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his cruelty, and in allusion to the distinguishing color of the Roman emperors and magistrates^ * The beast is- also full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns; so that this is'" the very fame beast which was described in the former part of the 13 th chapter: and the worn w in some measure answers to the two-horned beast or false prophet: and consequently the woman is Christian, and not Pagan Rome; because Rome was become Christian, before the beast had completely seven heads and ten horns, that is before the Roman empire experienced its last form of government, and was divided into ten kingdoms. The woman is arrayed too (Vet.4.) in purple and scarlet color, this being the color of the popes and cardinals, as well as of the emperors and senators of Rome. Nay the mules and horses, which carry the popes and cardinals, are covered with scarlet cloth, so that they may properly be said to ride upon a scarlet colored beast. The woman is also decked with gold, and precious jlone, and pearls; and who can sufficiently describe the pride, and grandeur, and magnificence of the church of Rome in her vestments and ornaments of all kinds? Alexander Donatus (6) hath drawn a comparison
(6) Vitring. p. 759. Donat. (7) Platina's Lives of the de Urbc Roma. Lib. 1. Cap. 29. Popes translated by Sir Paul
between ancient and modern Jlome, and asserts the superiority of his own church in the pomp and splendor of religion. You have a remarkable instance in Paul II, of whom (j) Platina relates, that " in his pontifical vestments he ".outwent all his predecessors, especially in his "regno or mitre, upon which he laid out a great ".deal of money in purchasing at vast ratesr ".diamonds, saphirs, emeralds, chrysolites, jas"(perS, unions, and all manner of precious ".stones, wherewith adorned like another Aaron "he would appear abroad somewhat more , "august than a man, delighting to be seen and, "admired by every one. But lest he, alone , ".should seem to differ from the rest, he made ,
"a decree, that none but cardinals should
til' jn'' » , . • - - '» ,» \* *'
"under a penalty wear red caps; to whom he "had in the first year of his popedom given "cloth of that color, to. make horse-cloths Or "mule-cloths of when they rode." You have , another conspicuous instance in the Lady of* , Loretto; the (8) riches of whose holy image^ and house, and treasury; the golden angels,, the gold and silver lamps; the vast number, variety, and richness of the jewels, of the vestments for the holy image,' and for the priests;
Rycant. p. 414.:: .,, - 123. Addison'sTravels, p.93? (8) bee Wright's Travels, p.
* 6 U 2 (9)
with the prodigious treasure of all sorts; are far beyond' the reach of description; and as Mr. Addison fays, "as much surpassed my expectation, as other sights have generally fallen "short of it. Silver can scarce find an admis"sion, and gold itself looks but poorly among "such an incredible number os precious stories.'* Moreover the woman, like other harlots who give philters and love-potions to inflame their lovers, hath a golden cup in her hand, full of abominations and filthinef of her fornication; to signify the specious and alluring arts, wherewith she bewitcheth and inticeth men to idolatry, which" is abomination and spiritual fornication. It is an image copied from Jeremiah, (LI. 7.) Babylon hath been a golden cnp in the Lord's hand, that made all the earth drunken.- and in that excellent little moral treatise, (9) intitled the Table of Cebes, there is a like picture of Deceit or Imposture* a fair, beautiful, and
* false woman, and having a cup in her hand's 'she is called Deceit, and feduceth all man
* kind.' And is not this a much more proper emblem of pontifical than of imperial Rome?
1 Yet •
(9) yt'wi n-tw*a<r/!Af»i) Tw tiJti, argutaque specie, et manu po. xai wiSam (pampm, xat t» ry culam quoddara tenens. • ImXs'?' 'PC4^* mnifut Ti—A7r«Tii postura vocatur, qua; omnes xaXiirai, i tr«TM( Tm; M^sjwsj homines seducit. Tab. Cebetis •mhnnaaa,. Muiier ficto vultu, non longe ab initio.
Yet farther to distinguish the woman, she has her nameinscribed upon her forehead, (ver. 5.) in allusion to the practice of some notorious prostitutes, whohad theirnameswrittenin alabel upon their foreheads, as we may (i) collect from ancient authors. The inscription is so very particular, that we cannot easily mistake the person; Myftery, Babylon the great, the mother of harlots, or rather of fornications, and abominations of the earth. Her name Myftery can imply no less, than that she dealeth in mysteries; her religion is a myftery, a myftery of iniquity; and she herself is mystically andspiritually Babylon the great. But the title of myftery is in no respect proper to ancient Rome, more than any other city: and neither is there any mystery in substituting one heathen, idolatrous, and persecuting city for another; but it is indeed a mystery, that a christian city, professing and boasting herself to be the city of God, should prove another Babylon in idolatry and cruelty to the people of God. She glories in the name of Roman Catholic, and well therefore may she be called Babylon the great. She affects the stile and title of our holy . . . mother
(1) Nomen tuum pependitin — tune nuda papillis
fronte: pretia stupri accepisti; Constitit auratis, titulum men&c. Seneca. Lib. 1. Controverl,. tita Lyciscæ.
a. Juvenal. Sat. VI. 122.
U 3 (z)Ma
mother the church, but she is in truth the mother . 'of fornications and abominations of the earth. Neither can this character with any propriety be applied to ancient Rome; for she was rather a learner of foreign superstitions, than the mistress of idolatry to other nation's; as appears in ,Various instances, and particularly from (2) that solemn form of adjuration, which the Romans used when they laid siege to a city, calling forth the tutelary deities of the place, and promising • them temples, and sacrifices, and other solemnities at Rome. It may be concluded therefore that this part of the prophecy is sufficiently fulfilled, tho' there should be reason to question the truth of what is asserted by some' writers, that the word myjiery was formerly written in letters of gold upon the forepart of the pope's mitre. Scaliger (3) affirms it upon the authority Of the Duke de Montmorency, who received his information from a man of good credit at Rome. Francis le Moyne and Brocardus (4)
(2) Macrobii Saturnal. Lib. tres d'or Mysterium. Seal, in 3. Cap. 9. locum apud Critic. Sacr.
(3) Feu Monsieur de Mont- (4) Idem quoque confirmant morency estant a Rome du Franc, le Moyne et Jacobus Brdtemps qu' on parloit librement cardus in h. 1. ad œtiTo^ia* pro& du S. Pere &s du S. Siege, vocantes.non dissimulanteLeoapprit d'homrae digne.de soy, nardoLeffio. WoJfius in locum, qu' ala verite le tiare pontifical In tiara, in mitra papæ habes ,avei: escript au frontal en let- hoc verbamMjJtcrium scriptum: