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hended the raceme, the panicle, the corymb, the umbel, the spike, READING AND ELOCUTION.–VII. the capitulum, and the cyme, all of which we shall now proceed to describe.

PUNCTUATION (continued). The raceme, from the Latin racemus, a cluster, is that kind of

XI. THE APOSTROPHE. inflorescence in which the pedicels or secondary axes are almost equal in length, and arise immediately from the primary axis or stem. of this kind of inflorescence the black, white, and 71. The Apostrophe is a mark which differs from a comma in its red currant-trees offer familiar examples (Fig. 62).

being placed above the line, and in being used for a different The panicle (from the Latin panicula, anything of a little purpo round swollen figure, the diminutive of panus, a woof about the 72. The apostrophe shows that some letter or letters are left quill in a shuttle), sometimes called a compound raceme, is a out; as, 'tis for it is, tho' for though, lov'd for loved. form of inflorescence in which the secondary axes or pedicels, 73. The apostrophe is likewise used in grammar to designate springing from the primary axis or stem, do not at onoe bear the possessive case; as, John's book. each a terminal flower, but ramify a third, and sometimes even

XII. THE QUOTATION MARK. a fourth time. Of this description is the inflorescence of the horse-chestnut (Fig. 63).

The corymb, from the Greek kopvußos (pronounced kor-um'-bos), 74. A Quotation mark consists of four commas placed above the & branch, is that kind of inflorescence in which the lower line; two at the beginning and two at the end of a word, sendence, pedicels, much longer than the upper ones, terminate, in conse

or part of a sentence. The two which are placed at the beginning quence of this difference of length, at the same level, or nearly are inverted, or turned upside down. go, as the latter. An example of this is afforded by the 75. A quotation mark shows that the word or sentence was Mahaleb cherry, of whose inflorescence a diagram is appended spoken by some one, or was taken from some other author. (Fig. 64).

The umbel, from the Latin umbella, a little shade, the dimi. nutive of umbra, a shade, is an inflorescence in which the pedicels or secondary axes, being equal in length amongst

76. A Diæresis consists of two periods placed over a vowel : themselves, spring from the same level, rise to the same

thus, ä. height, and diverge like the ribs of an umbrella or parasol.

77. The diæresis shows that the letter over which it is An umbel is simple when each pedicel terminates at once in a placed is to be pronounced separately; as, Creätor, Zoönomina flower, as, for example, in the common cherry (Fig. 65); and aërial. compound when the pedicels, instead of terminating at once each

In the following examples the student will recognise each of in its own flower, severally give off other pedicels on which the the above-mentioned marks, and read them accordingly. flowers are arranged. An example of this is seen in the common

Examples.* fennel (Fig. 66). The spike, from the Latin spica, a point, may be either simple or

The kindling fires o'er heaven so bright, look sweetly out from you compound. The compound spike is that form of inflorescence in

Banished from Rome! what's banished, but set free from daily which the pedicels are completely, or almost completely wanting, contact of the things I loathe ? " Tried and convicted traitor and the flowers accordingly are sessile, as may be seen in the Who says this ? Who'll prove it, at his peril, on my head? vervain (Fig. 70). The compound spike is that form in which “Banished p"-I thank you for 't. It breaks my chain !

I beld the secondary axes, instead of terminating in a flower, emit each some slack allegiance till this hour-but now my sword's my own. a little flower-bearing pedicel. Of this description is the inflo

Your consul's merciful. For this all thanks. He dares not touch rescence of wheat (Fig. 69).

a hair of Catiline. “ Traitor !" I go but I return. This

trial ! The capitulum, from the Latin caput, a head, is the form of

Here I devote your senate ! I've had wrongs to stir a fever in the blood of age.

This day is the birth of sorrows. inflorescence in which sessile flowers are collected upon the

The eye could at once command a long-stretching vista, seemingly thickened head, called torus, of a peduncle. This torns may be

closed and shut up at both extremities by the coalescing cliffs. fiat, as we see it the marigold and the scabious (Fig. 71), or It seemed like Laocoon struggling ineffectually in the hideous coils concave, as in the fig. It appears, then, that the capitulum is of the monster Python. that form of inflorescence to which the fig belongs.

In those mournful months, when vegetables and animals are The cyme, from the Greek kuua (pronounced ku'-ma), a wave,

alike coërced by cold, man is tributary to the howling storm and is a definite inflorescence which imitates by turns several of the the sullen sky; and is, in the pathetic phrase of Johnson, a "slave to indefinite kinds of inflorescence, from all of which it essentially gloom.” differs in the circumstance that the primary axis is itself termi

I would call upon all the true sons of humanity to cooperate with

the laws of man and the justice of Heaven in abolishing this “cursed nated by a flower which appears before the others; each of the

traffic." subsidiary axes also terminates in a flower, but the secondary

Come, faith, and people these deserts ! Come and reänimate these axes flourish before the tertiary ones, tertiary axes before regions of forgetfulness. quaternary ones, and so on in üke manner for the rest. The

I am a professed lucubrator; and who so well qualified to delineate chief varieties of the cyme are the racemous cyme, as in the the sable hours, as campanula or blue-bell; the dichotomous, or divided, cyme (Fig.

“A meagre, muse-rid mope, adjust and thin ?" 67), from the Greek 8.xa, apart, and reuvw (pronounced tem-no),

He forsook, therefore, the bustling tents of his father, the pleasant to cut; the corymbous cyme (Fig. 72); the umbellar cyme (Fig. 74); sively meditated at the eventide (see Genesis xxiv. 62).

“south country" and the "well Lahai-roi;" he went out and perthe scorpioidal, or scorpion-like, cyme, as in the myosotis or

The Grecian and Roman philosophers firmly believed that "the forget-me-not; and the contracted cyme, in which the flowers are

dend of midnight is the noon of thought.” crowded together through the extreme shortness of the axes.

Young observes, with much energy, that "an undevout astronomer The fascicule, from the Latin fasciculus, a little bundle, is an is mad. inflorescence in which the axes preserve a certain length and an Young Blount his armour did unlace, and, gazing on his ghastly irregnlar distribution, as in the sweet-william.

face, said—“By Saint George, he's gone! that spear-wound has our Mixed inflorescence is that which partakes of the characters of master sped; and see the deep cut on his head ! Good night to both definite and indefinite inflorescence. In the dead.nettlo

Marmion!"-" Unnurtured Blount! thy brawling cease ;

he the general inflorescence is indefinite, whilst the partial inflo eyes," said Eustace,

A celebrated modern writer says, " Take care of the minutes, and rescence consists of true cymes or fascicules. In the mallow there is a similar arrangement (Fig. 73). In the groundsel (Fig. 68) and the chrysanthemum the general inflorescence is a

* In this lesson, as well as in some of the preceding lessons, there definite corymb, but the partial inflorescences are capitulous.

are several sentences of poetry, which are not divided into poetica!

lines. In the family of plants called umbelliferous, and to which the division, was to prevent the student from falling into that “ sing song"

The object of printing these lines without regard to this carrot, the fennel, angelica, etc., belong, each umbel in itself is utterance, into which he is too apt to fall in reading verse. indefinite, but the aggregate of umbels is definite; frequently, remains to be observed here, that abbreviations and contractions, indeed, the axis of an umbel bears a little central umbel of such as occur in poetical sentences in this lesson and others

, which its own.

appear in the form of prose, are not allowable in prose itself.



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the hours will take care of themselves." This is an admirable It was a cave, a huge recess, that keeps till June December's snow; remark, and might be very seasonably recollected when we begin to a lofty precipice in front, a silent tarn I below. be " weary in well-doing," from the thought of having much to do.

C-e-o-u-s, I've seen the moon gild the mountain's brow; I've watched the

C-1-0-0-8, mist o'er the river stealing ; but ne'er did I feel in my breast, till now,


are pronounced like shús. so deep, 50 calm, and so holy feeling ; 'tis soft as the thrill which

T-1.0.u-s, memory throws athwart the soul in the hour of repose.

Blest be the day I 'scaped the wrangling crew from Pyrrho's maze See where the rector's ** splendid mansion stands, embossèd deep and Epicurus’ sty; and held high converse with the godlike few, who in new enclosed lands,-lands wrested from the indigent and poor, to th' enraptured heart, and ear, and eye, teach beauty, virtue, truth, because, forsooth, he holds the village cure. It and love, and melody.

When the young blood danced jocund through his veins, 'tis said But thon, who Heaven's just vengeance dar'st defy, this deed, with his sacred stole 11 received some stains. fruitless tears, shalt soon deplore.

Their wants are promised Bridewell, $$ or the stocks. O Winter! ruler of the inverted year! thy scatter'd hair with sleet. like ashes fill'd, thy breath congeal'd upon thy lips, thy cheeks fring'd with a beard made white with other snows than those of age, thy

MECHANICS.- VI. forehead wrapt in clouds, a leafless branch thy sceptre, and thy throne a aliding car, indebted to no wheels, but urg'd by storms along its

FINDING CENTRES OF GRAVITY. slipp'ry way, I love thee, all unlovely as thou seem'st, and dreaded as thou art!

In the last lesson it was shown that every mass of matter has a For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar centre of gravity, but we did not inquire how such centres are with this inscription, " TO THE UNKNOWN GOD." Whom therefore ye found in bodies of known shapes. To that part of our subject ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you.

we now proceed. XIV. THE ASTERISK, OBELISK, DOUBLE OBELISK, SECTION, its solution; but there are some cases in which the centre can be

As a general rule, the problem requires high mathematics for PARALLEL, PARAGRAPH, INDEX, CARET, BREVE, AND discovered without much difficulty. I take, first, the practical BPACE,

method by suspension, which gives it exactly whenever the body The student should take particular notice of the following is of a uniform thickness, such as a deal board, or card, or piece marks, so that he may call them by name, and discover their of paper. The two opposite faces should be equal and alike, ce in the following examples :--

the edges being either perpendicular or square to them, or

running off at the same slope. In all such cases it is evident • An Asterisk, or Star,

A Paragraph. † An Obelisk, or Dagger.

that the centre of gravity is within the substance of the board

§ A Section. A Double Obelisk.

U A Parallel.

half-way across between the faces. If, therefore, we can find

the point on either face under which it lies, by boring straight 78. The Asterisk, Obelisk, Double Obelisk, Paragraph, Section, in half-way at that point, the required centre is reached. Parallels, and sometimes figures or letters, are used to show that But how find the outside point ? Let the board be of any there is a note at the bottom of the page. When many notes occur irregular shape, as at a (Fig. 27), and bore two holes through it On a page, these marks are sometimes doubled.

perpendicularly at any two points, near its edge, o and Q. Put 79. The Paragraph was formerly used to show the beginning a straight iron rod now through o, and on the rod, by a small of a new subject in a chapter.

ring, hang a plumb-line, o A, close to the board. Put rod, line, 80. The Section is generally used to sub-divide chapters into and board now across two supports, so arranged that the rod

may be horizontal. The board having settled to rest, the centre 81. The Index or Hand de points to something which of gravity will, as I showed in last lesson, be somewhere behind requires particular attention.

the plumb-line. Chalk now, or mark with a pencil, the course, 82. The Breve is placed over a letter to show that it has 0 A, of this line on the board. Perform the same operation with & short sound; as, Hělěna.

the hole Q, pencilling, in like manner the line Q B. What now 83. The Brace ra is used to unite several lines of poetry; have we? Two lines, behind both which the centre of gravity or, in prose, to connect a number of words with one common term. lies; whence we infer that their intersection, G, is the point

84. The Caret ^ is never used in printed books; but in required. writing it shows that something has accidentally been left But the method in part applies to bodies which have not

parallel faces like boards, or are not cut perpendicularly, or at recited

the same slope across at their edges; but in such cases the George has his lesson.

sought centre is not midway across. All that is necessary is л OBS.-When several asterisks or stars are placed together,

that there should be one flat face on it, as in that represented

at b (Fig. 27). You can still determine the point q, behind they represent an ellipsis.

which the centre of gravity lies, by boring two passages at o Examples.

and e, perpendicularly to the face, into its substance, suspending Many persons pronounce the word Helēna* incorrectly. They call and marking the lines o A, Q B, as before. The centre of it Heléna; and the words acceptable, recognise, Epicuresan, and Europe'an, are sometimes incorrectly called ac'ceptable, recogʻnise, gravity will still be behind the point g; but where, or how far Epicu read, and European.

in, is another question, the answer to which depends on the The léprosy, therefore, of Naäman shall cleave unto thee. shape of the body. And he went out from his presence a leper as white as

If the board which above first occupied our attention be sup

posed to become very thin-to be cardboard, or even paper—tho The Cougart is the largest animal of the cat kind, found in North body becomes almost all surface, and the point o and the centro America ; and has occasionally received the name of the American of gravity nearly coincide. Practically, they become identical ; hou, from the similarity of its proportions and colour to those of the and the operation is sometimes spoken of as “the finding of the Son of the old world.

centre of gravity of an area or surface.” In strictness, a surface The keeper of the elephant gave him a gallon of arrack, I which rendered the animal very furious.

cannot have a centre of gravity, for (see Lesson I. on Geometry) I fell upon my knees on the bank, with my two servants, and the it has no thickness, and therefore can have no weight, no force, dragoman of the monástěry.

no centre of force. But, for all that, the inquiry is useful. The history of Joseph is exceedingly interesting and full of We may agree, for mechanical purposes, that a surface should

have such a centre; and the best course for that purpose is to

give it a thickness the smallest we can conceive, namely, that of * This with the St. before it, is the name of a small island situated

one particle or atom. Imagine, then, a triangle, or polygon, or on the west of Africa, noted for the exile of Napoleon I.

circle, one atom thick; and let us agroe that, when we find its + Pronounced Coo-gar.

The name given to this animal by the Americans generally is painter, evidently a corruption of panther.

Tarn is a small lake, high up in the mountains. 1 Arrick is a very strong spirituous liquor.

** A clergy man. Dragotan means an interpreter.

+ Cure.-The office of a clergyman. ! The whole history of Joseph will be found in the Bible ; from the I1 Stole.- A long robe worn by the clergy of England. 57th chapter to the end of the book of Genesis.

$$ Bridercell.-A house of correction,

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centre of gravity, we have the centre of gravity of an "area" the flat ends. Moreover, as all bodies so shaped may be conor “surface." Also let it be understood that the centre of sidered a collection of areas, one atom thick, piled on top of gravity of a line, straight or curved, means that point for such each other, either perpendicularly or with a slope, like cards, or a line of atoms.

a pile of sovereigns, the centre of gravity of each must lie also

on the line joining the centres of gravity of the two areas which TO FIND CENTRES OF GRAVITY BY CONSTRUCTION.

form their ends. The centre itself, therefore, is the point in This is done by the rule for finding the centre of parallel which this line pierces the middle cross section, as at c and e, forces, given in Lesson IV. (page 123). We shall commence Fig. 28, in the cylinder and cube. But this requires us to be

with the most gene- able to find the centre of gravity of such areas, of which take b

ral case, namely:- first the triangle.

1. To find the com- 3. To find the Centre of Gravity of a Triangle.—This we do by mon Centre of Gra- considering the triangle made up, as in the triangle a, in Fig. 30, vity of any number of lines an atom thick, all parallel to the side A B. The centre of Bodies, the sepa- of gravity of each line is at its middle point. If, therefore, rate Centres and I can satisfy you that the middles of all the lines are on the Weights of which are line cm, which joins the vertex c with the middle w of a B,

given.- The masses the centre for the whole triangle is somewhere on that line. C


be anyhow I have, then, to prove that placed, but the ope- cm bisects, or divides into ration is the same two equal parts, every line whether they are all parallel to A B. Suppose,

on the same plane, now, that I cut cm into Fig. 27.

as in the case of the three equal parts, cx, x y,

balls on the ground, y M, as in the triangle b, in in Fig. 27 above, or are some in that plane, some above, and Fig. 30, and draw paral. some below. Let them be four in number and on the same lels to A B at the two plane, their centres being A, B, C, D; then four parallel forces, points of section inside, the weights, act at these centres : what has to be done ? Join meeting AC and B C each first A with B, and cut the joining line at x inversely as the in two points from which weights at these points. Next connect x and c, and cut cx parallels to c m are drawn, at y inversely as the two first weights to that at c. Lastly, meeting A B in four points, y being joined to D, divide D y at z inversely, as the weights of two on each side of m. the three balls already used are to that of the fourth, D. This Now, since c m is equally last point, z, is the required common centre of gravity.

divided, and the white

Fig. 29. You observe that the joining and cutting of the lines is in no figures inside are parallelograms, it is evident that the line way influenced by, or dependent on, the bodies being on the parallel to cm marked a, b, on each side, are equal to each other, same or in different planes, or of their number. How many and to cæ, the third part of cm. Hence the three small shaded soever they be, the operation is the same. Note, also, that a triangles next to ac are equal to each other, and have equal angles. common centre of gravity can be outside the bodies of which it Their three sides parallel to A B are therefore equal, which shows is the centre.

that a mis cut by the parallels to c m into three equal parts. For 2. To find the Centre of Gravity of a Right Line.-A mechanical the same reason Bm is cut into three equal parts; and since right line being, as we have agreed, a line of atoms of equal A M is equal to BM, the six parts into which a B is divided are size and weight, the case is that which we have considered in equal to each other. You thus see that the first parallel above Lesson IV., of a number of equal parallel forces aoting at equal A B is made of parts, two on either side of cm, equal to the distances from each other, along a right line. The resultant parts below, and is therefore bisected by CM. The next above passes through the middle point of that line; hence the centre is also evidently bisected, being composed of two parts, one of gravity of a right line is its middle point.

on either side. Now, if I divide cu into five parts instead of This enables us to find the centre of gravity of a uniform rod. three, I have four other parallels also bisected by cm; if into 7 By “uniform," I mean such that the cross sections are of the or any other number, it is the same—I can fill the whole triangle

same size with parallels to A B bisected each by the line c m. The centre 17

and form of gravity of the triangle is therefore on c M.
throughout But by a similar reasoning it can be shown that this centre
its length. of gravity must be in a L (in triangle a, Fig. 30) bisecting ac,
Such a body Hence we have for rule that, in order to find the centre of
may be con. gravity of a triangle, we
sidered a col. must join any two of its
lection of vertices with the middle
equal mecha- points of the sides opposite
nical right to them, and that the in-
lines placed tersection G of the joining
side by side, lines is the required point.
their ends This centre G is distant
being made from Mone-third of cm,
flat or level. and from L one-third of A L.

As the cen- The centre of gravity of
Fig. 28.

tre of each a parallelogram can now

line is in its be shown to be the inter. middle, the centre of the whole bundle is in the cross section secting of its diagonals at the rod's middle. And observe that this holds good of A C, B D (see c, Fig. 30); B all other bodies, besides mere rods, which can be considered for, since the diagonals made up of equal parallel lines, such as of a cylinder or uni- bisect each other, the line form pillar, or of a beam of timber, a cubical block of stone; B D is the bisector of the

common side A C of both the triangles

, the centres of gravity will be in the cross sections at their ABC and AC D. The centre of each, therefore, is on that middle points. And it makes no difference whether the fat line, and therefore the common centre of both—that is, the ends of the cylinder, pillar, beam, or block are perpendicular to centre of the parallelogram. But, by the same reason, com the lines of which it is supposed to be composed, as in c and e sidering the parallelogram made of the two triangles on BD (Fig. 28), or oblique to them, as at d and f (Fig. 29); the the centre is on A c. Being thus on both diagonals, it is at centre of gravity is still in the middle cross section parallel to their intersection.






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Fig. 30.

4. To find the Centre of Gravity of a Polygon.-Lot A B C D E weight, and equally distant from a, their common centre of
Fig. 31) be the polygon, and from the angle a draw the dotted gravity is the middle of a B, that is, the point g. So, likewise,
lines a C, A D to the remote angles c and D. The polygon is going round the figure, the centre of gravity of every opposite
thus cut up into three triangles. Let G, H, and k be the centres pair of atoms is g, and therefore G is the common centre of
of gravity of these latter figures ; there are thus three bodies all, or of the circumference.
Fhose centres, G, H, and K, are known, and whose masses are the The centre of gravity of a ring is thus seen to be the centre

three areas of the three triangles. of the circle in which it is formed, for the ring may be con.
Suppose now that you had calcu- sidered a bundle of circles an atom thick, bound together, one
lated these areas, and had them above and around the other, so as to have for common centre of
written down in numbers. Then gravity the centre of
join G with h and cut g h at x the central circle.
inversely as the numbers express-

The centre of gra8

ing the areas of the triangles A BC, vity of the area of

A DC. Connect x now with K, a circle is also the
0 and cut K x at y inversely, as the centre of figure of

quadrilateral A B C D to the triangle the circle, for the
AED; the point r is the required area may be con-

centre. If the polygon had more sidered as made up
Fig. 31.

sides than are in Fig. 31, the of a number of cir.

process is the same, and must be cles of atoms, lying continued until all the triangles into which it is necessary to one inside the other, and having the same centre, G, which, by divide the polygon have been gone over.

the above, is therefore their common centre of gravity. 5. To find the Centre of Gravity of the Circumference of a The centre of gravity of a hollow sphere may, in like manner, Circle. Let the circumference be taken to be a curved line of be proved, by drawing lines through g to the atoms on its sur. atoms, as in a, in Fig. 32, to the right; and through the centre face, to be the centre of figure of the sphere; and a solid e of the circle let any line, A G B, be drawn passing through two sphere may be considered as consisting of a numbe. of these of them, one on either side. Since these two are of equal i hollow ones inside one another.


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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XIV. the line c c, at which the up-stroke forming the loop or bow of

the letter e was commenced. IN Copy-slip No. 46 (page 196), an example was given of the Copy-slips Nos. 47 and 49, comprising the words tax and Letter X. This letter is formed of the letter c twice repeated; axe, are given to show the learner how the letters x and e are the first, or the one to the left, being turned upside down, while connected with letters that precede or follow them. the second, or the one to the right, is formed in the ordinary way. In the last lesson it was said that the letters C, X, and e are The left half of the letter is commenced on the line c c with a modifications of the letter o. The learner may prove this in a hair-line which is turned at the top to the right, and brought practical manner for his own satisfaction, if he will take the downwards without being thickened by pressure on the pen. trouble to make the letter o in pencil

, on a piece of ruled paper, The hair-line is turned to the left as it approaches the line bb, and then trace the letter cor e over it in ink; or otherwise, by carried round, and terminated in a dot about midway between making the letters c and e, and then adding to them the fine

The right half is then added. It is made in hair-stroke on the right side that is required to form the comprecisely the same way as the letter C, the thick down-stroke plete oval of the letter 0. To show that x is a modification of o touching the thin down-stroke of the turned c, and forming it will be necessary to make the letter o twice over, so that the the thickened centre of the letter.

right side of the first touches the right side of the second, and In Copy-slip No. 48 the learner will find an example of the then trace the letter x over the double o thus formed ; or, as in

e, which is commenced on the central line, c c, by a hair. the case of c and e, the hair-stroke that is necessary to come stroke carried op in a slanting direction to the right. This plete the oval of o may be added on the right and left of the hair-line is then turned at the top line, a a, and carried to the letter x. In the letters C, X, and e, the bottom-turn is carried left, and the letter is finished in the same manner as the letter to the right, beyond the limit of the bottom-turn of the letter o, of the right half of the letter x; but in making the thick in order to join them the more readily to any letter that may dowo-stroke care must be taken to let it pass over the point in follow them.

the lines bb, cc.





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2. •358 X *096.

LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XIV. colonies-nay, empires-are made ; and the object of the people

in going was to establish a settlement where politics and religion, DECIMALS (continued).

which were discouraged at home, might have freedom to live, 9. Multiplication of Decimals.

and liberty to grow. An embargo was laid upon the ships, and To multiply 6:34 by 2.149.

for the time their departure was delayed. Some of the would be

634 x 2149 6:34 x 2:149 = 18 x 2048 ==

voyagers never pursued their journey; they refused to give the

100000 Now the numerator shows us that we must multiply the licence to go; they returned to their homes and their duty, and

guarantees which were required of them before they could get figures together as in whole numbers, and the denominator made themselves names in English history for ever. Among shows us that the result will have as many decimal places as there are decimal places in the multiplier and multiplicand king by refusing to pay a tax levied by the royal authority only;

them were John Hampden, who first tried conclusions with the together.

Sir Arthur Hazelrig, one of the most determined enemies the 634 x 2149 = 1362466,

kingly power ever had ; John Pym, the future leader of the and the required result must have 5 decimal places. Hence the House of Commons, and promoter of all the constitutional answer is, 13.62466.

resistance which Parliament subsequently offered to the king's Hence we see the truth of the

illegal pretensions; and last, not least, Oliver Cromwell! These Rule for the Multiplication of Decimals.

and many kindred spirits were flying from tyranny and oppresMultiply the two numbers together, as in whole numbers, and sion at home, going with their worldly wealth to follow in the cut off from the resulting product as many decimal places as the footsteps of the Pilgrim Fathers, who, a few years before, had sum of the number of decimal places in the multiplier and sailed and founded in the wild regions of the West a colony multiplicand.

where freedom was to flourish till it grew up and overshadowed Obs.-When the number of significant figures in the product the land. is not as great as the sum of the number of decimal places in Certainly fate was cruel. Had these eight ships sailed ; the multiplier and multiplicand, we must prefix ciphers.

had Cromwell, and Pym, and Hampden, and the rest, beer EXAMPLE.--Multiply .013 by .02.

suffered to depart, how might not English history have beer Multiplying as in whole numbers, we get 26 ; but since there written differently! None, of conrse, can tell whether, among are 5 decimal places in the multiplier and multiplicand together, the noble army of patriots who at that time thronged Parliawe prefix 3 ciphers to 26, and the required result is by the rule ment, there might not have been found another Hampden, *00026.

another Pym to impeach Lord Strafford, another “Cromwell, The reason of this may also be seen analytically thus : guiltless of his country's blood;" but taking the men as they *013 X 02

·00026 (Arts. 5, 6). were at the time, and considering what they afterwards becare.

it is excusable to speculate upon what different scenes would EXERCISE 32.

have presented themselves, had not the unlucky order of em. 1. Find the products of the following numbers, and point bargo been issued from the privy council. them according to rule :

But why were these men going ? England had been the 1. *96 x 5

15. 213.02 X 4.318.

home, not of themselves only, but of their forefathers for gene16. 10.2016 X 38.26.

rations. Cromwell's family counted among its recent members, 3. 1.0013 X 25.

17. 164.023 x 1.678.

as poor Charles afterwards found, and tried to use the knowledge 4. 3.6051 X 4.1.

18. 9:40061 X 15.812.

in bribing his enemy--that same Henry Cromwell who was 5. 1003 X 6.12.

19. 7.31042 X 10.021.

secretary to Cardinal Wolsey, and who, after that statesman's 6. 8.0004 X 004.

20. 401368 X 1.2904. 7. 0006 x .00012.

21. 75.35060 X 62.3906.

fall in 1530, had risen in King Henry's service, till he became 8. 3005 X 0035.

22. 31.50301 x 17.0352.

Earl of Essex, and was finally promoted to the honour of being 9. 100.0008 X 000306.

23. 0.000713 X 2.30561.

executed, by order of the master he had served too well--the 10. 25067823 X 0000001.

21. 42.10062 X 3.821013. master · whose commands," as Mr. Hallam tersely observes, 11. 394.20023 * *00000003.

25. 1.0142034 X *0620034.

were crimes.” The other emigrants were no less illustrious, 12. 256121035 X 4.300506.

26, 64.301257 X 1.000 102.

no less bound by the strongest ties to the land of their birth. 13. 44'016 X 43.

27. 810003.1709 x 112-10371.

What motive could they have for voluntarily forsaking all that 14. 35.601 X 1.032.

23. 0.83 1567834 X 00000008.

was dear to them in nationality, and turning their backs upon 2. In 1 rod there are 16.5 feet: how many feet are there in the country they loved ? Disgust at things as they were in the 413 rods ?

country, and despair of ever sceing them become better. Shortly 3. In 1 degree of the earth's circumference there are 69.05 stated, these were the causes which drove such men away. British miles : how many miles are there in 360 degrees ?

We strove for honours—'twas in vain: for freedom-'tis no more," 4. In 1 barrel there are 31.5 gallons : how many gallons in 65.25 barrels ?

they might have said with the indignant Roman citizens. 5. In 1 inch there are 2.25 nails : how many nails are there Henry the Eighth had begun that system of ruling by virtue in 60:5 inches ?

of his own strong will, which the nation afterwards, for national 6. In 1 square rod there are 30-25 square yards : how many purposes and under circumstances of national danger, allowed square yards are there in 26.05 rods ?

his daughter Elizabeth also to exercise. But even under her, 7. In 1 square rod there are 272-25 square feet: how many beneficent and nationally glorious as her reign was, the people, square feet are there in 160 rods?

by their representatives in Parliament, were perpetually striving to put a bridle on that sovereign power which the queen was 80

fond of wielding. They loved her much, but they loved their HISTORIC SKETCHES.–VII.

children more, and they would not suffer her to forge chains for

freeborn limbs, nor permit that they and theirs should breathe KING CHARLES'S VETO ON EMIGRATION.

by royal permission. When the dangers which caused the FATE was almost cruel to King Charles the First. One act of people for a while to submit themselves wholly to her, had his, or rather let us call it one act of his government, recoiled passed away, no time was lost in winning back rights and more upon his head than ever foul cannon recoiled 'apon its privileges which Elizabeth and her high-handed father had Gunner. Eight vessels were lying in the Thames in the early taken into their own hands. In the re-conquest it was inevitable part of the year 1637, bound for " the plantations” in America. that collisions should take place between the queen and the When they were about to sail, an order came from the king in Parliament, and collisions did actually take place; but owing council forbidding the masters of them to go. Obedience was to the perseverance of the House of Commons, and to the great exacted by the royal officers from the all-unwilling masters, and good sense of Elizabeth, who always knew when to loosen the the intending passengers were compelled to land again, to dis- reins which were being held too short, the result of these disembark their baggage, and to renounce the object of their putes was always favourable to right and liberty, and never cost voyage. The ships were emigrant ships, laden with colony- the queen a whít of her people's affection. But when she died, founders' stores, and intended for colonists' use; the people in 1603, and was succeeded by James of Scotland, there wero who had taken passage in them were of the stuff from which I still some ugly instruments at the disposal of the crown against


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