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demonstrates this; with proportion. the sea ? What youth but dreams in ally trifling outlay the water-supply some fashion of the choice of Paris ? well-nigh doubles, and with this ap- Of Aphrodite of old, of evolution of sex pear new possibilities of fertility and now, there are ever exoteric and esopopulation, and of course a correspond- teric readings, material and spiritual .g rise of acre-values as well. Natu- cults, each intensifying and deepening rally, as with a remedy or a weapon, as the world grows on. there are two questions, of quality and Another of the great excursions of of quantity, and, like physician or the island is eastward to Salamis and soldier, we take up that of quality of Famagusta. A little north of the principle first.

ruined Græco-Roman city stands the Returning to the south-western coast, yet earlier Mykenian citadel; a little the forest region suddenly ends at a south of the ruined medieval city day's ride west of Limassol, and a new stands the mean modern town. So here landscape opens, that of historic Pa- in an hour's ride the essential procesphos, and long, bare perspectives of par- sion of European history rises before allel hill slopes sweep down into the Nor are great scenes of worldgoodly plain, watered by at least one drama wanting, from Paul and Barnaperennial river. While the scholar has bas in the forum of Salamis to Othello unearthed the massive foundations of and Desdemona in their tower. For in the ruined temple, and the mediæval this strange island of tomb and temple antiquary mourned over knightly tower there echo everywhere the voices of and hall in their fallen estate of loft Love and Death. Nowhere better than and byre, the geologist has sometimes in Famagusta can we see the stately pointed out that the height these stand medieval world with its piety and on is a well-marked raised beach, and heroism, for nowhere stand nobler asked whether the story of the foam- churches within more gallantly deborn goddess was not meant to express fended walls. Nowhere, alas, more or at least include that of her island clear are the lapsed ideals, the correhome. As in classic times, the west sponding material squalor of modern wind commonly prevails, the Mediter- life, than in the ruinous hovels of the ranean swell swings full upon the Turkish village, shrinking within the shore, and so we have ever that long city walls, or in the sordid lanes and fringe of snowy foam by which these cafés of the modern Greek townlet poet-priests of sailor peoples were wont spreading without. to watch their goddess rise. For the Yet neither is dead; the old Turkish goddess of love and passion this old spirit lives in the strong, silent faces at and ever renewed symbol fitly outlives the mosque; the Hellenic spirit sparkles her statues and shrines; this immortal from the children's eyes. Even the sorenergy of nature is a fit parallel to the did modern village gains upon us. In unceasing renewal of life. Nor are every dirty café the arches spring light future symbols wanting. Now, as of and true, as irom the mediæval workold, the waves stir strange sea crea- man's hands, and one sees with fresh tures from their depths, and the surf clearness that architecture is not a teems and literally froths with their function of paper plans, unrolled by awaking life in spring. Most symbolic those clerkly gentlemen we call archiof all, the white foam rises, not from tects in the west, for their drilled me. the deep clear Mediterranean blue, but chanics to copy, but that the masons from a heaving zone turbid with the themselves build like bees without inrush of torrential rivers. For this architects, because they are architects, goddess, as for her serener rival of the to this day the freemasons of old. intellectual life, there has been no There can be few more pleasing sights death, but an immortal change; her for any who know and care for tramysteries have not vanished. What ditional cr. ft and individual skill. This naturalist doubts that life rose from arch-building one can see anywhere in


Cyprus; but here at Varoschia is a local on by a precipitous hill-path, past the industry even more ancient, and more splintered giant fist of Pentedactylon, widely fascinating--the potteries. And and thence to a new landscape, indeed if the forms, when reminiscent of another world, of sharper contrast than classic shapes, be so rather as regenera- any of us had seen on two sides of a tions than as active survivals of the old mountain range before. On the south art-spirit, let us not wholly blame the side the narrow oasis valley up which producer. We admire, or think we ad- we had climbed the landscape is pracmire, the Greek vases from the tombs; tically treeless. On the north, the we blame the living Greeks for not cypress, pine, and arbutus forest making the like; yet do we not our- thickly clothes the heights, while the selves live contentedly amid the deep-gorged lower plateau slopes gently meanest crockery of any

ceramic to the sea, rich and beautiful in its perperiod, at best relieved by Oriental ennial light-grey and dark evergreen ornaments in utter contrast to our of olive and carob, stretching far as the needs and ways? Let but some mu- eye can reach on either side of the little seum, some educated consumer here and provincial capital of Kerynia, itself a there give at once an outlet and an townlet and suburb grouped around a impulse to better things, and no local gigantic Venetian fort. industry in the world would be more Here, then, we reach the fullest easy of

renascence. As by these beauty of Cyprus, indeed the full

the House Beautiful might beauty of the Mediterranean. The again be simply built, so with these lovely plain, well-watered and wellpotters it might again be adorned. wooded, the pleasant, prosperous-lookSimilarly, good metal-workers are still ing farms with their springs and founin the bazaars, good needlewomen like. tains, the picturesquely perched vilwise not far to seek, for this and that lages on the hillsides, the noble mounold style of Eastern embroidery still tain range with its peaks and cliffs, lingers among the villages, though make up a panorama not to be forWestern "education,” with its Kinder- gotten. On one side of the slope above garten ornament and aniline color, Kyrenia we see the glorious abbey of already poisons the town. Here, toen, Bella Pais, and crowningte three thou. as elsewhere in Cyprus, the ways of sand feet peak above the town, towers active initiative lie open.

the extraordinary castle-labyrinth and Yet one more excursion, this time to turret-medley of St. Hilarion-complex the northward. Across the cereal plain, as a drawing of Dürer's, fantastic in its we come to low barren hills, treeless intense light and shade as a woodcut of and soilless, where, after too many Doré's. Here, at any rate, there is years of Treasury delay, the present little wonder that, to the romantic energetic forest officer has found some traveller, Cyprus seems an enchanted scanty means to make a successful be- island. But our journey is not merely, ginning of afforestation, the acacia tak- nor mainly, in search of the picturing as kindly to these dry gorges as esque and the romantic, though both does the eucalyptus to its marshy artist and photographer are in their levels. From these barrens the scene element; we are also a scientific party suddenly changes, thanks to a good on business, that is, in search of the spring, to the loveliest of oasis valleys, practical, of the miraculous; and we full of watercourses and busy mills, are in high feather especially over one houses and gardens, corn and trees. particular combination of these, the reAfter hour of stumbling and discovering for ourselves of the old scrambling (for the good roads of miracle of Moses's rod. Not a divining Cyprus, as of so many other places, rod, of course, for we read that he are essentially the tentacles of the “smote" the rock, and the waters town, not the arteries of the village), "gushed forth,” which (if a re-revised we reach the spring, and thence wind reading be still admissible) means that





he chipped the travertine, and so re- young engineer for India or Egypt, the opened the spring.

young colonist for the Cape or AusFor in these too calcareous countries tralia may pause to learn his business the springs constantly sealing more simply and rapidly than on the themselves up with a crust, just like a immense scale of these larger counkettle with its deposit, and so year by tries. Here, in fact, far more than in year they run less freely; nay, in time these great countries, one one little outlet after another becomes much within little space. And thus by closed altogether, and thus most, it may cheap and simple methods we might, be even all, of the water supply dis- on the one hand, vastly improve Cyappears, with corresponding shrinkage prus for the Cypriote, a much-needed of fertility, which peasant and ruler service which it is full time we should (Turk and Briton alike) seem to have undertake; and, on the other, make accepted hitherto in the same ignorant Cyprus an object-lesson and trainingfatalism. At one spring a few kicks school for the East, for India and the and scratches set free enough water to Colonies. It is safe to predict also that prove this view to all concerned, and this would help forward the incipient an hour of pickaxe and crowbar gives reaction towards a renewal of ancient, a permanent increase of twenty or simple, and economic irrigation more per cent.; at another, where the methods, away from undue dependence crust is thick and old, hard work is on gigantic and costly engineering wanted; at another, skilled miners and works. This reaction is beginning, for perhaps a charge of dynamite would be instance, to be expressed by Califorrequired. But it is safe to say there is nian or Dakotan irrigation engineers, probably not one spring, along the who, after long dependence on mighty northern chain at east, which has ever reservoirs and costly dams, on expenbeen properly developed, which sive artesian wells, have of late beep might not be vastly and permanently re-discovering for themselves that improved at an expense altogether in- “underflow" on which most of the significant in comparison with the agri- simple, effective and economical irriga. cultural return. The want of Cyprus 18 tion of antiquity and the Middle Ages water, peasant and official alike truly was wont to depend in Cyprus and tell you; yet in no district, so far as our through the East. journey went, are the water resources Nor is Cyprus a potential centre and even properly known, much less properly school of hydrogeology and irrigation exploited. Again, even of such water alone, but of agriculture also, of acclias is obtained too much is either matization as well. With finer climate wasted for irrigation or wasted in over- and better soil than the Riviera, much irrigation; this latter often so copious might surely be done, alike again for as to sicken and drown the roots; to the island itself in the first place, for cake, and choke, and impoverish the the East also, for the empire as soil. It is manifest that such an island, whole. Far away it is, no doubt, as our with its many small but various and small island and our small European varied sources of supply, is not to be distances go; but it is well-nigh at our treated by any rough and wholesale doors as compared with the mighty disengineering application of the methods tances of empire, and on its very main of the vast yet comparatively simpler street also. For what else have we to Indian or Egyptian plains with their compare within one night's run from perennial rivers. It is rather for Cy- Alexandria or Port Said ? Here, too, prus to offer to larger countries a com- within a single farm, lie zones of culparative microcosm of irrigation ture for which we might elsewhere methods, in which economy and effi- have to go half round the world. Beciency of local adaptation might readily ginning with date-palm and banana, combine-so becoming the spot where we pass to pomegranate and to orange, not only the Eastern, but also the to mulberry and to fig, to olive and to



vine, to almond and apple. With water less race towards personal careers and we can grow cotton or cereals, roots or imperial ruin, never heard or thought forage crops. Here, then, is a possible of the great world-empire, of Romu centre, agricultural and educational, with her far otherwise expanding coloboth regional and Oriental, both Medi- nization, her generous and wise incorterranean and Colonial, which we might poration of native races, her steady exwith little outlay develop and utilize. tension of civic and agricultural prosFor the purpose of investment, even, it perity and peace? There have been is high time to contrast this water-min- higher ideals still; but much of what is ing, for which hardly any one at pres- best in existing empire has been of that ent cares, with the gold-mining over Roman kind, and it will soon go hard which all the world has run mad; time with us if we give it up for this Spanto prove, by actual results, that while ish view of things which apparently is the latter is on all fours with the lot- dominant at this hour. To escape these tery and gambling-house, in which, on lower ideals of colonial policy and dethe aggregate, the players and the com- velopment by clearly forming higher munity lose, no matter who here and ones is surely an urgent task, whether there may win, and so is socially the our watchword be to conserve or to lidleast profitable as well as the most eralize. But here, as elsewhere, the demoralizing of all great industries; the problem must be solved neither by auformer is the most profitable, and that thority nor by discussion, public or prithe most steadily and surely so; the vate, but experimentally in the colonial most civilizing and humanizing also. field. For the veriest buccaneer is so

For education, too, is it not time that far justified in his sneer of "Little Enour youths were starting in life with gland” to those who have rebuked him. some better preparation than to have “On ne detruit que ce qu'on remplace.” forgotten Latin and wearied of compul. For the vast accumulation of modern sory games, and with some better ideal capital we must create useful outlets, than of too easy gain? Why not in- if we would not have it burst unlawful stead train them to manly constructive ones; and similarly for all this active, energies, brace them to a resolve to swarming youth, each and all demandleave the world better than they found ing a career. it? Even in the way of politics also, is Here in Cyprus is one such experiit not time for our “imperial ideals” to mental field, alike for colonial developpass beyond those of mere "expan- ment and colonial education. Here sion,” mere "pegging out,”

contacts with well-nigh all newal of one particular historic phase the problems of nature and man, of Spanish imperialism? After the dis- present and future, home and colocovery of America, the burning gold- nial, European and world-wide, lust of the Jew kindled the reckless ad- which the world can at present show; venturousness of the young hidalgo, and here, too, is that very atmosphere the public schoolboy and clubman of ancient culture from which both our of his time; under this and that bold classical and religious traditions and vigorous personality these youths derived. Is it, then, Utopian, or rather swiftly achieved the conquest of Eutopian, to found here our needed conew States, the ruthless extermination lonial college? Again, do we care for of the native races, the transient ac- no influence in the East

that quisition of a certain amount of gold, within the range of our ironclads? Are ans the permanent demoralization, the

we content to leave all English-speakenduring ruin of Mother State and ing culture to the American missionColonies alike. Have there been no aries? Perhaps so; but if we have no other, no better imperial ideals? Have longer anything to teach, then we have these cunning speculators, these sim- the more to learn; and here, within the pleton buccaneers in imperialists' easiest reach of Greece and Asia Minor, clothing, in their criminal and thought- of Syria and Palestine, of Egypt and

mere re.








Arabia, is surely a place for that. Our ready to graft Western science on Eastpossible college might be not only of lo- ern experience. Hence a practical idea cal, technical, and colonial, but of gen for Armenian relief. These doles, this eral interest and importance, a Cyprus alms-giving, soup-kitchen-keeping and College, where European and Eastern the like, are no doubt often good in might conveniently and profitably their way, though lamentably insuffimeet; nay, for which there is such cient when, as apparently at Alexanample room that it might soon justify dria, for instance, we stop there. But a useful existence, were it but

why not utilize the peasant Armenian, sanitorium alone.

and particularly these scientific and

practical agriculturists, to organize ag. As to the possible use of such riculture and its associated industries undertaking to the island itself and to for their countrymen, and so to help the Eastern peoples generally, a word the prosperity of the countries in about our experimental beginnings may which their lot is henceforth to be cast? perhaps be said. Our journey was not of such agricultural leaders a list was wholly one of geographical study soon obtained, far exceeding, alas! oui agricultural inquiry, but in some meas- resources of employment, but repreure of educational and social begin- senting an actual loss to the declining nings also; on the one side for Cyprus agriculture of the Turkish Empire, a agriculture, on the other for Armenian potential gain to any Eastern country agricultural relief, and for associating which is intelligent enough to welcome these to mutual advantage. Among the and settle them as skilled leaders of foremost needs of Cyprus is the better their ri fugee countrymen-indeed, as utilization of the more than excellent teachers if the native populations also. native silkworm, of the excellent soil At Montpellier we were fortunate in and climate for the mulberry. Yet finding one of these lost leaders, occuthough all experts agree as to this, so pied in post-graduate silk research, and insular is our seclusion from all save thanks to a substantial contribution what is worst in France that the Cypri- from the London Committee of the Arote crop yearly almost perishes from menian Refugees' fund for Cyprus, we the diseases which Pasteur overcame a were able to secure his services for the generation ago; the precious silkworm present silk season. Thanks, too, to is well-nigh extinct, a single breeder in the good will of the Cyprus government Papho having just managed to save it; and its eminent director of agriculand a law has had to be passed to pre- ture, Mr. Gennadius, and to the private vent the peasant from cutting down his encouragement of Mr. Van Millingen mulberries in despair. Old acquaint (himself practically a silk expert), this ance with Montpellier-which claims naturally led to the establishment of a not only the second university of small but not inadequate silk-school France, but the first school of agricul- at Nicosia, with a “magnanerie" at ture both for France and for the Med- Larnaka. Instruction being offered in iterranean, where the battle with the Turkish, Greek, and French, students phylloxera, for instance, has been rapidly flocked in until there was no mainly fought, and where progress and more room, and still many had to be re, research in silk-growing also largely fused. Specially encouraging is the centres—had made us aware of many thoroughly composite and representaEast European and Oriental students tive nature of the practical classes, who resort thither, had cleared which include eight Greeks, minds of the popular misunderstand Turks, one Englishman, and no fewer ing of the Armenian as essentially a than twelve Armenians, to whom must shopkeeper or usurer, and taught us to be added as many refugees sent with know him as fundamentally a peasant, small bursaries by one or other of the and at his best the most skilled and apt relief organizations. Assume that only agriculturist of the East, the most half of these may satisfy their exam.



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