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· Lastly, The causes of the utter ruin and · overthrow thereof..

But before I go about to prove that Ba-: bylon is Rome, and how Rome is to be taken, I would have it carefully observed what is meant by Romie, viz. not the topography of Rome, that is, so much ground only as, is compassed within the walls of that city, but the regiment, government, and prerogative that is claimed by virtue of the monarchy whereof Rome is the head. By Rone is ineant the power and autho-, rity of Rome: or to speak plainly, by Rome is meant the Roman monarchy. Further, We are here to observe the reason why the

Rome literally and properly taken, is not Babylon; in as much as they were two divers cities, one in Italy, the other in Chal-' dea: but Rome is called Babylon mystically, figuratively, and, as the Holy Ghost speaketh, fpiritually, and by a kind of al.: lusion: for as the old eastern Babylon did a long time oppress the church of the Jews; fo Rome this western Babylon, hath long oppressed the church of the Christians: as the eastern Babylon did many years hold down the people of God in miserable bondage and servitude; so the western Babylon did a long time keep the Christian church in fpiritual thraldom and misery. In which

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Sodom and Egypt: to Sodom for filthiness, and to Egypt for idolatry, and keeping God's church in spiritual bondage and save ary. And thus we see the reason why Röme is called Babylon, which is not fin. piy and properly, but after a fort, that is, by a phrase of speech, or trope, which · they call a metonynie, or changing of games, when that is given to one thing which is proper to another, for the likeness of quality that it hath with it, or adjoined unto it.' .

Now, having thewed the reason why Rome is called Babylon, and what is meant by Rome, we are to proceed to the first point; which is to prove, that Babylon in this place fignifieth Rome; which, altho' it be granted of all sound divines, and a. vouched in the writings of the best learned, both new and old, so as it shall need no great proof; yet will I add three or four reasons out of this book, to make it more plain and apparent.

First, Therefore, I do thus reason out of the seventeenth chapter and last verse, • Babylon is that great city which reigneth

over the kings of the earth: but there was no other city which did reign over the kings of the earth when John wrote this book, but only Rome: therefore Rome is

* Babylon Kings of ich did reign;

lignan more plaint hen to say f Babylon

Babylon. For, as for Jerusalem, it was at that time made a heap of stones. The first proposition is avouched by the angel of God, expounding unto John what is meant by the great whore, whose dam. nation he had shewed him before; and by the woman which sat upon a scarlet coloured beast. The woman which thou faweit '(faith the angel to St. John) is that great city which reigneth over the kings of the earth;' Rev. xvii. 18. that is to say, Rome, or the Romish synagogue and malignant church. For the angel could not speak more plainly, except he should have named Rome, then to say thus; - The 'woman, the great whore of Babylon is

the great city which reigneth over the kings of the earth. For if one should say, The great city of England; every man knoweth that thereby is meant London: if one should say, The great city of France, every one knoweth that thereby is meant Paris: so when the angel faith, The great city which reigneth over the kings of

the earth;' all that lived in thole times knew that thereby was meant Rome: for Rome was the chief city of the monarchy, and is, put in this book for the whole monarchy, and the religion thereof, as hath been said before. . My second reason is this: “ Babylon is

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i woman, 1 city which For if

the inother of whoredoms, and abomina<tions of the earth. Babylon is that great * whore, with whom have committed for"nication the kings of the earth, and the "inhabitants of the earth made drunk with "the wine of her fornication:' Rev. xvii.

But Rome, and none but Rome is such a one, therefore Rome is Babylon...

My third argument is this: Babylon is that city which hath had seven several governments: but only Rome hath had seven feveral kinds of government: therefore Rome is Babylon...

The preposition is proved from the words of the angel, expounding unto John what is meant by the seven heads of the scarlet coloured beast 'whereupon the woman sat. • The seven heads(faith he)are seven kings;' -Rev. xvii. ,. that is, seven orders or states of kingly government; for seven kings in This place are not put for seven several men which were kings, as fome do take it: but for seven several governments, as it is taken in Daniel vii. 17. The four great beasts,' faith the angel there, ' are four kings,' that is, four kingdoms, governments, or monarchies, as all men know. So here, by seven kings is meant the seven several re. giments of Rome; that is to fay, by kings, consuls, Decemviri, Dictators; Triumviri, emperors, and Popes, whereof the first five were then fallen' when John wrote, "one was,' that is, the empire, and one was to come, that is the papacy. .

My last argument is this: Babylon is that city which is situate upon seven hills: but only Rome of all cities in the world is fituated upon seven hills, therefore Rome is Babylon.

The preposition is avouched by the angel, which faith in the seventeenth chapter, that the seven heads of the scarlet coloured beast ' are seven mountains whereon the “woman sitteth,' that is, seven hills whereon the city of Rome is situated, whose names are these: Capitolinus, Palatinus, Aventinus, Exquilinus, Celius, Viminalis, and Quirinalis, as all poets and historiographers do testify. One saith thus of Rome. Septem quæ una fibi muro circumdedit arces.

Another thus: Septem urbs alta jugis toti quæ præfidet orbi.

Another called Rome [eptakephalos, ] the city with seven heads, that is, seven hills.' It is clear then by these reasons, that Babylon in this place fignifieth Rome. As for the exposition of the papists, which affirmeth that Babylon here signifieth the universal society of the wicked, it is fond and ridiculous: for the Holy Ghost faith, Babylon is that city which reigneth over, the kings of the earth,' Rev. xviii. 7.

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