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Many of these gentry have left their sword; keeps flocks of sheep and country for their country's weal. goats, and trades with the interior A body of convicts, however, fights for ivory and captives, whilst his well. The Mekrani are first-rate company has not a sandal amongst behind walls; and if paid, drilled, them. Such has been, is, and ever and officered, they would make as will be the result of that false “ varmint” light-bobs as Arnauts. economy which, in the East, froin They have a knightly fondness for Stambul to Japan, grudges the penny arms. A “young barrel and an old and flings away the pound. ·blade” are their delight. All use the Having communicated our project matchlock, and many are skilful with to the jemadar of Chogway, he sword and shield. Their pay is from promised, for a consideration, all two to three dollars a-month, out of aid ; told us that we should start the which they find food and clothes. next day; and, curious to relate, kept They never see money from the year's his word. The little settlement, howone end to the other, and are as rag- ever, affording but five matchlockged a crew as ever left the barren men as a guard, and four slave-boys hills of the north to seek fortune in as porters, the C. 0. engaged for Africa. They live in tattered hovels, us a guide and his attendant--nomiwith one meal of grain a-day for pally paying 10 dollars, and doubtthemselves and slave-girls. To the less retaining one-half. greediness of mountaineers, the poor After a night spent in the Magdevils add the insatiable desires of chan, where wind, dust, and ants conbeggars. The Banyans have a pro- spired to make us miserable, we arose verb that" a Beloch, a Brahmin, and early to prepare for marching. About a buck-goat, eat the trees to which mid-day, issuing from our shed, we they are tied.” Like school-boys, placed the kit-now reduced to a they think nought so fine as the somewhat stricte necessaire—in the noise of a gun, consequently ammuni- sun; thus mutely appealing to the tion is served out to them by the “sharm” or shame of our Beloch comjemadar only before a fight. Sud- rades. A start was effected at five den and sharp in quarrel, they draw P.M., every slave complaining of his their daggers upon the minimest pro- load, snatching up the lightest, and vocation, have no “mitigation or re- hurrying on regardless of what was morse of voice,” and pray in the pro- left behind. This nuisance endured portion of one to a dozen. All look till summarily stopped by an outforward to "Hindostan, bagho bus- ward application easily divined. At tan”-India, the garden; but the length, escorted in token of honour Arabs have a canny proverb import- by the consumptive jemadar and ing that “the fool who falleth into most of his company, we departed the fire rarely falleth out of it.” in a straggling Indian file towards
"Fraudare stipendio," saith ancient Tongway. Justin, was the practice of the great The path wound over stony ridges. king's satraps : the modern East has After an hour it plunged into a dense strictly preserved the custom. Each and thorny thicket, which, during station is commanded by a jemadar the rains, must be impassable. The upon four or five dollars a-month, evening belling of deer, and the and full licence to peculate. Thé clock-clock of partridge, struck our class is at once under-paid and over- ears. In the open places were the trusted. The jemadar advances lesses of elephants, and footprints money upon usury to his men, and retained by the last year's mud. keeps them six months in arrears; These animals descend to the plains he exacts perquisites from all who during the monsoon, and in summer fear his hate and need his aid; and retire to the cool hills. The Belohe falsifies the muster-rolls most im- chies shoot, the wild people kill them pudently, giving twenty-five names with poisoned arrows. More than to perhaps four men. Thus the jem- once during our wanderings we found adar supports a wife and a dozen the grave-like trap-pits, called in slaves; sports a fine scarlet-coat, a India Ogi. These are artfully dug in grand dagger, and a silver-bilted little rises, to fit exactly the elephant,
who easily extricates himself from one “small hours," the time always too large or too small. We did not chosen by the African freebooter to meet a single specimen; but, judging make his cowardly onslaught. from the prints-three to three and At daybreak on the 9th of Feba half circumferences showing the ruary, accompanied by a small deshoulder height--they are not remark- tachment, we resumed our march. able for size. The further interior, The poitrinaire jemadar, who was however, exports the finest, whitest, crippled by the moonlight and the largest, heaviest, and softest ivory in cold dew, resolved to return, when the world. Tusks weighing 100 lb. thawed, with the rest of his company each are common, those of 175 lb. are to Chogway. An hour's hard walknot rare, and I have heard of a pair ing brought us to the foot of rugged whose joint weight was 560 lb. It Tongway, the "great hill.” Ascend
“” was a severe disappointment to us ing the flank of the north-eastern that we could not revisit this country spur, we found ourselves at eight A.M., during the rains. Colonel Hamerton after five bad miles, upon the chine strongly dissuaded us from again of a lower ridge-with summer torisking jungle-fever, and we had a wards the sea--and landward, a wind duty to perform in Inner Africa. of winter. Thence pursuing the Sporting, indeed, is a labour which rugged incline, in another half-hour occupies the whole man: to shoot we entered the Fort, a small, square, for specimens, between work, is to crenellated, flat-roofed, and white waste time in two ways. Game was washed room, tenanted by two Belorare throughout our march. None chies, who appear in the muster-rolls lives where the land is peopled. In as twenty men. They complained of the deserts it is persecuted by the loneliness and the horrors. Though Belochies; and the wild Jägers slay several goats had been sacrificed, a and eat even rats. We heard, however, fearsome demon still haunted the of mabogo or buffalo antelope, and á hill, and the weeping and wailing of hog-probably the masked boar- distressed spirits make their thin lions, leopards in plenty ; the nilghae blood run chill. (A. Picta), and an elk, resembling the Tongway is the first off-set of the Indian sambar.
mountain-terrace composing the land Another hour's marching brought of Usumbara. It rises abruptly from us to the Makam Sazzid Sulayman, the plain ; lies north-west of, and a half-cleared ring in the bush, nine miles, as the crow flies, distant bounded on one side by a rocky and from, Chogway. The summit, about tree - fringed ravine, where water 2000 feet above the sea-level, is stagnates in pools during the dry clothed with jungle, through which, season. The pedometer showed six seeking compass sights, we cut a miles. There we passed the night in way with our swords. The deserted a small babel of Belochies. One re- ground showed signs of former culcited his koran ; another prayed; a ture, and our Negro guide sighed as third told funny stories; whilst a he said that his kinsmen had been fourth trolled lays of love and war, driven from their ancient seats into long ago made familiar to my ear the far inner wastes. Tongway proupon the rugged Asian hills. "This jects long spurs into the plain, where was varied by slapping lank mos- the Pangany, river flows noisily quitoes that flocked to the camp- through a rocky trough. The mounfires; by rising to get rid of huge tain surface is a reddish argillaceous black pismires, whose bite burned and vegetable soil, overlying grey like a red-hot needle ; and by chal- and ruddy granites and schist. lenging two parties of savages, who, These stones bear the gold and armed with bows and arrows, passed silver complexion” which was fatal amongst us, carrying maize to Pan- to the chivalrous Shepherd of the gany. The Belochies kept a truly Ocean, and the glistening mica still Oriental watch. They sang and feeds the fancy of the Beloch mershouted during early night, when cenary. The thickness of the jungle there is no danger; but they all - which contains stunted cocos and slept like the dead through the bitter oranges, the castor, the wild
He is pur
egg-plant, and bird-pepper--renders and regular features look as if carved the mountain inaccessible from any in ebony, and he frowns like a demon but the eastern and northern flanks. in the Arabian Nights. Around the Fort are slender planta- blind, a defect which does not, howtions of maize and manive. Below, a ever, prevent his leading us into deep hole supplies the sweetest rock- every village, that we may be water ; and upon the plain a boulder mulcted in sprig-muslin. Wazira is of well-weathered granite, striped our rogue, rich in all the peculiarities with snowy quartz, and about twenty of African cunning: A prayerless feet high, contains two crevices ever Sherif, he thoroughly despises the filled by the purest springs. The Makapry or Infidels; he has a hot climate appeared delicious-temper- temper, and, when provoked, roars ate in the full blaze of an African like a wild beast. He began by reand tropical summer; and whilst the fusing his load, but yielded when it hill was green, the land around was was gently placed upon his heavy baked like bread crust.
shoulder, with a significant gesture We had work to do before leaving in case of recusance. He does not, Tongway. The jemadar ordered however, neglect occasionally to pass for us an escort ; but amongst these it to his slave, who, poor wretch, is people, obedience to orders is some- almost broken down by the double what optional. Moreover, the Be- burden. lochies, enervated by climate and Rahewat, the Mekrani, calls himwant of exercise, looked forward to a self a Beloch, and wears the title of mountain - march with displeasure. Shah-Sawar, or the Rider-king. He Shoeless, bedless, and well - nigh is the “Chelebi,” the dandy and tiger clotheless, even the hope of dollars of our party: A “good - looking could scarcely induce them to leave brown man,” about twenty-five years for a week their lazy huts, their pic- old, with a certain girlishness and caninnies, and their black Venuses. affectation of tournure and manner, They felt happy at Tongway, twice which bode no good, the Ridera-day devouring our rice-an un- king deals in the externals of respecknown luxury, and they were at tability; he washes and prays with infinite pains to defer the evil hour. pompous regularity, combs his long One man declared impossible to hair and beard, trains his bushy travel without salt, and proposed mustaches to touch his eyes, and sending back a slave to Chogway. binds a huge turban. He affects the This involved the loss of at least jemadar. He would have taken three days, and was at once re- charge, had we permitted, of the jected.
general store of gunpowder-a small By hard talking we managed to leather-bottle wrung from the comsecure a small party, which demands mandant of Chogway; and having a few words of introduction to the somewhat high ideas of discipline, he reader. We have four slave-boys, began with stabbing a slave-boy by idle, worthless dogs, who never work way of lesson. He talks loud in his save under the rod, think solely of native Mekrani and base Persian ; their stomachs, and are addicted to moreover, his opinion is ever to the running away. Petty pilferers to fore. The Rider-king, pleading solthe back-bone, they steal, like mag- dier, positively refuses to carry anypies, by instinct. On the march they thing but his matchlock, and a prilag behind, and, not being profes- vate stock of dates which he keeps sional porters, they are restive as ungenerously to himself. He boasts camels when receiving their load. of prowess in vert and venison : we One of these youths, happening to be never saw him hit the mark, but we brother-in-law-after a fashion-to missed some powder and ball, with the jemadar, requires incessant su- which he may be more fortunate. pervision to prevent him burdening Hamdan, a Maskat Arab, has the others with his own share. The seen better days." Melancholia and guide, Muigni Wazira, is a huge strong waters have removed all traces broad-shouldered Sawahili, with a of them, except a tincture of letters. coal-black skin : his high, massive, Our Mullah, or learned man, is small,
thin, brown, long-nosed, and green- fondly back upon the home of his eyed, with little spirit and less mus- adoption, and sighs for the day when cularity. A crafty old traveller, le a few dollars will enable him to rehas a store of comforts for the way ; turn. He has ineffable contempt for he carries, with his childish match- all “ Jungly niggers." His head is lock, a drinking-gourd and a ghee a triumph to Phrenology ; a high pot, and he sits apart from the crowd narrow cranium, flat-fronted, denotfor more reasons than one. Strongly ing, by arched and rounded crown, full contrasting with him is the ancient development of the moral region, Mekrani, Shaaban, a hideous decre- with deficiency of the perceptives and pid giant, with the negroid type of reflectives. He works on principle, countenance. He is of the pig- and works like a horse, openly deheaded, opposed to the soft-headed, claring, that not love of us, but atorder of old man ; hard and opinion- tachment to his stomach, makes him ated, selfish and unmanageable. He industrious. With a sprained ankle, smokes, and must drink water all and a load quite disproportioned to day. He dispenses the wisdom of a his chétif body, he insists upon carDogberry, much to his hearers' dis- rying two guns. He attends us everygust, and he coughs through the where, manages our purchases, is hours of night. This senior will trusted with all messages, and, when carry nothing but his gun, pipe, and otherwise disengaged, is at every gourd, and, despite his grey-beard, man's beck and call.
He had enhe is the drone of the party.
listed under the jemadar of ChogJemal and Murad Ali are way. We thought, however, so highly working-men, excellent specimens of of his qualifications, that persuasion the true Beloch-vieux grognards, and paying his debts induced him, with a grim, sour humour, especially after a little coquetting, to take when the fair sex is concerned. They leave of soldiering and follow our have black frowning faces, wrinkled fortunes. Sudy Bombay will be our and rugged as their natal hills, with head gun-carrier, if he survive his pads of muscle upon their short fore- present fever, and, I doubt not, will arms, and high, sinewy, angular prove himself a rascal in the end. calves, remarkable in this land of A machine so formed could hardly "sheep-shanks.” Sparing of words, be expected to move without some when addressed, they merely grunt; creaking. The Belochies were not but when they speak, it is in a entirely under us, and in the East
They are angry men, and no man will serve two masters. For uncommonly handy with their greasy the first few days, many a loud daggers. With the promise of an wrangling and muttered cursing extra dollar, they walk off under showed signs of a dissolution. One heavy loads, besides their guns and would not proceed because the Ridernecessaries.
king monopolised the powder; anThe gem of the party is Sudy Mu- other started on his way home bebarak, who has taken to himself the cause he was refused some dates ; and cognomen of “ Bombay.”. His sooty during the first night all Bombay's skin, and teeth pointed like those of efforts were required to prevent a the reptilia, denote his Mhiav origin. sauve qui peut. But by degrees the He is one of those real “Sudies.” that component parts fitted smoothly and delight the passengers in an Indian worked steadily: at last we had steamer. Boinbay, sold in early little to complain of, and the men youth, carried to Cutch by some Ban- volunteered to follow wherever 'we yan, and there emancipated, looks might lead.
OUR CONVICTS-PAST AND PRESENT.
It would surely be a very interest- their thoughts. But to the fallacy ing discovery to all pbilosophers of of those who discovered in later the Positive school, to identify in the times a practical benefit in a peculiar dark distance of history the man kind of slavery, experience has borne who discovered slavery. Their leader, ample testimony ; and in this testiAuguste Comte, among other hardý mony there lies a solemn lesson for theories which have reaped more all social reformers—the lesson that wonder than acquiescence, enlarges all that is wrong in the world is not to with all his eloquence on the adop- be put right by someone simple theory tion of this institution, as the greatest —the lesson that it is not in the stride made towards human civilisa- careless application of one universal tion. Before it was suggested, men medicine, but in a careful observahad no alternative, after they fought tion of symptoms, and an anxious and conquered, but to slay, cook, and conscientious testing of warily-apeat the vanquished enemy. To sug- plied remedies, that we are to look gest to them the alternative of get- for the cure of great social maladies. ting work out of the captives-com- In transportation to the American pelling them to hew wood, draw plantations, as it was practised by water, and till the ground for their Britain for upwards of a century, the victors—was an act of benignant wis- Government abandoned all control dom for which mankind should be over the offender's fate, all knowever grateful.
ledge of it, and consequently all reLaugh as we may at this specimen sponsibility for the character and of wild ingenuity, it is yet true that extent of the punishment to which there were in this country, within the he was subjected, if punishment past two hundred years, men of dis- really were his fate. The absolute interested feelings, and, in some mea- and entire manner in which the consure, enlightened views, who gloried vict was cast off by the State, when in the distinction of having invented compared with the system of transa beneficent kind of slavery. The portation lately abandoned, shows arrangement by which criminals how far even this system was an imwere given away as slaves to the provement, as being a nearer apWestern planters, instead of being proach to the proper functions of kept for the dungeon or the gibbet, penal law. If there be any
who now seemed a blessing without alloy tó demand that our criminals shall be the receiver as well as to the giver. sent forth into the desert, they assurThe planter had what he sorely need. edly would not be content to transed-labour under that tropical sun fer them to a contractor, who might which ripens the rich harvest, but work them rapidly to death, or inmakes the human being so listless that dulge them in a life of idle luxury, acmoney will not procure the arduous cording to his interest or his humour. toil necessary to draw the full profit This arrangement produced social from the earth. The planter got his ovils, from which the territories more slaves, Britain got rid of her crimi- immediately affected by them are nals without cost and without cruelty even now suffering. They reacted in -at least of an immediate and palm their day even on the shore of Britain; pable character. In this respect the for the profuse dispersal of conviot arrangement stood in benign con- slaves created so ravenous an appetite trast with the hangings and the for larger consignments of that valuliving burial in the putrescence of the able commodity, that while the fair old jails, which it came to supersede. trader contracted with Government We shall not attempt to deal with for the harvest of the jail-deliveries, the theory of the prophet of Positiv- the smuggler prowled about in quiet ism. Within a short while he has corners of the coast, and kidnapped gone to that place where all men are young men, who were carried off and to be judged for their doings and sold in the plantations. It is diffi
VOL. LXXXIII.-NO, DIX,