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Exod. xxxiv. 29, 30, 34; similar to which we read of Stephen, Acts vi. 15. Hence it is observable, first, that wisdom beautifies a man with tranquillity of mind and cheerfulness of countenance, spem fronte serenat, Ps. iv. 6, 7; Prov. xv. 13. and xvii. 24; Ps. xxxiv. 5. Secondly, that it causes the light of his holiness to shine before others, Mat. v. 16; John v.35; Phil. ii. 15. Thirdly, that it renders him reverend, venerable, and amiable in the view of spectators, as well as conciliates the favour of those that converse with him, Job xxix. 7-16. Fourthly, that it enlightens his eyes, that he may more clearly understand, both what he should do, and what he should not do ; the light of the Lord shines upon his ways, Ps. xxv. 9; Job xxii. 28; Ps. xxxii. 8; 1 John ii. 20.—“ And the boldness,” or “ strength, of his face shall be changed,” or “doubled.” By the strength of the face we may understand, first, fierceness, impudence, sourness, austerity, as Dan. viii. 23 ; Deut. xxviij. 50; Prov. vii. 13. and xxi. 29; Isai. iii. 9; Ps. X. 4; Jer. v.3; all which wisdom changes into mildness, meekness, and serenity of countenance : thus, as Moses was the wisest and most holy, so he was the meekest man, Numb. xii.3; Prov. xi. 2. Or, secondly, confidence and courage; for the righteous is bold as a lion, Prov. xxviii. 1. Guilt and shame cast down the countenance, Gen. iv. 5, 6; righteousness and wisdom embolden it, i Sam. i. 18; Job xi. 15; Luke xxi. 28: and, according to this sense, some read the sentence thus (which the original will justly admit): The strength of his countenance, his confidence and courage, shall be doubled, ch. vij. 19; Isai. xl. 31; Prov. iv. 18.
2. I counsel thee to keep the king's commandmant, and that in regard of the oath of God.
“ I to keep.” There is an ellipsis in the original, and something necessary to be supplied, as is usual in other places, Ps. cxx. 7; Hos. xiv. 8; 2 Cor. ix. 8; Mat. xxv. 9; 2 Thess. ii. 3; 1 Tim. iv.3; Gen. xxv. 22; Mat. xxi. 30. I, if thou wilt admit of my counsel or persuasion, thus advise thee. It is put elliptically, to intimate a special emphasis, and to give authority to the precept, Gal. v. 2.-" To keep the king's commandment,” to observe the mouth of the king. The angels are said to see, or observe, the face of God, as expressive of obedience and readiness to execute his commands, Mat. xviii. 10; Esth. i. 14; 1 Kings X. 8. The mouth is often used for the command which proceeds from it , Exod. xxxviii. 21; Numb, iv. 27; Josh. i. 18. Our obedience must not be regulated by our own fancies and conjectures, but according to the prescriptions of the law; for the law is the mouth of the magi. strate. This is one special part of prudence, in order to secure tranquillity, to be faithful and obedient to magistrates, and not to make ourselves wiser than the law." And that in regard of the oath of God." These words are both an enforcement and a limitation of the duty prescribed. First, an enforcement: it is necessary to yield' obedience to magistrates, not only from fear, because of their sword, but from a principle of conscience towards God, and because his vows are upon us, Rom. xiii. 5. According to this sense, it seems to relate to some covenant and oath of fidelity which was taken towards their princes. We read of the covenant between the king and the people made before the Lord, 1 Chron. xi. 3 ; and a promise or league of this nature was most probably by the intervention of an oath, as the covenant between Abimelech and Abraham, Gen. xxi. 23, 24 : see Gen. xxvi. 28, 29. and xxxi. 44, 53. This may also seem to be intimated in that phrase of giving the hand under Solomon, which we render, submitting themselves unto him, i Chron. xxix. 24. A similar ceremony was performed by Abraham's servant
when he sware fidelity to him, Gen. xxiv. 2, 3. and xlvii. 29; and thus giving the hand was a ceremonial confirmation of some sworn covenant or promise, Ezra x. 19; Ezek. xvii. 18. χώρας 7' αλλήλων λαβελήν, και πισώσαντο, Iliad. II. Hence some understand by Juramentum Elohim, the oath of the magistrates who are thus called in the following scriptures, Exod. xxii. 28; Ps. Ixxxii. 1, 6; to teach them to rule for God, not by their own inclinations, but by his law, and for the good of his people: but I rather understand this expression, the oath of God, to signify an oath sworn unto God, Isai. xix. 18. and xliv. 5; 2 Chron. xv. 12. 14. and xxxiv. 31, 32. implying that we are bound to be obedient to magistrates for the Lord's sake, 1 Pet. ii. 13—17. as servants are required on the same account to yield obedience to their masters, Ephes. vi. 5—8. Secondly, this clause contains a limitation, by which our obedience to men is to be bounded : “Keep the king's commandment,” yet so as not to violate thy oath and obedience to the Most High. Thy service to the one must consist with thy fealty to the other; for we are bound to God and to his service by oath and covenant, Nehem. ix. 38. and X. 29; Ps. cxix. 106 ; and no subordinate obedience to others must enake us forget our duty to him, 1 Sam. xix. 1. and xxii, 17; Dan. ii. 16, 17, 18; Acts iv. 19. and v. 29; 1 Pet. ii. 17; Prov. xxiv. 21; 1 Kings xxi. 8; Esth. iii. 2; 1 Sam. xiv. 45.
3. Be not hasty to go out of his sight: stand not in an evil thing; for he doeth whatsoever pleaseth him.
“ Be not hasty to go out of his sight.” It signifies such haste as arises out of terror and perturbation of spirit, in which sense the word is frequently used, Exod. xv. 15; 2 Sam. iv. 1; Job xxiii. 15. He shews the root of rebellion, namely, impatience, fear, perturbation of spirit; by giving way to which subjects cast off their allegiance. Servants are said to stand in the presence of their lords, 1 Kings x. 8; Esth. i. 3, 4; so that hasting out of their presence implies a declining and rejecting of obedience, Jon. i. 3; 1 Kings xii. 16. This is one part of disobedience here forbidden, hastiness in taking offence, the discovery of choler and discontent, passionately flying away from the presence, the commands, or the anger of a king; not remembering, that kings have many eyes, and can see at a great distance, as well as long arms, and can easily reach those that fly from them in discontent. Obedience, innocence, calmness of spirit, a meek and yielding disposition, may se