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at Toledo where five metropolitans and sixty-two bishops assembled, and made several canons, which were signed by the king, the metropolitans, and the prelates; and thus the conversion of the Goths be-, came a national act. * The Gothic monarchy in Spain was completely subverted by the Moors on Nov. II, 711 or 712, after it had subsisted nearly 350 years. Don Pelayo restored the Spanish monarchy in the Asturias, Sept. A. D. 718, whose descendants governed it under the name of the kingdom of Oviedo and Leon for almost 320 years, when it was united by marriage to the kingdom of Castile on July 22, 1037. A considerable part of Spain was subdued by Sancho III. called The Great. He divided his dominions among his children; in consequence: of which three principal Spanish moharchies in the interest of the Latin church were : founded in 1035, viz. the kingdoms of Navarre, Castile, and Arragon. The Moors had also estabFished a powerful monarchy' in Spain called the kingdom of Granada ;, but the Moors received re: . peated overthrows till about the year 1492, when all the kingdoms in Spain were'united by the marriage of Ferdinand, king of. Arrágon, and Isabella the heiress, and afterwards queen, of Castile, who took Granada, and expelled out of Spain the Moors and Jews, who would not be converts to the Ro. man Catholic faith, to the 'number of 170,000 fa:
* See 'Modern Universal History, Vol. XIX. pp. 31, 396. ' Edit. 8vo.
milies. * The kingdom of Naples and Sicily passed under different masters. The Normans conquered it, and Roger was named king of Sicily by the Pope, in 1130. The Norman line continued till their kingdom was subdued by Henry VI. emperor of Germany. After internal contests Charles of Anjou became king of Sicily 1266: after the Sicilian vespers, 1282, Sicily was seized by a fleet sent by the kings of Arragon; but Naples continued to acknowledge the line of Anjou, which expired in the year 1382. René of Anjou, king of Naples 1435, was the father of Margaret, wife of Henry VI. of England: but the French line failed in 1481, in Charles count de Maine, who named Louis XI. king of France his heir, whence the pretension of France to the kingdom of Naples. The last revo lution it underwent, before the period of the Reformation, was its annexation to the crown of Spain ini 1504.4 From this it appears that the kingdom of Naples and Sicily cannot be considered one of the ten horns of the Beast, as its independent power was totally extinguished many years previously to -the Reformation. • THE KINGDOM OF ENGLAND was increased by the addition of the Irish heptarchy in 1172, and of the Welsh dominions in 1285. The Roman Catholic
* See Guthrie's Geographical Grammar;: from which the hist tory of some of the other kingdoms in the interest of the Latin church, has been partly collected.
+ See Pinkerton's Geography, in loc.
doctrines were preached amongst the English by Austin, (commonly called The Apostle of the English,) who arrived in 597, and died in 605. The conversion of the Saxon nations from Paganism was completed in the course of the seyenth and eighth centuries.
The Kingdom of Scotland was principally confined within the limits of the country so called ; and the annexation of this kingdom to that of England was not till 88 years after the commencement of the Reformation in Germany, and about forty years subsequent to its establishment in Scot- land. . THE GERMAN EMPIRE at first comprehended the kingdom of France; but these two very powerful monarchies were finally separated as far back as 888, when Eudes was the first monarch of France after its separation from Germany. The kingdom of Italy which formed a part of the empire under Charlemagne, but was afterwards separated and governed by tyrants, was finally reunited by Otho I. in 962. Batavia and Holland became independent of Germany, to which it had been united under one of the grandsons of Charlemagne, in the beginning of the tenth century, when the supreme authority was lodged in the three united powers of a count, the nobles, and the towns. At last they were swallowed up by the house of Burgundy, anno 1433. The emperor Charles V. the heir of that family, transferred them, in the year 1477, to the house of Austria, and ranked them as part of
the empire, under the title of the Circle of Buri gundy. The kingdom of Bohemia has been considered a fief of the empire from its first erection into a kingdom; and the emperor Charles IV. who was also king of Bohemia, acknowledged it one of the electorates by his Golden Bull published in 1356.
THE KINGDOM OF SWEDEN was first converted from Paganism some time in the ninth century; the introduction of the Roman Catholic doctrines was about 853, by Ansgarius, bishop of Bremen. This monarchy was united to that of Denmark in 1387, by Margaret daughter of Valdemar; and in 1394 this princess became queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Sweden, after many tragical revolutions, was liberated from the Danislı yoke by the celebrated Gustavus Vasa in 1523, five years before the establishment of the Reformed religion in this country. Sweden was the first Roman Catholic country in which the Reformation was established by law.
THE KINGDOM OF DENMARK had Norway annexed to it in the fourteenth century, an union , which subsists to the present day. The Roman Catholic doctrines were introduced into this kingdom about A. D. 858.
THE KINGDOM OF POLAND is the next in order of the ten Latin monarchies. It was originally governed by dukes; and Boleslaus was the first who assumed the title of king, in 999. He conquered Moravia, Prussia, and Bohemia, making them tri
butary to Poland. Boleslaus II. added Red Russia
to Poland, by marrying the heiress of that duchy, - anno 1059. But this prince, who is surnamed The
Cruel, son of Casimir I. having put to death St. Stanislaus, bishop of Cracow, Poland, by way of punishment for his crime, forfeited the title of a
kingdom, and was reduced to a principality, which · was given to Uladislaus in 1082. It did not reco
ver the name of a kingdom, until Primislaus II. who was chosen by the nobility, and was anointed and crowned in the church of Guezna, towards the year 1295. He was succeeded by Ladislaus 11. called The Small; who, to maintain this dignity of á king, sent ambassadors to the Pope, who ordained, that he should be solemnly anointed in the church of Cracow, in 1320. Jagello, who in 1384 mounted the throne, was grand duke of Lithuania, and a Pagan; but on his being elected king of Poland, he not only became a professor of Christianity, but was at pains to bring over his subjects to that religion. He united his hereditary dominions to those of Poland ; and the crown continued in his family till 1572. The Roman Catholic doctrines were first introduced into Poland by duke Mieczlaus (surnamed the Eye of Christianity) about A. D. 964. This prince appointed Adelbert, sent by the Pope to propagate Popery in Poland, primate of the whole republic.
THE KINGDOM OF HUNGARY commenced, about the year 1000. Geysa was the first Roman Catholic monarch in Hungary. He was converted by