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my against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.
7 And it was given unto him to make war with the faints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.
8 And all that dwell upon the earth (hall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb flain from the foundation of the world.
9 If any man have an ear, let him hear.
10 He that leadeth into captivity, shall go into captivity: He that killeth with the
sword, must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.
Here the beajl is described at large, who was only mentioned before: (XI. 7.) and a beast in the prophetic stile is a tyrannical idolatrous empire. The kingdom of God and of Christ is never represented under the image of a bcajl. As Daniel (VII. 2, 3.) beheld soar great beasts, representing the four great empires, come up from a stormy sea, that is from the commotions of the world; so St- John (ver. 1.) saw this beajl in like manner rise up out of the sea. He Was said before (XI. 7.) to ascend ^ mi «,Zw<r*, out of the
abyss. abyss or bottomless pit, and it is said afterwards (XVII. 8.) that he shall ascend i)C T„? aguinns, out of the abyss or bottomless pit; and here he is said to ascend ex 7rjk 5a,\a.<r<r-K, out of the sea; so that the sea and abyss or bottomless pit are in these passages the fame. No doubt is to be made, that this beast was designed to represent the Roman empire j for thus far both ancients and moderns, papists and protestants are agreed: the only doubt and controversy is, whether it was Rome Pagan or Christian, imperial or % papal, which may perhaps be fully and clearly determined in the sequel.
St. John saw this beast rifmg out of the sea, but the Roman empire was risen and established, long before St. John's time; and therefore this must be the Roman empire, not in its then present, but in some future shape and form; and it arose in another shape and form, after it was broken to pieces by the incursions of the northern nations. The beast hath seven heads and ten horns, which are the well known marks and signals of the Roman empire, the Jeven heads alluding to the seven mountains whereon Rome v was situated, and to the seven forms of government which successively prevailed there, and the ten horns signifying the ten kingdoms into which the Roman empire
was was divided. It is remarkable, that the dragon had seven crowns upon his heads, but the beast hath upon his horns ten crowns; so that there had been in the mean while a revolution of power from the heads of the dragon to the horns of the beast, and the sovranty, which before was exercised by Rome alone, was now transferred and divided among ten kingdoms: but the Roman empire was not divided into ten kingdoms, till after it was become Christian. Altho' the heads had lost their crowns, yet they still retained the names of. blasphemy. In all its heads, in all its forms of government Rome was still guilty of idolatry and blasphemy. Imperial Rome was called, and delighted to be called, (i) the eternal city, the heavenly city, the goddess of the earth, the goddess; and had her temples and altars with incense and sacrifices
(i) Urbem æternam. Am- sacerdotibus,ædituis,ipsa©EA2 giian. Marcel 1. Lib. 14. Cap. PfiMHZ appellatione, quod 6. p. 10. Edit. Valesii. Paris plures Græcarum illarum; cjvi1681. Urbisabæternæ &c. Au- tatum nummi ostendunt, sibi lonii Epigram. 3 de Fastis. a§a- condecorandam existimarunt. vrzoKu Pi:|i*i). Athenæi Lib. 1. Quo autem referendum mihi p. 20. Edit. Casaubon. Terra- videtur illud notnen blasphemits, rum dea, gentiumque Roma, quod scptem capitibus inseripCui parest nihil,et nihil secun- turn gestasse legitur bestia in dum. Martial. Lib. 12. Epi- sacro Revelationum libro, et gram. 8. Ita Romam, orbis quod Hieronymus ac Prosper caput, tanquam cæleste aliquod ad urbis esternæ appellationem. numen, leu terrarum deam gen- retulerunt, Romæ cum alibi, tiumjue a Bilbilitano vate die- turn in nummis ejus itidem fatam, divinis honoribus, templis, miliatem. Spashemii Dissert.
Terti« offered up to her: and how papal Rome likewise hath arrogated to herself divine titles and honors, there will be a fitter occasion of showing in the following part of this description.
As Daniel's fourth beast (VII. 7.) was without a name, and devoured and brake in pieces the three former: so this- beast (ver. 2.) is also without a name, and partakes of the nature and qualities of the three former, having the body of a leopard, which was the third beast or Grecian empire, and the feet of a bear, which, was the second beast or Persian empire, and the mouth of a lion, which was the first beast or Babylonian empire: and consequently this must be the fame as Daniel's fourth beast, or the Roman empire. But still it is not the fame beast, the fame empire entirely, but with some variation j and (2)
Tertia de Præftant. & Usu culi septimimulto etiam magis. Numm. Ant. Sect. 3. p. 138, In utroque seculo faventibug Vol. 1. papis invaluere imaginum cul
tus, et sanctorum invocatio: (2) Imperium Romano-Pa- nam hie ipse Gregorias litaniii pale tune natum videtur, quum inseruit nomen beatæ virginis papam omnium ecclesiarum ca- Mariæ. En igitur blafphemias.^ puteffedixitJustihianus.V.Cdd. Seculo octavo A. D. 727. imL. 1. T. 1. A. D. 533, et 534.- perium civile Romæ, et ducaidque non verbo tantum signi- tus Romani, excommunicato ficavit fed missis ad eum epifeo- pulfoque imperatoreGræco, arpis, quasi legatis. Id Gregorius ripuit papa (teste Anastasio et I. in ffhe feculi sexti in episco- Sigonio de Regno Italiæ L. 3.) pos Hifpaniæ, Galliæ, &c satis Gregorius II. Intereanon orthosuperbe exercuit; successores fe- doxi, i. e. a papis dissentientes. the dragon gave him his power <W/*»» or his armies, and his feat Sgwov or his imperial throne, and great authority or jurisdiction over all the parts of his empire. The beajl therefore is the successor and substitute of the dragon or of the idolatrous heathen Roman empire: and what other idolatrous power hath succeeded to the heathen emperors in Rome, all the world is a judge and a witness. The dragon having failed in his purpose of restoring the old heathen idolatry, delegates his power to the beajl, and thereby introduces a new species of idolatry, nominally different, but essentially the fame, the worship of angels and saints instead of the gods and demigods of antiquity. j Another mark, whereby the beast was peculiarly distinguished, was (ver. 3.) one of his heads as it were woufided to death. It wiH appear hereafter, that this head was the sixth head, for five were fallen (XVII. 10.) before St. John's time: and the sixth head was that of the Cæsars or emperors, there having been before kings, and conluls, and dictators, and decemvirs, and military tribunes with consular authority. This sixth head was as it mere wounded to