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much later, while Usener (Religionsgeschichte Untersuchungen, i. pp. 97,
173) dates its final form 130 A.D., its oldest, 69 A.D.1 Jülicher's period
for the gospel is 81-96 A.D., with which Wernle practically agrees. As
for Luke, quite a weighty league of scholars cannot find evidence for it
earlier than the end of the first century or the beginning of the second ;
so Hilgenfeld, Holsten, Holtzmann, Krenkel, Weizsäcker, Jülicher,
Wernle, etc. Extravagant as some of the arguments for these positions
may be, the total proof is sufficient to show the lack of any definite
agreement upon the date of either Matthew or Luke, and also the
generally late period to which upon any fair statement of the case they
must be assigned. Equally extravagant in the opposite direction are the

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1 Rovers (Nieuw-test. Letterkunde, 1888) also dates Mk $ 90, Matt + 80, and Luke at the beginning of the second century.

2 “Both very probable dates” (Sanday, Exp4, iii. 20, vii. 412 : Bampton Lect. p. 277 f. Luke=75-80); so V. H. Stanton (ut supra), and Bebb (DB, iii. 162-164

3 Chron. pp. 650-656. So substantially Dr. O. Cone, Gospel Criticism and Historical Christianity, 1891.

reactionary attempts to put Luke previous to the destruction of Jeru-
salem : so, after Godet, Prof. Marshall (Exp.4 ii. 72, 58-60 A.D.), Schanz
(between 65–70), Schäfer (67–70), Hahn, and most recently Blass (PG,
pp. 33–52, Evglm. secundum Luc. 1897, pp. ix, x), who dates it fifteen years
previous to that event. This period had been occasionally assigned to

1 Zahn (Einl. ii. pp. 158-333), like Schäfer (Einl. p. 195 f.), dates Matthew's
Aramaic work (composed in Palestine) c. 62, and its final Greek form more than
twenty years later ; just as Hilgenfeld had already put the former 50-60, and the
latter 70-80 A.D. Holsten put the Matthean Logia as far back as c. 55. Stanton
(DB, ii. pp. 247, 248), after dismissing Mt 2429 as an argument for the pre-70 date,
remarks,“Nor do there seem to be other indications in the gospel which enable us to
assign it with confidence to a time either before or after that or any other date."
This is quite a wanton pessimism: it is caution glorified at the expense of intelligence.

Mark or even Matthew (Abbott places both before 70 A.D.), but Halcombe conjectures that the whole of the gospels were in existence and circulation before the Acts (Historic Relation of the Gospels, 1889, pp. 234–250), i.e. previous to 63+, and even twelve years earlier, before the Epistles, John being the earliest of the four, Luke the latest, and Mark following Matthew.

The following synchronisms help to orientate these dates :

Juvenal's satires on Roman politics, manners, and religion kept appearing about this period, the earliest of them perhaps contemporaneous with the first gospels, the latest in the beginning of Trajan's reign, when the fourth gospel was composed in Asia Minor. Also, just as Luke, Acts, and the Apocalypse were coming into circulation among Christian readers, the Roman public were being delighted with Martial's disreputably piquant etchings of Italian society. But the circumstances of Epiktetus' career are even more apposite. His diarpeßai were being delivered in Rome and afterwards in Nikopolis during the last quarter of the first century A.D. They were reproduced thirty or forty years later by one of his hearers, the historian Arrian, who had taken notes of them for his own sake. The curious thing is that these private notes came to be published without the consent or knowledge of Arrian himself, although he probably gave them a subsequent revision. Cp. Tables II.-III.

The inner forces of the environment form too complex a subject to be outlined here. But in addition to what has been already said upon the practical aim which dominated the evangelists, it must be remembered that the medium through which they and their readers viewed the life of Jesus was not insulated from the contemporary spirit which pervaded the East. As Dr. Gardner decides, after drawing attention to the limited extent to which the Eastern parts of the Roman world were Hellenised in the first century, “the mass of the people were prepared to accept historical accounts not by the strict rules of evidence, but according as they satisfied certain inner needs or agreed with existing feelings." Some principle like this is needed as a canon for gospel-criticism. Otherwise many problems will remain insoluble to those who forget that to be realistic, ethically appropriate, circumstantial, edifying, is not equivalent to being “historical" in the strict and modern sense of the term. Roughly speaking, the priority of Mark, and approximately its date : the composition of Matthew within the first century, and its general period :these are the points upon which most lines of modern criticism converge. That Luke is subsequent to Matthew, and that it was composed during Domitian's reign, are less certain positions ; but they have excellent support, and may be adopted with a good conscience. On these points as on the criticism of the sources, it is certainly possible to speak with less dubiety than hitherto. If the province of the synoptic question has not yet been fully surveyed, the researches of the past halfcentury 1 have at least opened several main tracks along which all future workers must proceed, and from which it is reasonable to expect that, unless fresh documents are discovered, no serious deviation will be found necessary.

i The hope with which Ritschl closed his survey of the synoptic question (Gesammelte Aussätze, pp. 1-57) in 1851, has been largely justified: “Wie weit uns die innere Kritik der Evangelien in der Untersuchung ihres Ursprungs führen wird, wissen wir nicht, bisher hat sie nur zu Hader und Žank geführt, darum können wir aber die Hoffnung nicht aufgeben, dass auf diesem Wege das Geheimniss wenigstens theilweise enthüllt werde, welches die Ursprünge des evangelischen Schriftthums umgibt, und welches durch die Traditionen der Kirchenväter nur vermehrt, aber nicht vermindert wird."

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With this gospel we proceed to describe the historical literature of early Christianity. Undoubtedly it is the earliest of the gospels, and became the groundwork for all that followed. The arrangement of the narratives, which is simple and thoroughly clear, represents the guiding principle followed in the main by Luke and Matthew. ... The stories and speeches in Mark are presented throughout in a manner that bears the stamp of originality, with a clearness and precision that are self-evident, as well as with a completeness that is at once well rounded, coherent, and continuous. It is the first extant attempt to exhibit in narrative form, as a history of Jesus' life and sufferings, that gospel of Jesus as the Christ which Paul had preached as a theological doctrine. Materials from the earliest tradition are certainly utilised in this narrative; but in its conception of details it betrays as plainly the determining influence of that great teacher Paul, who probably had as one of his scholars the author of this first gospel. — Pfleiderer.

11-13 The Preparation the ministry of John ;

the baptism of Jesus;

the temptation of Jesus. 114_950 The Galilean ministry:

( forgiveness of sins,

intercourse with tax114_723 East Galilee: early success : contro-) gatherers and sinners,

versy and conflict on ) fasting,

Sabbath (eating and heal

ting on). renewed activity and opposition : 41-34

a cycle of parables : 435_543

a cycle of miracles : 6

rejection at Nazareth : commission of a postles. 630_723

a cycle of miracles : opposition of the Pharisees. 724_950

North Galilee: a cycle of miracles : controversy with Pharisees. 827-932

at Caesarea Philippi-the confession of Peter : the

transfiguration. 933-50

sayings on humility-on hindrances-on obstacles

to faith.

10-13 The Judaean ministry: the teaching of Jesus on marriage, child

hood, wealth, self-sacrifice. 1032-52

incidents of the journey—the miracle at

Jericho. 111-27

the triumphal entry into Jerusalem : the

purging of the temple, etc. 1127-1244

controversy in temple with priests, Phari

sees, Herodians, Sadducees, etc. the apocalypse of Jesus


14-15 The Passion of Jesus: at Bethany: in the upper room—the last

in the garden-the agony, the betrayal.
in the house of Kaiaphas—the trial,

Peter's denial.
before Pilate-
the crucifixion, death, and burial.

161-8 After death : appearance of an angel to the women.


1 i [The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ.]

Even as it is written in the prophet Isaiah,
Lo, I send my messenger before thy face,

Who shall prepare thy way!
The voice of one crying in the wilderness :
Make ready the way of the Lord,

Make level his paths !"
4 John the baptizer appeared in the wilderness preaching a baptism of
5 repentance for the remission of sins. And all the country of Judaea

began to go out to him, with all the people of Jerusalein ; and they were 6 baptized by him in the river Jordan, as they confessed their sins. And

John was clothed with camel's hair, and with a leather girdle round his 7 loins, and he ate locusts and wild honey. And he preached saying,

“After me comes he who is mightier than I,

The thong of whose sandals I am not fit to stoop down and untie. 8 I have baptized you with water,

But he shall baptize you with the holy Spirit.” 9 And it came to pass in those days that Jesus came from Nazareth of 10 Galilee, and had himself baptized in the Jordan by John. And im

mediately on rising up from the water he saw the skies part asunder and 11 the Spirit like a dove come down upon him : and a voice out of the skies said,

“Thou art my Son, the beloved,

In thee I delight.” 12 Then immediately the Spirit thrusts him out into the wilderness ; 13 and he was in the wilderness for forty days, tempted by Satan.

And he was with the wild beasts. And the angels ministered to him.

14 Now after John had been delivered up, Jesus came into Galilee 15 preaching the glad tidings of God, and saying, “The time is fulfilled, and

God's reign is near. Repent and believe in the glad tidings." 16 And in passing along beside the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew 17 the brother of Simon casting a net into the sea ; for they were fishers. And

Jesus said to them, “Come after me and I will make you fishers of 19, 19 men.” Then immediately they left the nets and followed him. And

going a little further on he saw James the son of Zebedee with his 20 brother John, who were also in their boat mending nets. And immedi

ately he called them; and they left their father Zebedee with the hired

servants in the boat, and went away after him. 21 And they go into Kapharnahum. And immediately on the sabbath22 day he went into the synagogue and began to teach. And they were

astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as one who exerted 23 authority, and not like the scribes. And immediately there was in their

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