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much later, while Usener (Religionsgeschichte Untersuchungen, i. pp. 97,
1 Rovers (Nieuw-test. Letterkunde, 1888) also dates Mk $ 90, Matt + 80, and Luke at the beginning of the second century.
2 “Both very probable dates” (Sanday, Exp4, iii. 20, vii. 412 : Bampton Lect. p. 277 f. Luke=75-80); so V. H. Stanton (ut supra), and Bebb (DB, iii. 162-164
3 Chron. pp. 650-656. So substantially Dr. O. Cone, Gospel Criticism and Historical Christianity, 1891.
reactionary attempts to put Luke previous to the destruction of Jeru-
1 Zahn (Einl. ii. pp. 158-333), like Schäfer (Einl. p. 195 f.), dates Matthew's
Mark or even Matthew (Abbott places both before 70 A.D.), but Halcombe conjectures that the whole of the gospels were in existence and circulation before the Acts (Historic Relation of the Gospels, 1889, pp. 234–250), i.e. previous to 63+, and even twelve years earlier, before the Epistles, John being the earliest of the four, Luke the latest, and Mark following Matthew.
The following synchronisms help to orientate these dates :
Juvenal's satires on Roman politics, manners, and religion kept appearing about this period, the earliest of them perhaps contemporaneous with the first gospels, the latest in the beginning of Trajan's reign, when the fourth gospel was composed in Asia Minor. Also, just as Luke, Acts, and the Apocalypse were coming into circulation among Christian readers, the Roman public were being delighted with Martial's disreputably piquant etchings of Italian society. But the circumstances of Epiktetus' career are even more apposite. His diarpeßai were being delivered in Rome and afterwards in Nikopolis during the last quarter of the first century A.D. They were reproduced thirty or forty years later by one of his hearers, the historian Arrian, who had taken notes of them for his own sake. The curious thing is that these private notes came to be published without the consent or knowledge of Arrian himself, although he probably gave them a subsequent revision. Cp. Tables II.-III.
The inner forces of the environment form too complex a subject to be outlined here. But in addition to what has been already said upon the practical aim which dominated the evangelists, it must be remembered that the medium through which they and their readers viewed the life of Jesus was not insulated from the contemporary spirit which pervaded the East. As Dr. Gardner decides, after drawing attention to the limited extent to which the Eastern parts of the Roman world were Hellenised in the first century, “the mass of the people were prepared to accept historical accounts not by the strict rules of evidence, but according as they satisfied certain inner needs or agreed with existing feelings." Some principle like this is needed as a canon for gospel-criticism. Otherwise many problems will remain insoluble to those who forget that to be realistic, ethically appropriate, circumstantial, edifying, is not equivalent to being “historical" in the strict and modern sense of the term. Roughly speaking, the priority of Mark, and approximately its date : the composition of Matthew within the first century, and its general period :these are the points upon which most lines of modern criticism converge. That Luke is subsequent to Matthew, and that it was composed during Domitian's reign, are less certain positions ; but they have excellent support, and may be adopted with a good conscience. On these points as on the criticism of the sources, it is certainly possible to speak with less dubiety than hitherto. If the province of the synoptic question has not yet been fully surveyed, the researches of the past halfcentury 1 have at least opened several main tracks along which all future workers must proceed, and from which it is reasonable to expect that, unless fresh documents are discovered, no serious deviation will be found necessary.
i The hope with which Ritschl closed his survey of the synoptic question (Gesammelte Aussätze, pp. 1-57) in 1851, has been largely justified: “Wie weit uns die innere Kritik der Evangelien in der Untersuchung ihres Ursprungs führen wird, wissen wir nicht, bisher hat sie nur zu Hader und Žank geführt, darum können wir aber die Hoffnung nicht aufgeben, dass auf diesem Wege das Geheimniss wenigstens theilweise enthüllt werde, welches die Ursprünge des evangelischen Schriftthums umgibt, und welches durch die Traditionen der Kirchenväter nur vermehrt, aber nicht vermindert wird."
With this gospel we proceed to describe the historical literature of early Christianity. Undoubtedly it is the earliest of the gospels, and became the groundwork for all that followed. The arrangement of the narratives, which is simple and thoroughly clear, represents the guiding principle followed in the main by Luke and Matthew. ... The stories and speeches in Mark are presented throughout in a manner that bears the stamp of originality, with a clearness and precision that are self-evident, as well as with a completeness that is at once well rounded, coherent, and continuous. It is the first extant attempt to exhibit in narrative form, as a history of Jesus' life and sufferings, that gospel of Jesus as the Christ which Paul had preached as a theological doctrine. Materials from the earliest tradition are certainly utilised in this narrative; but in its conception of details it betrays as plainly the determining influence of that great teacher Paul, who probably had as one of his scholars the author of this first gospel. — Pfleiderer.
11-13 The Preparation the ministry of John ;
the baptism of Jesus;
the temptation of Jesus. 114_950 The Galilean ministry:
( forgiveness of sins,
intercourse with tax114_723 East Galilee: early success : contro-) gatherers and sinners,
versy and conflict on ) fasting,
Sabbath (eating and heal
ting on). renewed activity and opposition : 41-34
a cycle of parables : 435_543
a cycle of miracles : 6
rejection at Nazareth : commission of a postles. 630_723
a cycle of miracles : opposition of the Pharisees. 724_950
North Galilee: a cycle of miracles : controversy with Pharisees. 827-932
at Caesarea Philippi-the confession of Peter : the
sayings on humility-on hindrances-on obstacles
10-13 The Judaean ministry: the teaching of Jesus on marriage, child
hood, wealth, self-sacrifice. 1032-52
incidents of the journey—the miracle at
the triumphal entry into Jerusalem : the
purging of the temple, etc. 1127-1244
controversy in temple with priests, Phari
sees, Herodians, Sadducees, etc. the apocalypse of Jesus
14-15 The Passion of Jesus: at Bethany: in the upper room—the last
161-8 After death : appearance of an angel to the women.
1 i [The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ.]
Even as it is written in the prophet Isaiah,
Who shall prepare thy way!
Make level his paths !"
began to go out to him, with all the people of Jerusalein ; and they were 6 baptized by him in the river Jordan, as they confessed their sins. And
John was clothed with camel's hair, and with a leather girdle round his 7 loins, and he ate locusts and wild honey. And he preached saying,
“After me comes he who is mightier than I,
The thong of whose sandals I am not fit to stoop down and untie. 8 I have baptized you with water,
But he shall baptize you with the holy Spirit.” 9 And it came to pass in those days that Jesus came from Nazareth of 10 Galilee, and had himself baptized in the Jordan by John. And im
mediately on rising up from the water he saw the skies part asunder and 11 the Spirit like a dove come down upon him : and a voice out of the skies said,
“Thou art my Son, the beloved,
In thee I delight.” 12 Then immediately the Spirit thrusts him out into the wilderness ; 13 and he was in the wilderness for forty days, tempted by Satan.
And he was with the wild beasts. And the angels ministered to him.
14 Now after John had been delivered up, Jesus came into Galilee 15 preaching the glad tidings of God, and saying, “The time is fulfilled, and
God's reign is near. Repent and believe in the glad tidings." 16 And in passing along beside the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew 17 the brother of Simon casting a net into the sea ; for they were fishers. And
Jesus said to them, “Come after me and I will make you fishers of 19, 19 men.” Then immediately they left the nets and followed him. And
going a little further on he saw James the son of Zebedee with his 20 brother John, who were also in their boat mending nets. And immedi
ately he called them; and they left their father Zebedee with the hired
servants in the boat, and went away after him. 21 And they go into Kapharnahum. And immediately on the sabbath22 day he went into the synagogue and began to teach. And they were
astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as one who exerted 23 authority, and not like the scribes. And immediately there was in their
| 1 Omitting [[ <w:]].