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} sanctificetur

sea.

nomen

nom

}

sur

en.

comme

come

an

en.

nous

nosse.

el pan.

e

nos.

NOWS
pos

come

pos

nous

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English, Latin,

French.

Italian, Spanish. | Doge, the chief magistrate in Venice. Sonata, a tune. "Hallowed

sanctifié

sanctificato sanctificado. Mezzotinto, engraving resembling Piano, soft in music. Ве

soit
sia
painting.

Forte, strong in music.
Thy
tuum
ton

il tuo
el tu.

Bandit, one outlawed, a robber, Piazza, a walk under a roof sup. Name nome nombre. Bagnio, a bathing-house.

ported by pillars.
Thy
tuum
ton

il tuo
el tu,

ENGLISH WORDS FROM THE SPANISH.
Kingdom regnum règne

regno reino. Come veniat vienne venga venga.

Mulatto, one of mixed breed. Gala, feasting and merriment. Thy tua ta la tua tu. Siesta, an after-dinner nap.

Armada, a sea-armament, Will voluntas volonté

volonta voluntad.

Tobacco, a plant used for smoking. Brocade, silk interwoven with gold,ete. Be

soit
sias

Guitar, a stringed instrument of Olio, a medley.
fiat
Done

faite

fatta
haguse.
music.

Palisade, an enclosure of palings, On in

in
Fandango, a lively dance.

Peccadillo, a petty fault.
Earth
terrà
la terre

terra
la tierra. Hidalgo, one of noble birth.

Barricade, a rough street fortification. As

From very various sources words have come into our English. It sicut

como.

Razzia is a very recent term. It came into existence within the Is In in

in

last few years, to describe the sweeping destruction with which Heaven colo

ciel

cielo
el cielo.

the French laid waste whole districts of northern Africa, in order Give da donne dacci da.

to bring the country under their usurpation. According to Ug nobis

oggi

Fuller, the term plunder is of German origin, and was brought This

hither by the soldiers who returned from the campaigns of hodie Day aujourd'hui

Gustavus Adolphus. Our nostrum notre

il nostro nuestro. From the Arabic we have divan, vizier, cipher, zero, arabesque; Daily quotidianum quotidien quotidiano de cada dia.

from the Hebrew we have, besides very many proper names, Bread panem pain

pane And

Jehovah, amen, Jeremiad, lazaretto, lazar-house, cherub, seraph, et et

y. Forgive remitte pardonne remettici perdona.

hallelujah. The birds called canaries take their name from the Us nobis

Canary Isles, and our pheasants from the Asiatic river Phasis, Our nostra

i nostri nuestras.

the banks of which are said to have been their original home. Debts debita offenses

debiti deudas. Philippic, an invective, comes to us from the title of the orations As ut comme

como.

delivered by Demosthenes against Philip, King of Macedon, We

noi
nosotros.

of whose designs against the liberty of Greece he was aware. Forgive remittimus pardonnons rimattiamo perdonamos. The word cabal has two origins. In one sense, and generally, Our nostris à ceux qui & nostri a nuestros.

cabala is Hebrew, and denotes the science (falsely so called) of Debtors debitoribus nous ont offensé debitori deudores.

the Jewish rabbis. In another, it designates a political intrigue, And et et

y. Lead inducito indui

and owes its existence to the initials of the names of Clifford,

indurre metas. U's nous

nos,

Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale-C. A. B. A. L., Not ne point

the five celebrated cabinet ministers of Charles II. We here Into in

in English words the names of natural objects, taken from Temptation tentationem tentation tentatione la tentacion. the names of the places where the objects were produced : But sed mais

for example, peach, Fr. pêche, that is Persh, or Persian ; BergaDeliver libera

delivre

liberaci libra, motte (Bergamum), Indigo, Mocha, Champagne, Burgundy, Us DOS nous

Madeira, Port, and other names of wine. We have names of From

du

dal

de. Evil malo mal

the products of art taken from the places where they were male mal.

fabricated : for example, bayonet, invented at Bayonne, in France; Now, to study this tabular view properly, take each English cachemir (shawls), from Cachemir, in India; combrie, from word in turn, and compare it with the same word, first in Latin, Cambrai, in France; cordovan, leather prepared at Cordova, in then in French, then in Italian, and then in Spanish. You will Spain ; damask, from Damascus, in Syria ; muslin, from Mossul, gain instruction if you also alter the order, taking the Italian in Asiatic Turkey; nankeen, from Nankin, in China; pistol, from before the French, or the Spanish immediately after the Latin. Pistoia, in Tuscany; marocco (leather), from Marocco, in Barbary. Now look at these words, father, pater, padre, padre, père. They Having shown the connection of the English with the Romance are, you see, the same term under small modifications. The languages, we subjoin another table, showing its connection with same is the case with several other words. And if you omit the Teutonic languages. The latter is the more needful, because the English, as belonging to a different family of tongues, and the latter are our cousins-german. compare the rest together, you will find, with a few exceptions, an almost identity. In the comparison you must make some

THE LORD'S PRAYER IN TEUTONIC LANGUAGES. allowance for idiom; for instance, the article appears in French Common English of German of Lover German Gothic where it is not placed in Italian, and so you have la terre, The English. Wiclif (1380). futher. Saxon (1451). (720 A.D.). Uphilas (30). earth, for terrâ, earth, of the Latin, and terra of the Italian. Our

unser

fadir The Spanish carries the article so far as to place it before Father

fater
fader

fatter atta.
Who that
The

de du thee thu. possessive pronouns, thus, el tu nombre, the thy name.

Art art

bist inferiority, too, of the French is seen in that it is unable to

pist
In
in
in
in

in

in, render word for word “forgive our debtors," and is obliged to

Heaven hevene dem himmel den hymelen himele himizam. employ a circumlocution, as “pardon those who have offended Hallowed halowid geheiliget gehylliget us." These remarks are offered merely as suggestions relative

wihi weihnai. Be be

werde werde to the manner in which the table may be studied.

Thy thi
dein

dinnn thein. A few instances of words in our tongue borrowed from the Name

name

namun Italian and Spanish are subjoined :

Thy thi
dein dyn

din theios.

Kingdom kyngdom reich ryke ribi thiudinassus. ENGLISH WORDS FROM THE ITALIAN.

Come

come to komme to comme chwere quimai. Basso-relievo, bas-relief. Adagio, slow time in music.

Thy thi

dein dyn din theius. Bravo, one who murders for hire. Tenore, middle sound,

Will wille wille

wille willo wilja. Buffalo, a kind of wild ox. Soprano, a soft sound.

Be
be

geschehe de werde werde wairthai. Canzonet, a little song. Violin, a fiddle.

Done don
Capuccio, a capuchin or hood. Violoncello, a bass violin.

On
in

uf
in

in Busto, a statue.

Pantaloon, the buffoon in a panto. Eartl: erthe erden der erde erda airthai. Canto, a section of a poem.

mime.

As
Burletta, a musical farce.
Harlequin, an outdoor buffoon. It

wie
also

swe jah. Broccoli, a kind of cabbage. Gondola, a small boat.

Is
Belladonna, deadly nightshade. Gondolier, the boatman of a gondola. In

in
im
in

in

in. Camisado, an attack in the dark. Gonfalon, a standard,

Heaven henvene himm

den hyromele himele hiinan Piano-forte, a musical instrument. Gonfalonier, a standard-beurer. Gire give gib

gif

kip gií.

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Lorcer

uns

uns

uns

uns.

unse

unseer

unsarana.

uns

oblaz aflet.
uns

uns.
unseero thatei.

unse

80 .
wir

ке

wy

unsen

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Common English of German of

German Gothic of that is, bodies which have organic analogies, but which are made English. Wiclij (1380). Luther. Saxon (1451). (720 A.D.). Uphilas (360). by synthesis. For instance, oxalis acid, which is purely a veget's to us

table product, being the acid which imparts the sour taste to This this

himma. heute hyte hiutu

sorrel, lichens, and other plants, can be produced by heating Day day

daga.

mercuric cyanide, and allowing the cyanogen to pass into water. Our oure Unser

Here it is dissolved, and the two compounds react on each Daily

täglich degelike emezhic Bread brced

other, each being decomposed. One of the products is ammonium brot brod

broath hlaif, And and

oxalate, 2(NH.)O,C,Og.
und
unde

jah. Forgive forgere vergib forgif

Upon the addition of a mineral acid, oxalic acid is Us to us uns

liberated. Our oure unser

Or perhaps a more remarkable example is the manner in which Debts dettis schuld schulde sculdi skulano sijaimo. Berthelot built up alcohol from its elements. He caused a AG BS wie alse

swaswe jah.

current of galvanic electricity to pass between charcoal points in We wir

weis.

an atmosphere of hydrogen. By this means the carbon of the Forgive forgiven vergeben forgeren

oblazen afletam.

points was made to combine with the hydrogen, forming Our to our unsern

unsaraim. Debtors dettouris schuldigern schnldeners skuldikem skulam.

acetylene (C,H,). By submitting this acetylene to the action of Lead lede führe enleyde firletti briggais.

nascent hydrogen when it was in combination with copper, two t's us

uns
uns
unsih uns,

atoms more of hydrogen were introduced into the compound,
Dot
nicht nicht ni

ni.

and ethylene (C,H,) was produced. With sulphuric acid C,H,SO, loto in to

in
in

in
in.

is formed; and when this is diluted and distilled, alcohol is Temptation temptacioun versuchung bekoringe khorunka fraistubnjai. liberated. But but sondern sonder uzz

ak.

Every year adds to the list of organic bodies which can be Deliver delyver erlöse lose

erlosi lausei,

built up by inorganic processes; yet the distinction between ns uns uns unsih uns.

the two divisions of Chemistry is not thereby impaired. From from тод van

fona

af. Erd yvel dem übel obele ubile ubilin.

2. Organic Chemistry is the Chemistry of the carbon compounds.

Of the vast number of bodies which are considered under this This table is full of instruction. Go through it carefully subject, so widely different in their properties, one and all conTord for word, making due allowance for diversity of spelling. tain carbon. In most of them hydrogen and oxygen are For instance, our word come re-appears in come to, comme, to combined with the carbon. Some also contain nitrogen, and a ame, chweme, and quimai. In the “ bist” of the Lower few contain other elements. Saron, we recognise an old mood common in the south of Eng

No subject can better reveal the wisdom of the Mind which land in our boyish days, where and when the present tense of made all these things. It is wonderful indeed that, by ringing the verb to be was thus conjugated, I be, thou bist, he bees, we

the changes on some four simple bodies, three gases and a be, you be, they be. The Gothic of Ulphilas offers the most solid, such an endless variety of different substances, all exhibitstriking points of comparison. We will go through it, and point ing different properties, can be produced. eat the words which still form a part of the English tongue :- Since all organic bodies contain carbon, they are all com[nsar, our ; thu, who; in, in; himinam, heaven ; weihnai, bustible-all are destroyed by high temperatures. This fact is oved; thein, thy; namo, name; quimai, come; wilga, will ; used as the basis of organic analysis. aza, on; airthai, earth ; gif, give ; uns, our; daga, day; un

3. Organic Chemistry is the Chemistry of compound radicals." sarane, our ; hlaif, loaf; briggais, bring; lausei, loose; af, of;

This is Liebig's definition. In Inorganic Chemistry the comubilin, evil. It is thus seen that our mother tongue had a sub-pounds are generally made up by the union of elements, and the stantive existence as early as the year of our Lord 360. And it various changes which they undergo are produced by replacing is curious to observe that in this, the oldest form of the Teutonic one element by another, according to their atomicities. If in Languages, we find in several instances the nearest approach to these changes elements only were concerned, then there would our modern words and forms. For example, himinam, heaven; be a clear line between the two branches of the subject, but thein, thy, thine; airthai, earth ; gif, give; uns, us; daga, day; this is not always the case. Thusblsif , loaf, the ancient word for bread; briggais, bring; lausei,

AgNO, + NaCl = AgCl + NaNO3.
Here the NO, acts as an element, being a molecule, or, in the

language of Organio Chemistry, a radical. The changes which LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XXVIII. take place in organic bodies are carried on by an interchange of ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.

radicals, which play precisely the same part as the elements in Tee characteristics of Organic Chemistry will be best shown by Inorganic Chemistry, having their peculiar atomicities, and the considering the three definitions by which the subject has been replacement taking place accordingly. For example, ethyle described.

(C,H,) is monatomic. If the hydrogen of the water type,

O, which is or indirect, of rital organisms.

ні
ether. If only one H be replaced,

H?
In the vast laboratory of Nature, under the active super-
intendence of that mysterious power called "life,” innumerable

alcohol. changes are continually being carried on, by which a large num

Here is the action of sulphuric acid on alcohol :ber of the different bodies-organic substances--are produced.

H)
H

H
SO, +

0=

HS The immediate cause of these changes is no mere caprice, but

1} certain forms of life, animal or vegetable organisms,

have each forming sulpho-vinic acid and water. priliar powers, to extract from certain substances that food The constitution of all known organic bodies may be referred stich is necessary for their own existence, and in this process a to one of three leading types-Der arrangement of the elements of the body takes place, thus

H giving rise to new substances.

H .
HS
H

H
But Organic Chemistry does not confine its attention to those The H in these types is replaced by the radical according to
Eobstances which are found in actual existence in the world of
Spanisms, but it also includes within its range the consideration its atomicity. For instance, glycerile (C,H,), the radical of
of those bodies which may be found in dealing with the products latter body, it is necessary to replace one H in the water type,

glycerine, is tri-atomic. To construct the formula of the of rital organism. For example, alcohol is never found in zatore, but is produced by the process of fermentation, in which but there must be three atoms of H ; thus,

H,

03. Now inarrangement of elements takes place, and one of the provisert the radical. CH 0, is the formula of glycerine.

this

If the student prosecute this subject he will find that the Put this definition has still further to be extended to take radicals arrange themselves into groups, the members of which is those bodies which can be built up from their clements; vary from each other by a fixed increment ; £o that formulæ

1. It is the Chemistry of bodies which are the products, direct Ho, be replaced by this radical

, we have

C.H.
C,H,

c.,}o*is the result

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H}, \}o,

}o, and

dacta is alcohol. branch of Chemistry.

which at first sight appear inexplicable can not only be readily duced into the combustion tube as before, but not mixed with retained and understood, but the possession of the radical will cupric oxide, but with soda-lime—a compound procured by give the power of building up the ether, the alcohol, the acid, etc., slaking well-burnt lime with a solution of soda, then evaporating belonging to it; exactly as the root of a word being given, the and igniting. The drying tube, c, is dispensed with, and bulbs noun, the verb, the adverb, etc., can easily be arrived at. somewhat similar to D are charged with pure hydrochloric acid.

Our space, however, being limited, we consider that it will be The heat is applied as before. The hydrochloric acid retains more beneficial to our readers to enter into the properties and the ammonia. After the process is complete, and air has been composition of the various products of the animal and vegetable drawn through the apparatus in the usual way, the bulbs are kingdoms which we meet in our daily life, than to dwell on the emptied, and carefully washed out, first with a mixture of classification of formulæ, referring the student to the third alcohol and ether, and then several times with water. A solovolume of Miller's “Elements of Chemistry" for a full discussion tion of platinic chloride is now added, and a double chloride of of the subject.

platinum and ammonium is precipitated. This is repeatedly Organic Analysis. Since carbon and hydrogen are the staple washed with a mixture of alcohol and ether, to remove any constituents of organic bodies, the quantities in which they are trace of platinio chloride. It is now brought in a weighed filter present are always estimated by the combustion of the body in and again washed; then dried in a water bath and weighed. the presence of oxygen. By this means the carbon is converted 220:52 parts of the salt are equivalent to 14 of nitrogen. into carbonic acid gas, and the hydrogen into water. The The result of such analyses is to give the percentage commeans by which this is effected may be thus indicated :- A tube of position of the compound. hard Bohemian glass is arranged on supports, as in Fig. 54, in a An example will best indicate this: 4.750 grs. of sugar were trough of sheet iron. The tube is open at B; its other extremity analysed —

Potash bulbs weighed after experiment

781.13 before

773.82 Carbonic acid = 7:31

Grains,

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Grains.
4198

6.43
51.59

6.43

41.98

12

51.59
16

1

643 322

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3

7-31 x = 1.994 = Carbon. Fig. 54.

11

1 is drawn out into a point, F, and bent obliquely. The body

2.75 x = .3056 = Hydrogen.

9 to be analysed is carefully dried. The substance from which oxygen is furnished for the combustion is cupric oxide. This is Or, calculating this for 100 parts of sugar, we havefreshly made, and heated to expel all moisture. A quantity is

Carbon placed in the combustion tube, sufficient to fill some two inches

Hydrogen of its extremity, A. The body to be analysed is carefully

Oxygen (by difference) weighed (about 6 grg. is usually taken); then it is mixed with some of the cupric oxide in a mortar. With the greatest caution

100.00 it is introduced into the combustion tube. The mortar is rinsed out with more oxide, which is also placed in the tube. The tube From this, to construct the empirical formula, it is necessary is now filled to within two inches of its open end with pure to divide each of the quantities by the atomic weight of the oxide; c, a calcium chloride tube for collecting the moisture, element:and D, Liebig's potash bulbs for absorbing the carbonic acid gas,

= 319; = 6.43; = 3-22 both accurately weighed, are attached to the tube by a tightly fitting cork.

That is— Hot charcoal is now placed in the trough at A. When the

349 equivalents of

Carbon. tube is here red-hot the partition, E, is gradually moved towards

Hydrogen. B, so that the whole tube is by degrees brought to a red heat.

Oxygen. At this temperature the carbon and hydrogen of the organic

Allowing for experimental errors, evidently the number of body take oxygen from the cupric oxide. The water thus atoms of hydrogen double those of the oxygen; and the oxygen formed is absorbed by the calcium chloride, and the potash to the carbon bears a proportion of nearly 11 to 12; so that the retains the carbonic acid. When the latter ceases to appear in empirical formula is C.,1,0,1. The number of these elements the bulbs, the point F is broken, and by means of the mouth a may be only multiples of the real numbers. They cannot be gentle suction is applied to the open end of the potash bulbs, so

less than they are, becase any division of the whole three that air is gradually drawn through the combustion tube, which would produce fractions; and as atoms are indivisible, a frac brings with it the last traces of carbonic acid. The apparatus tional atom cannot exist. is now dismounted, and in about an hour the tube c and the

To decide the true or rational formula, two ways suggest bulbs D are weighed ; & of the gain c has experienced indicates themselves. the quantity of hydrogen, and i of the gain of D gives the

1. A compound of the organic body with some inorganie quantity of carbon, the body contained.

element is analysed; and, knowing the atomic weight of the If the body contain nitrogen, a separate analysis is required to latter, we thus discover the combining weight of the molecule of determine its quantity. But in this case a precaution is neces

the organic compound. sary in the process above described. When nitrogen is heated 2. We know that the density of a volatile organic compound with cuprio oxide, a certain quantity of some of the lower oxides is half its molecular weight, just as the density of Co, i of nitrogen comes off. This the chloride of calcium would 44=22 ; that is, the molecule of Co, weighs 22 times the atom retain; hence the end of the combustion tube is packed for six 2 inches with copper turnings, and these are kept red-hot. By of hydrogen. this means the oxides of nitrogen are decomposed, the copper So is it with any other volatile organic body. combining with the oxygen, and the liberated nitrogen passing Thus, by accurately weighing a glass globe filled with the forward.

vapour, and finding the capacity of the globe, the density i: The determination of the quantity of nitrogen is based upon a ascertained; twice this gives the molecular weight, and thus fact observed by Gay Lussac, that if nitrogenous bodies be heated the rational formula is fixed. with an excess of potassic or sodic hydrate, all the nitrogen For the details of these processes larger works must be con: meg off in combination as ammonia.

sulted. Liebig's "Hand-book of Organic Analysis " is recomtake advantage of this transformation, the body is intro. mended.

commerce.

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF COMMERCE. competition, and throwing into our side of the scale edu

cated intellects in addition to well-trained hands. We INTRODUCTORY.

commence, then, with what we may call the Natural " The addition of a new fact to a farmer's mind,” it was History of Commerce, or a reply to the questions, Whence once pithily remarked, “often increases the amount of his do we derive the raw materials which are the staple of harvests more than the addition of acres to his estate." our commerce and industry? Why do we find them The principle holds good in every kind of industry and in particular localities ? What constitutes their true

The discovery of new forms or properties of value! Are there yet no undeveloped regions or natural matter, or fresh applications of old ones, of new motive- products? power or new mechanism, is continually changing the

CHAPTER I. aspect of affairs. A new tool even will sometimes add What is meant by Raw Produce ?—The Necessity of a Knowledge of immensely to the value of an old material, promote the Raw Materials—The Discovery of Raw Materials, and the Effects comfort of millions, and develop some branch of in- of Discovery-How a Knowledge of Raw Materials can be gained. dustry to an extent hitherto unthought of. Fifty years The earth, with its oceans of water and of air, forms ago few workmen could accomplish the cutting of com- the great storehouse from which we draw the means of mon window-glass without risk and loss; at length a support and enjoyment. The animals and plants upon thoughtful observer found out that there was one direc- its surface, and the produce of its teeming waters, fur. tion in which the diamond was almost incapable of nish us with food and clothing; the stone, the metals, abrasion or wearing by use, and he contrived the present and the coal laid up in its crust

supply us with the means simple tool which steadies the diamond and fastens it in of shelter, with various implements, and with fuel. the direction required.

Several facts connected herewith are part of our earliest Here was a discovery resting upon a scientific principle. experience. Ist. There is in the world an indefinitely It might and probably would have been made much large number of substances adapted for our service in earlier had science, or the systematised knowledge of health and in sickness. 2nd. These substances are dismatter and its properties, been more common. The com- tributed so that every region has its special treasures. plaint is now general that such knowledge is less com- 3rd. The inhabitants of any one region may, by exchange, mon amongst us than it should be, than it is, in fact, else become possessed of the abundance and variety of all where. It is remarked continually that our Continental other regions. If, for instance, the Norwegian has plenty neighbours are so sensible of the advantages of this of timber, but a scarcity of wool, and thus finds himself knowledge, that they provide it liberally for every man, well housed, but poorly clad; while the Englishman has woman, and child. They feel that it is in itself pro- woollen cloth to spare, but wants timber for building; perty, and the prolific source of wealth. They see that it each may, by interchange, be well clothed and well housed. cannot be carried off by an enemy, or impaired by bad In speaking of the natural resources of a country, we seasons, or paralysed by a panic. They find that it costs refer to the ore in the mine, the stone unquarried, the nothing to defend or to insure; that it is not merely timber unfelled, the native plants and animals—to all a circulating commodity, yielding a single profit to its those latent elements of wealth only awaiting the labour possessor, but rather fixed and constantly productive of man to become of use, and therefore of value. capital. Therefore, beyond primary schools, they pro- R-- produce has, however, an extended meaning. We vide industrial schools, trade schools, polytechnic schools, do not merely gather in the indigenous materials of the drawing schools, museums of art and manufacture, to all country where we live, but, by intelligent industry, we of which access is nearly free, and attendance on some increase the natural production. Tillage and cattle-rearof them almost compulsory.

ing procure for us a greater abundance of corn and fruit, The result is visible in our exhibitions, in the com- and flesh-food, and textile fibres than we should otherpetition that displaces our trade, and drives our best wise enjoy. This increase, and all the crude constituents workmen abroad. Our government may do something of wealth, whatever their origin, come under the designafor national instruction hereafter, but hitherto they have tion of raw produce. left us pretty much to shift for ourselves. Perhaps it Without à considerable knowledge of raw materials, has been the right course. Self-help is the best. The and of their adaptations, we could not live; and without nation is now roused. We may more slowly, but we an unremitting application of such knowledge, we could believe that private enterprise-backed or not by parlia- not live in comfort. We may even measure a country's mentary aid--will eventually bring us up to the level civilisation by the extent and diffusion of this important of the rest of Europe, and, too, of the United States of knowledge. "Barbarous tribes pass their time in proAmerica.

viding for their recurring appetites, and cannot be said It is with this object in view that, having already given to enjoy existence, in the sense of mental enjoyment. to all self-teachers the opportunity of improvement in Where such tribes do not die out, their numbers, at the all the branches of a liberal education, we now commence best, remain stationary. Among civilised nations knowa series of papers upon industrial and commercial sub- ledge is increased, and many things, which in some parts jects. These papers have been prepared by Dr. Yeats, still remain to be discovered, have, in other parts, who has been assisted by able men eminent in their re- become the necessaries of life for populations doubling spective departments of knowledge.

and trebling in a century. In a country like this, which is pre-eminently com- The economic history of a nation would be a record of mercial, and in an age like the present, distinguished for the discovery of new raw materials, of new sources of the keen eagerness of its competition, it is impossible supply, and of additional applications. All such disfor those who are ignorant of the first principles of com- coveries tend to our benefit, while their result is occamercial and industrial science to compete with any hope sionally to enrich the discoverer, and to change the face of success with those who are largely and practically of our social and industrial life. It has been said that acquainted with them. Yet these are the terms upon he who makes two blades of grass grow where only one which so many of the English industrial and commercial grew before is a benefactor to his species. The truth of classes are at present engaged in carrying on a weari. this statement is easily proved. Take the single example some and failing competition with the manufacturing of wheat, and imagine the blessings which a double interests of other lands. As far as in our power lies, we produce of this one kind of grain would confer upon shall in these papers place at the disposal of every artisan mankind. and employé the means for destroying this inequality of In modern times we have had many remarkable in

88

VOL. IV.

stances of the effects of discovery. Though Corinth dyeing, tanning, brewing, glass-making, and weaving were produced what we might call Birmingham and Sheffield known to the Egyptians in very ancient times, ranging wares, and Athens was the centre of the manufactures from 1,500 to 2,500 years before Christ. These induswhich we now find divided between Leeds, Staffordshire, trial operations involved an earlier discovery of the raw and London, yet coal was not employed by the Greeks substances operated upon. Indigo and purple dyes, and Romans; it was not used as fuel, even at Newcastle, bark and other astringents that effect the change from till the thirteenth century, and only crept into general skin to leather, barley and malt, silicious sands and use during the reign of Elizabeth. This one product alkalies that, admixed, form glass; silk, linen, and cotton has been the main cause of a complete revolution in our must have made part of the earliest human history. national industry. It is only a generation or two since Passing over a long interval, we read of quills being used that, by means of the raw material, coal, was evoked a for writing (A.D. 600), of the use of sugar among the Arabs

new motive-power, steam, and that iron was first ex- (A.D. 850), and of coffee among the Persians (A.D. 875). i tensively applied to mining, to machinery, and to locomo. After the lapse of several centuries, America opened to

tion. Now every civilised countryis scored with railroads, us another world of raw produce. The potato was intro. cities are lighted with gas, and coal and iron promise to duced into Europe in the last decade of the sixteenth change the characters of our ships and our mariners. century, and its cultivation rapidly spread during the Before coal was used to generate steam, the sites of seventeenth century. Maize, cocoa, and tobacco were manufacturing towns were determined chiefly by the likewise made familiar to us. convenience of mill-streams, and the woods were the Without extending the list, we may

dwell upon the seats of smelting. The forest fires are now extinguished; thought of how much we owe to the past, even in these the fabrication of iron has travelled to the coal-fields, few selected instances. The same methods that rewarded which have become the densest-peopled parts of the our ancestors with fruits of discovery, must be still kingdom, and the scenes of the busiest industry. Wool, followed by us in order to add to their number. Our once the staple industry of England, is now second in forefathers observed, compared, tested, and applied, age magnitude and importance compared with cotton; yet, by age, the gifts of nature, and bequeathed to us the with the discovery of new sources of supply, and with in- accumulated store of knowledge which we inherit. To creased home production, the quantity made into cloth- come into possession of our share of this knowledge of ing is vastly greater than in former times. The develop- economic substances, our study must begin at home. ment of the cotton industry is another example of the Here the things are at hand, and we early become accusapplication of raw produce to extended uses. The intro- tomed to the use of them. With imports from all parts duction on the Continent of the silkworm, more than a of the earth, it has become difficult to say whether we thousand years ago, gave

rise to the unrivalled manu- are most interested in home or in foreign produce. In factures of the South of France, and originated one of England, the facilities for study surpass those of other the chief elements of the wealth of Italy and Greece. nations, and we may reverse the usual steps of inquiry, The dyeing of textile fabrics leads us into the domain of and endeavour, from the raw substance itself, to deduce chemistry, a subject requiring a volume merely to name or to arrive at the conditions of its being, wherein it its discoveries. Indigo has displaced woad as a blue differs from all other substances. What we know of the dye; and the new aniline colours, outvying the Tvrian undeviating laws of nature, opens our minds to inferences purple, elevate our taste and gratify our sense of cauty. and generalisations whenever a basis of facts is broad If we take other examples, similar facts appear. The enough to support a correct induction. Chilian potato has provided food for many millions of In the vegetable kingdom, we see the distinction bepeople, and in 300 years has reached a perfection in tween an endogen and an exogen clearly marked from the Europe to which in its native soil it never approached. cotyledons through the whole life-history of the plants. Maize has become an important crop round the Medi. (See Figs. 10, 11, in Lessons in Botany, III., Vol. I., p. 81). terranean ; while wheat, which was given to America in The structure of the stem, the reining of the leaves, the exchange, has flourished there so greatly as to admit of number and character of the floral organs, the method of large exports to the Old World.

the secretions, all differ persistently in the great subDiscoveries of the utmost value appear, for a time, of kingdoms. A worker in wood will tell from the texture less moment, because their full development is not at and grain, not merely the species, but the variety of first reached or foreseen. It is not easy for us to deter- tree, and the place of its growth. A mahogany mer. mine how far the industrial and social habits of posterity chant will distinguish the timber of Cuba from that of may be influenced by the production of the hydro-car- other West Indian territory, and island growths from bons and mineral oils. From the first employment of the growths of the mainland. Again, the starches caoutchouc for rubbing out pencil-marks, its applications prevailing amongst so many plants are known apart by have been manifold. "In gutta-percha we seo applica- the form of their grains, so that potato-starch mixed tions of a new raw material to telegraphy, embracing the with arrowroot can be easily detected; and flour of world. We need but contrast the present period of our every kind indicates in the same way the grain from history with any former period, or the condition of any which it was prepared. The microscope shows an iden. one country with another, to perceive the effect of such tity of structure between the nutmeg, or hard kernel, knowledge upon human well-being. Every year adds to and the arillus, or mace, that enwraps it, and would prove our list of useful animal, vegetable, and mineral sub- that the two substances belong to each other, greatly as stances; while the greater consumption of those already they differ in appearance, even though their relationship known calls forth, as a rule, greater production. Thus were not otherwise known. In a general way, if we seo the importance of a knowledge of raw materials cannot a rattan, bamboo, or palm stem, we at once know it to be overrated. It is a matter of personal interest to every be an exotic or tropical production; and we infer, from body in every part of the world.

the ferns and palms of the coal measures, that the beds No abstract reasoning would have led us to discover of shale and coal originated under circumstances of the properties and uses of iron, without first seeing, climate quite different from the temperate and frozen handling, and examining a piece of that metal. Experi- regions where they are now found. ment has founded this department of knowledge. Every Examples abound equally in the animal kingdom. We discovery of a new material, or a new property of an old do not hesitate to draw climatic inferences from the material, has suggested new uses, and fresh necessities presence of the bones of fossil carnivora in cold regions, have led continually to fresh researches. We know that I although such inferences receive no support from the

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