory that already crowns his days. The exile, though a bold innovator, is allowed on all sides to be one of the best critics and ablest writers in Germany.
His works are but little obscured by the mysticism common to his countrymen, exhibiting much of the English pith, nerve, compactness, and point. Schleiermacher breathed life into the dry bones of Orthodoxy, gave a spiritual tendency to the character of his age, unnerved the paralyzing arm of Rationalism, and put vital power and a living soul into the dead theology of his times and country. Fichte, and, more than all, Hegel, were princes of metaphysics in the North of Germany, and deserve to be
known and studied among us, if not for their own worth, at least for the power, influence, and dominion, which, though departed, they are still exercising over the character and speculations of the age.
But of living professors a word. The juridical department is graced by the names of Gans and Von Savigny. As a jurist the latter is preeminent at home and abroad; and the former is equally popular ; less learned, indeed, but more graceful, fluent, and energetic, - obnoxious to government for his political principles, but formidable enough to be feared and conciliated. In the Medical Faculty, are the names of Hufeland, Rust, Busch, and Von Graefe. In the philosophical department, are Bopp, the Sanscrit scholar; Von Raumer, the historian, the author of "England in 1835," which has been translated by Miss Austin ; Gabler, author of " Propädeutik der Philosophie," and successor of Hegel ; Bekker, editor of Greek and Latin classics ; Zumpt, the grammarian ; Ritter, the geographer; Lachmann, editor of a recension of the Greek Testament, now accounted in Germany the best ; and Boeckh, the prince of philologists, and perfect master of Greek metres. In theology, is Hengstenberg, author of “Christology of the Old Testament.” He is of the straitest sect of the self-styled Orthodox School, the editor of the Evangelische KirchenZeitung. He is a young man and diligent student, and at home has the reputation of being a well-read, yet not a sound and accurate scholar. His private lectures, are not attended by more than from 30 to 40 hearers. During the winter semester, 1835-6, he delivered a public course on our Saviour's passion, and two private courses on the exegesis of Matthew, and the interpretation of the Psalms. Marheineke is reputed the deepest thinker. He is a disciple of Hegel. All his lectures are imbued with the spirit, and obscured by the technics, of this newest philosophy. As an author, his reputation stands unrivalled in his department. His works are “ Die Grundlehren der christlichen Dogmatik als Wissenschaft," " Christliche Symbolik," and “ Reformations Geschichte." He lectured, last winter, on Dogmatics and Practical Theology. Twesten is accounted the supernaturalist representative, as De Wette is the rationalist representative, of the Schleiermacher school. His “ Vorlesungen über die Dogmatik,” is a fair exhibition of the spirit, taste, and scholarship of the man. He lectured publicly on the Hermeneutics of the New Testa