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enable him tospeak and utter his decrees, and to persecute even to death as many as refuse to submit to him and to worship him. As soon as he is chosen pope, he is clothed with the pontifical robes, and crowned and placed upon the altar, and the cardinals come and kiss his feet, which ceremony is called adoration. They first elect, and then they worship him; as in the (2) medals of Martin V, where two are represented crowning the pope, and two kneeling before him, with this inscription <%uem creant adorant, Whom they create they adore. He is the principle of unity to the ten kingdoms of the beast, and causeth, as far as he is able, all who will not acknowlege his supremacy, to be put to death. In short he is the most perfect likeness and resemblance of the ancient Roman emperors, is as great a tyrant in the Christian world as they were in the Heathen world, presides in the fame city, usurps the fame powers, affects the fame titles, and requires the fame universal homage and adoration. So that the prophecy descends more and more into particulars, from the Roman state or ten kingdoms in general, to the Roman Church or clergy in particular, and still more particularly to the person of the

pope,

(2) Bonanni Numismat. Pot,. (3) Vide Grot. In locunii tific.Romanor.Daubuz.p.5$2. Cleric, in Levit, XIX. 28. et

supra pope, the head of the state as well as of the church, the king of kings as well as bishop of bishops.

Other offices the false prophet performs to the beast in subjecting all sort9 of people to his obedience, by imposing certain terms of communion, and excommunicating all who dare in the least article to dissent from them. (ver. 16, if.) He caufeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, of whatsoever rank and condition they be, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And he will not permit any man to buy or fell, or partake of the common intercourses of life, who hath not. the mark, or the name of the beajl, or the number of his name. We must understand, that it was (3) customary among the ancients, for servants to receive the mark of their master, and soldiers of their general, and those who were devoted to any particular deity of the particular deity to whom they were devoted. These marks were usually impressed on their right hand or on their foreheads; and consisted of some hieroglyphic character, or of the name expressed in vulgar letters, or of the name disguised in numerical letters according to the fancy of the im

poscr.

supra omnes Spencerum de Lc- Lib. 2. Cnp. 2c. Sect, i, 3, 4. gibus Hcbræorum Ritualibus. Vol, III. R (4) Ut poser. It is in allusion to this ancient practice and custom, that the symbol and profession of faith in the church of Rome, as subserving to superstition, idolatry and tyranny, is called the mark or charaSler of the beajl; which character is said to be received in their forehead, when they make open and public declaration of their faith, and in their right hand, when they live and act in conformity to it. If any dissent from the stated and authorized forms, they are condemned and excommunicated as heretics j and in consequence of that they are no longer suffered to buy or fell j they are interdicted from traffic and commerce, and all the benefits of civil society. So Roger Hoveden (4) relates of William the conqueror, that he was so dutiful to the pope, that' he would not permit any 'one in his power to buy or fell any thing, whom 'he found disobedient to the apostolic see.' So the canon of the council of Lateran under Pope

Alex

(4) Ut neminem in sua po- apud Medum. p. 509. apud Viteltate aliquid emere aut vendere tring. p. 624. et apud Daubuz. permiserit, quem apostolicæ se- p. 598.

dideprehenderitinobedientem. (6) Ne ubi cogniti fuerint Ex Usserio de success. Eccles. illius hærefeos fectatores, reCap. 7. Sect. 7. apud Vitring. ceptaculum iis quisquam in terra p. 624. & apud Daubuz. p. sua præbere, aut presidium 599. impertiri præsumat; fed nec in

(5) Ne quis eos in domo vel •venditioneautemptionealiquacom in terra sua tenere, vel fovere, iis communio habeatur, ut fovel negotialioncm cum iis exercere latio faltem humanitatis amisso, præsumat. Ex.Tom. 4. Concil. ab errore viæ fuæ/esipifcere coedit. Rom. A. 1612. p. 37. gantur. Ex UiTerio die success.

Eccles, Alexander the third, made against the Waldenses and Albigenscs, (5) injoins upon pain of anathema, that ' no man presume to entertain 'or cherish them in his house or land, or ex4 ercife traffic with them.' The synod of Tours in France under the fame pope (6) orders under the like intermination, that ' no man should

* presume to receive or assist them, no not so

* much as to hold any communion with them

* in selling or buying, that being deprived of the 'comfort of humanity, they may be compelled

* to repent of the error of their way.' Pope Martin V in his bull let out after the council of Constance (7) commands in like manner, that 'they permit not the heretics to have houses in 'their districts, or enter into contracts, or carry

* on commerce, er enjoy the comforts of hu

* manity with Christians. In this respect, as Mede (8) observes, the false prophetJpake as the

dragon.

Eccles. Cap. 8. Sect. z6. apud nus simile edictum edidit, ne Medum & Vitring. et Daubuz. quis quidquam Christianis ver ibid. deret aut fubministraret, nisi

(,') Ne hereticos in suis dis- prius thura diis adolevissent: trictibus domicilia tenere, con- dequoin hymno JustiniMartytractus inire, negotiationes ex- iis ita canit Bedfl; ercere, aut huinanitatis solatia Non illis emendi quidqu.im cum Christianis habere permit- Aut vendendi copia: rant,. Ex Pareo Epud Daubuz. Nec ipsarrj hauiire aquam p. *g&. * • Dabatur ltcentia,

(S) Et quid ? nonne hie quo- Antcquam thurificarent que loquitur pseudoprophet.i ut Deteitandis idolis. draco? Draco enim Diocletia- Mede.p. 509.

R 2 (9) Vide

dragon. For the dragon Diocletian published a like edict, that no one should sell or administer any thing to the Christians, unless they had first burnt incense to the gods, as Bede alib rehears! eth in the hymn of Justin Martyr j * They 'had not the power of buying or selling any 1 thing, nor were they allowed the liberty of 'drawing water itself, before they had offered 'incense to detestable idols.' Popish excommunications are therefore like heathen persecutions: and how large a share the corrupted • clergy, and especially the monks of former, and the Jesuits of later times, have had in framing and inforcing such cruel interdicts, and in reducing all orders and degrees to so servile a state of subjection, no man of the least reading can want to be informed.

Mention having been made of the number of the beast, or the number of his name, (for they are both the same) the prophet proceeds to inform us what that number is, leaving us from

the

(9)VideMartianiCapelIæde 60;. Selden's Works, Vol. 3. NuptiisPhilologiæetMercurii. Part 2. Col. 14.02. Of the Lib. 2 & 7 in init. Daubuz, p. number 666.

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