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state of things produces much embarrassment on our part, in endeavoring to select the wheat from the chaff. Some of our trials on this subject will be mentioned in the course of this letter. But we have this encouragement, “The Lord knoweth them that are his," and will order all things in his Providence for the wisest ends. Though it becometh us to use every caution lest unworthy persons be admitted to church privileges, yet we can hardly hope to preserve the church pure from unworthy members. The church at Kailua has received twenty-three members into her communion during the last year, making ninety-seven in all that have been received. Of these two have died within the year, and four have been suspended for unchristian conduct. Of the church at Kaavaloa, three have been suspended during the year, and one previously suspended is not yet restored. The crime for which these persons have been excluded from church privileges is adultery, the sin which hangs heaviest of all others upon the people of Hawaii. Drunkenness and theft are now ... known; the sale of spirits is interdicted; murder is absolutely unknown, and has been for a long time; but the sin of uncleanmess still cleaves to them like the leprosy, i. threatens to destroy both soul and W. We have long been aware that this sin, though driven from the open light of day by the arm of the law, still lurked in secret, and that many, who professed to belong to of Christian party, were sometimes overtaken by it, and went back to their former mode of life. We have made it a prominent Part in all our instructions, public and pri*...to warn the people against the danger ‘’s falling into this sin, to expose its deform"y, and hold it up to odium. And we have made it a rule that candidates for church membership should be kept at least two *ars under our instruction, before they be omitted to the sacraments. We supposed that in so long a time of probation, they Yould afford us some test of their sincerity. out it seems that some have crept into the church by deceiving themselves and us, While in secret they have indulged in sin. Cases of this aggravated nature, however, ore rare. The greater number of those who have fillen, appear to have been merely *ertaken in the temptation, and afterwards oncealed it through fear, until it transpir"d by some circumstance or other. Most of those who now stand suspended, appear ... be thoroughly ashamed and penitent. 'e know of only one for whom we entertain no hope. The habits and mode of life among the awaiians are such, as peculiarly expose Persons to temptations. And though there * many who are improving in civilized habits, still there is so little concern or watchfulness of one over another, that per*ns are often never suspected of being de
ceivers until the evil transpires. Their herding together in the same house at night, without partitions between them, men, women and children upon the same mat; the unceremonious manner of intercourse between the sexes, without any forms of reserve or any delicacy of thou i. and conversation; the idle habits of all, especially of the women, and their fondness for visitling from home at night; and above all, the force of long established habits, which, after a season of effort at reform, return upon them with almost resistless force;—these, and their inexperience in resisting tempta|tion when it comes upon them, are some of the sources of so much irregularity among this people. It is long since we †: Set our faces against all these practices, as so many avenues to temptation. But the work is not of a day, perhaps not of a generation. Qf those under our immediate influence, the majority have built comfortable houses, and have separate bedrooms, and are disposed to conform as far as their circumstances will admit to the habits of civilized life. But this nnmber, compared with the whole community, is small. The great mass still prefer their old habits and mode of life, with all its attendant train of evils.
But we conceive the true secret of all ‘these evils lies still deeper, and cannot be effectually touched by any outward remedies which have as yet been applied. The total want of family government and discipline lies at the root of every other evil. The vagrant habits of children and members of every family, and the total disregard they show to the injunctions of their parents or others over them, is a melancholy roof of the low state of domestic discipline. | Here begin those habits of moral delinquency, which grow up and strengthen with their strength. Here then must begin the resorming influence, by introducing family government among their parents. | This is an object to which for some time o we have been turning our attention. It is to a future generation we must look for proper examples of Christian character. | Not that there will be no good examples among the present generation, for there are many already; but there is in those who appear the best, a certain want of quick moral sense of right and wrong, which is the result of their previous habits of life; a |bluntness of perception which even grace does not wholly eradicate. Early educa|tion alone can instil those feelings of virtuous moral perception, which distinguish the enlightened Christian from the untutored savage, and the want of which is so lamentable in the character of a Hawaiian.
There are some other points of character attending this people, which do much in producing the effects above described, and which can only be remedied by industr and the arts. It is their going unclothed; and the painful sight meets the eye stevery | moment of time, until its hio, has destroyed all feeling. It is not peculiar to this people, but belongs to all tribes who live in a state of nature, and who consider clothing rather as an ornament for display, than a covering to their deformity. The evil, however, is real; and it becomes the friends of civilization to devise some remedy; not by furnishing them clothing made to their hands, for that would only increase the evil by encouraging idleness and fostering pride. They need to be taught to man*cture their own clothing. We are aware of our inability to suggest any adequate measures which shall remedy this evil by such means as we have at command. It is no small task to teach a savage [. the necessity of industry and a knowledge of the arts, but we fully believe it practicable. They have no idea of the process of manufacturing cloth, because the attempt to teach them has never been made, though the wish has often been expressed that they might be taught. Here there is a field of usefulness for some future effort of philanthropy; and he who shall successfully perform it will reap the rich reward of a grateful nation. Nor need it be deemed a hopeless effort, for there is reason to believe that if rightly undertaken it would succeed. But it must be made disinterestedly and devotedly, without any other hope of recompense than the satisfaction of doing good. It must not be made with a view to mercantile speculation, but with the sole object of putting it in the ower of this o to clothe themselves. unds will be requisite to procure and put in operation the machinery on a simple scale. Perhaps the cotton spinning-wheel or hand-gins would be the best things to teach them to spin, and hand-looms to weave their cloth. Cotton can be grown with great ease and to the full extent of the demand. It grows spontaneously to some extent already, but has never been cultivated for the purpose of manufacture. by steamboats to Little Rock, on the Arkansas, where they arrived on the 18th. At that place they remained about a fortnight owing to the sickness of Mr. Wright. As his health, though improving, did not seem likely to be fully reestablished immediately, it was thought expedient for Mr. Williams and his family, with Miss Clough, a female teacher, to proceed to their field of labor, leaving Mr. and Mrs. Wright at Little Rock. The distance which they had travelled from the old Choctaw nation, following the course of the rivers, was about 800 miles. Mr. Williams gives the following account of his
Improved Location of the Village of Kaawaloa.
We still continue our weekly visits to Kaawaloa, which, with the residence of Mr. Ruggles and family at that place, affords to that people a present adequate supply. For although the continued feeble health of Mr. R. precludes his doing as much as he would, were he in firm health, yet his presence and advice to the chiefs and people, his instructing a daily school of the teachers, and his superintendance over the schools attached to that station, place him in a useful post. He has a very pleasant situation in the country, two miles back from the bay, to which an excellent car. riage road has been completed recently. A commodious chapel has been erected there, and the chiefs and people have deserted the shore and taken up their abode near him. The recent improvements made in the country to who, the people have repaired,
have rendered it one of the most pleasant and healthful spots in the islands. * not so cold as Waimea, it is also not so wet and uncomfortable. It stands at an elevation of about 2,000 feet above the level of the sea, and is fanned by the sea-breeze b day, and the land wind by night. The soil is highly fertile, and Mr. R. is growing the various kinds of tropical fruits, such as grapes, figs, pomegranates, oranges, guavers, and coffee; which bid fair hereafter to produce a plentiful supply of these articles for that place, and a nursery for the propagation of the plants. Fifteen persons have been received to the church during the present year, and six more now stand propounded for admission.
Station of Waimea.
The station at Waimea has been without an occupant ever since last December. Mr. Ruggles returned to Kaawaloa, and Mr. Bingham soon followed him on a visit to this place, before his return to Oahu. Early in the following February, Waimea was visited by the king and chiefs, after completing i. tour of the island. Several of the missionaries accompanied them, and there we spent a week together. At that time all the schools of Kohala, Waimea, and Hamakua were assembled and examined one by one. The examination took up four days. Afterwards the new church, then just finished, was dedicated by prayer to Almighty God. At the same time the king made an appropriate speech to the people, and concluded the whole by a prayer,
There are a few at Waimea, who give pleasing evidence of piety, who will be propounded for church membership soon after the station shall be re-occupied. Mr. Baldwin has been appointed a permanent resident there, with a view to the medical wants of the families on this island. He is expected to remove there as early as Jan; uary next, when he will be accompanied by one of the families at this place, to reside with him until the next general meet, ing of the mission, at which time it is hope that provision will be made for a permanent associate for him. The place appearsevery way eligible as a retreat for invalids, excep; that it is too rainy, and is sometimes visited with severe gales of wind. Its remoteness from the sea is also some inconvenience in obtaining supplies, but it is hoped that this difficulty can in time be overcome. As a field of usefulness, you have probably been fully informed ere this by those who have resided there. Still it is somewhat doubt. ful whether it will be permanently occu: pied, should a mission family be sent from among us to the Marquesas islands.
Difficulties Encountered in the Educato" of the Youth.
We have had three examinations of the schools during the year, and our fourth *
near at hand. The whole number of scholars belonging to the fifty schools in the northern part of the district of Kona, amounted, at the yearly examination, to 3,814; of which 1,100 were readers; the remainder were in the elementary books. Of the whole number there were, men and boys, 1,520, women and girls, 1,728, and children under ten years, 566. We have not the record of the present number of schools and learners at Waimea and Kaawaloa: they have, however, sustained their several examinations with credit, and their numbers have not materially diminished. The effort made by us to collect the children into schools for instruction, has not succeeded so well as the adult schools. The #. part of those originally entered have orsaken the schools, and the remainder are
kept together with no little difficulty. Their restive minds, impatient of restraint,
now in incipient operation, but something of the same kind is needed at every station as a nursery for teachers.
When we look about us and see how little has been done, and how much remains to be done, we are constrained to acknowledge our insufficiency for its accomplishment. We fear, too, that many in our country are beginning to think that much more has been done than is really the case. Let God be praised for what our eyes see and ears hear daily; but we have as yet only entered the threshhold of the field, and surveyed the length and breadth of the land. Every step in advance but opens a wider and wider field of labor, and prepares the way for more laborers. A long and laborious life will not accomplish all which we have conceived must be done for this people, before missionary effort should begin
and their ungovernable habits at home, present a very serious difficulty in the way of o; them under the discipline of schools. At the first, there was a general readiness in them to join the schools, being enticed by a new book made on purpose for them, and bestowed gratuitously to all who desired to learn. But their ło were soon soiled and torn, the novelty was past,
and they returned to their old habits of idleness,
But there is also another cause of the desection above mentioned—the incompetency of their teachers. They fail to interost, because they know not how to teach; and children, as well as adults, are quick to Perceive their deficiency. This is a defect in the whole system of instruction in the islands, with but few exceptions, and it can only be remedied by time. Our hands are * Present so filled with other duties having *rence to preaching and translating the Word of God, that we have found but little one to devote to instructing the teachers. Many of those whom we fiave instructed * ent forth, soon get above their work, * leave the drudgery of the business to hers less competent than themselves. * immoral conduct of many of the teach* has also been a source of much trouble us. The superiority they assume o ots, and the deference paid them by or pupils, give them occasion frequently ofespass upon their credulity and virtue. There needs to be a radical réform in the *hool system, and it must begin with the teachers. The progress of instruction upon the old o has nearly attained its height, and is becoming stationary for want **uitable persons to carry it beyond the ** rudiments. But with all these deficiencies in the system, it has thus far *ered the ends for which it was design**our full expectations, and thousands have by it become competent readers, and * in every place have been taught to * We have raised expectations of
* to be accomplished by the high school
to relax. It will be ours to collect, like David, the materials, and leave to our successors the completion of the edifice. If human effort alone were to be relied on in accomplishing the reformation of the world, we might well say with the infidel, that the attempt is futile. Many centuries have already passed away since the apostolic commission was given, “Go, teach all nations;” and still the world is full of darkness, wretchedness, and the “habitations of cruelty.” But we have not so learned Christ as to despair of its being accomplished. We have learned on whom to rely for success. And though He has appointed that it is to be accomplished thro human instrumentality, the promise, “Lo, I am with you, plainly indicates by whom success is to be attained. A spirit of benevolence has gone forth for the relief of “The world lying in sin,” and it will not return void; it will in due time reap the fruits of its labors, in despite of the sneers and opposition of the enemies of righteousness. It will not faint or grow weary under discouragements, but live and thrive even in the midst of death. While some are called to cease from their labors, and enter into their rest, it is the Spirit who raises up others to follow in their steps, or even to go beyond the bounds of their predecessors in carrying the light of salvation to the remotest ends of the earth.
Journey from Little Rock to the Choctaw Boundary,
As the Lord smiled upon my family in regard to our health, it was thought best for us to proceed on our journey. Finding it almost impossible to obtain any other means of conveyance, without paying a most extravagant price, I took the advice of friends and purchased a wagon and team, believing that it would, in the end, be the most economical. We set out on the 2d of March, with a common road wagon drawn by two yoke of oxen, which I drove, while my family rode on horseback, having three horses with us. We took the route of the United States' wagons, which conveyed the Choctaws; which is first in a southwesterly direction from Little Rock 130 miles, to Washington, Hemstead co.; thence nearly west about 65 miles to the Choctaw line. The road being mostly new was rendered literally almost impassable by the heavy loaded and numerous wagons, cutting deep into the soft earth: so that with great exertion, though our load was not very heavy, we could advance only about eight or ten miles a day, and some days not more than five or six. The fatigue was too much both for man and beast; and it finally became necessary to leave our wagon, baggage, and team before we had got half way §§. Committing them, as we suppose, to the care of a trusty inan, we set out once more with three horses, one of which we packed with some necessaries, including our tent, an axe, and some clothing, blankets, provisions, &c. On the other two horses, five persons, including three children, rode, while the other two of our number walked. In this way we got along fifteen or twenty miles a day, and with but little expense. We generall pitched our tent wherever night overtoo us, and slept sweetly in the woods on our blankets, with our feet to a large fire at the tent door. Our Sabbaths we were permitted to spend where we could collect a number of souls to hear the word of life. When we reached Washington, I left my family to rest a few days, while 1 could go on further west to reconnoitre. In this tour, also, I was Prospered, travelling safely through this wild strange land, until I reached #.
Choctaw country, which was on the 17th of March. I rode to a settlement of emigrants about ten miles from the line, and spent the Sabbath. On Monday I set out on my return for my family. e were favored with comfortable health, and good weather, so that by Saturday night, March 24th, we arrived at a settlement of white people near the line.
Reception among the Choctaws.
My feelings on crossing the boundary line, I cannot well describe. Suffice it to say, I longed exceedingly for that wisdom which is profitable to direct me in all my intercourse with the natives; so that, from the first, I might exert a holy and salutary influence, and no other. And, I think I can add, my bosom heaved with gratitude for that divine mercy which had led me even to these distant wilds. The first native I saw was a beloved sister in the church, who, with two other families is set. tled near the line. About seven miles further west, I passed some tents where some church members and others are settling, and two miles beyond them met with good old Tahoka, who received me with open arms: and when we kneeled down, he made the woods echo with the praise of | God. On the morrow, it being Sabbath, 4 very considerable congregation assembled at a place in the woods already consecrated to the worship of God. A number of benches had been made, and the spot cleared of rubbish. After an interview with a goodly number who had assembled o in the day, in which we recounted to eac other some of the Lord's dealings with us during our wanderings, the people o | collected, public exercises commenced. addressed them once more, after a separa|tion of one year, in their own language, from 1 Corinthians ii. 2. “For I determinled to know nothing among you save Jesus | Christ and him crucified.” I left an ap: pointment for a subsequent Sabbath, but failed in going. I have since learned that a very large congregation assembled on that occasion. Last Sabbath I spent in the same settlement and preached twice, from Luke iii. 4, and Isaiah xlv. 22. My situation “in the wilderness” and in these “ends of the earth” may have suggested the texts. The congregation was larger than at the time of my first visit, and very attentive. I have been requested to preach in another settlement seven miles further west, and expect to do so next Sabbath. From what has been stated, you would get a favorable impression as to the feelings of the people on the subject of renewing the mission among them. I may add to the above, it is by numbers hailed with, I have no doubt, unfeigned joy. And I have seen one as yet on this side of the Mississippi who manifests a feeling unfriendly to our object. They had expected me, and no
small interest was excited with reference to
our coming. And I have remarked that this feeling is not confined to the professors of religion. Others appear as though they recognised in the missionary an old acquaintance and friend. Much inquiry is made about Mr. Wright. His people from the Six Towns have been heard to say, in reference to him, “We have lost our father a long time. Oli that he would return to us.” la short—every thing I have seen as yet is calculated to inspire us all with gratitude and to revive our hopes.
Situation and Appearance of the People.
Mr. Williams had not, of course, explored the country sufficiently to form an opinion respecting more than a small district on its easteru border, and he had seen but few of the people.
That part of their country which I have seen is well timbered, and there is good land enough to support a pretty dense population. The people appear to be pleased on the whole, and have commenced the clearing and fencing of land with a very commendable spirit. In some instances, several families unite in opening a field, and throwing a fence around a large tract; others have a field of their own commenced; and some have been so fortunate as to get possession of an old field which had been cultivated by white people who have been removed by order of the government of the United States. Such will probably raise corn to sell this season. The appearance of industry among them is indeed very gratifying, and is noticed by all the white People who have witnessed it. They are desirous to prepare against the time when they can no longer obtain provisions from the public storehouses, which will be in one year from the time of their arrival. As yet they mostly live either in the tents which *y used on their journey, or in camps which they have built for the purpose. Some have already put themselves up a small house. But it should be recollected that they have but just arrived—the first °ompany only about two months ago, and a great proportion of them within five or six Weeks. Small companies who come on their own resources are arriving almost oily, having been four and five months on elr way. It should be recorded with devout grati. fulo, that so many of the church members hold fast their integrity. True, numbers have fallen; but can truly say that the *tate of things in the church here is much better than "I dared to expect. Some apPoor to have grown in grace; others feel the effect of their past troubles and want of instruction, but still retain a desire to seek and to serve God. The Sabbath is observed, * they regularly meet for religious wor: *hip. It was truly pleasant to see ol young men, with their Choctaw hymn WOL. XXVIII,
books, stand up and lead the congregation in songs of praise to Zion's King. I noticed a petition of one man, who prayed most fervently that God would hasten the preachers of the gospel with the word of life into every part of the world. This individual was lost in the Mississippi swamp, and not found till the fourth day, when, from cold, life was so nearly extinct that he was speechless. He now shines a bright light among his people. There is a great desire with a number to have a district school opened immediately, and they wait with much anxiety the arrival of the new Choctaw books. The settlement which I visited is so populous and compact, that a ver large school might be collected, in whic both the English and the Choctaw languages might be taught; and it is the wish of this part of the tribe that Choctaw schools may be established and multiplied, while by another part of the nation they are opposed.
Present Situation of the Mission Family.
For several reasons we concluded to stay for the present within the bounds of the Arkansas territory. We were unacquainted with the location of the emigrants, and of course could not readily decide on a suita. ble place for a station. The season was so far advanced as to render it expedient to stop and put some seeds into the ground that w as o cleared, and as soon as possible. Besides, the price of provisions in the nation was extravagantly high, and they were difficult to be obtained. We were much favored in finding a place about five miles east of the boundary line, in a settlement of white people, where we are allowed to cul. tivate two or three acres of ground rent free. Here provisions and various neces. sary articles can be obtained cheaper and more readily, and time can thus be had for obtaining a better knowledge of the country, situation, and dispositions of the people, before we select a place and commence building. Qur house or cabin is, to say the least, one of the poorest, but will keep off some of the rain. We have now the use of four or five cows, and buy corn, meat, and salt. This is literally als that can be had here at |...". though flour and groceries will probably be brought on by traders in a few weeks #. this time. We are not at all troubled with furniture, as ours has not yet come on.
To the praise of divine grace be it recorded, a great moral reform has changed the aspect of society in this immediate neighborhood within a year past. A worthy preacher in the Methodist connection sei. tled here a year ago, wh9, with some aid from circuit preachers, has been instru. mental of much, good. A considerable majority of the adults are now in societ I rejoice, on account of the influence in favor of their Choctaw neighbors which we hope will be realized.