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Recorder-In what part of the shop was the defendant when he gave you that book ?
Witness- I cannot rightly remember.
Recorder-You are sure that is the person who gave you that book?
Witness-- Yes, my Lord.
Recorder - Did you put any mark on the book by which you might know it?
Witness— Yes, my Lord, here it is.
Recorder (to the defendant)--Have you any question to put to this witness?
Defendant-Yes, Sir, I have. It is immaterial to my case whether any person were in the shop or not at the time he purcbased the book; but being on his oath, it is expected he would say nothing but the truth. There was another person in the shop, a man from whom I was buying the Examiner Newspaper at the same time he came in. But, pray, by whom were you employed to purchase that book?
Witness - By the Solicitor to the Treasury.
Defendand--- From George Maule, Esq., himself, you received your orders ?
'how much might you receive for that job?
Witness--- I receive nothing for that in particular, I merely receive my pay as a Bow Street Patrol.
Defendant (to the Recorder)---I should wish, Sir, to ask George Maule, Esq. a few questions.
Recorder---You are at liberty to ask this witness what questions you may think becessary for your defence now. The Solicitor to the Treasury has a gentleman here, whom you may call upon after you have made your defence; and who, I have no doubt, will answer you any question in pro
I believe it is Mr. Baldwin Raven, is it not? Mr. Raven then stood up and said, yes, my Lord.
Defendant.--This witness has told me, that he received his orders froin George Maule, Esq., and I conceive it necessary to see him in order to discover if he has spoken truth.
Witness-It was Mr. Raven that gave me orders, my Lord.
Defendant --Did you not say just now, you received your orders direct from George Maule, Esq.?
Witness looking confused towards the Recorder.
Recorder:-- Did you receive your orders from Mr. Raven or the Solicitor to the Treasury ?
Witness.---From Mr. Raven and the Solicitor of the Treasury.
Recorder--- You mean to say you received your orders from Mr. Raven while the Solicitor was present?
Witness---Yes, my Lord.
Defendant---I would wish then to examine Mr. Raven awhile, if you please, Sir.
Recorder---Mr. Raven is here and will answer you any question you think proper, after you have made your defence.
Defendant--- I wish to ask him some questions now, Sir, as it is necessary
Defendant.--Yes, Sir. (To Witness) ---When you purchased that book of me, did you ask me for any other books?
Witness---I did, I asked for Paine's Age of Reason and Palmer's Principles of Nature, and you told me you had not got them; but promised me I should have them in a day or two at farthest.
Recorder.--Oh! when you asked the defendant for those books, he promised you should have them in a day or two.
Witness--- Yes, my Lord.
Recorder---Have you any more questions to put to this witness?
Defendant--- No, Sir, I wish to ask Mr. Raven a few questions. (Mr. Raven then stood up to speak, but he was desired to get into the witness box, when he was sworn.) I wish to know, Sir, whether you had read the 17th No. of the Republican prior to your sending for it by that man on the 17th of May ?
Raven--- I had.
Defendant---Then it appears to me you liked the book by sending for it again. (a laugh) What, pray, might be your opinion of the book, when you first read it?
Raven--] thought it impiously wicked and blasphemous.
Raven--- That which vilifies and scoffs at God, the Holy Scriptures, the Christian religion, and our Lord and Savi. our Jesus Christ.
Defendant--- Where did you obtain that knowledge ?
Recorder--- Mr. Raven will answer you any question which is necessary for your defence, you have been told it is a blasphemous publication, and any person vending such publications is considered as the publisher, and amenable to the law of his country.
Defendant-Who is it that saith it is blasphemous?
Recorder-Pretended ignorance of the law will not avail you; for every man is supposed to know what is lawful or otherwise.
Defendant-1 conceive the commands of God to be of greater authority than those of men ; blasphemy has nothing to do with the law.
Recorder-You are mistaken there, and only discover your own ignorance by saying so.
Defendant-It must first be proved wbat blasphemy is, I will not be satisfied with his, or any oiher man's bare opinion. I want to know how he obtained his knowledge of blasphemy. Recorder - That
you have nothing to do with: if you ask any question which is necessary for your defence, Mr. Raven will answer it.
Defendant-I consider Mr. Raven knows nothing about blasphemy, and I want to instruct him.
Recorder--Mr. Raven is not put there to receive instructions from you: have you' any thing more to ask him, which you think necessary for your defence.
Defendant-It is of no use to ask questions, I can get no
The libel was then read, and the indictment handed to the defendant to compare, who saw the words “ meaning our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ” inserted in the indictment, the which, he said, was not inserted in the pamphlet.
The Recorder said, whenever the word Jesus was made use of, as it respects the Bible, it was always considered to mean our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.
The Defendant said, there were more Jesuses than one, in what was once believed to be holy scripture.
The Recorder then asked if be had any thing to say in his defence.
persons.calling themselves Christians, when placed at this bar, to flatter your judgments and appeal to your feelings, in order to excite compassion, and move you to give them a favourable verdict. But I desire no favour; neither do I crave mercy; all that I crave is justice, impartial justice. For, as Lord Mansfield justly observed, “ that if the Devil himself came into court, he ought to have justice:” and as the nature of your oath binds you to give me that justice, I trust and expect you will pronounce that verdict which will not embitter any future moment of your life.
Being but an humble mechanic, I cannot afford to fee counsel; and, although several professional gentlemen have kiudly offered me their advice and assistance gratuitously, I have declined the acceptance of either, trusting to the purity of my motives, and the justness of my cause; for truth and innocence need uo counsellor, no advocate : wbere impartial justice reigns, truth must triumph over falsehood.
As my education has been limited, not having received a grammatical or classical education, I trust, that whatever inaccuracies I may make, the Gentlemen of the Jury will impute it only to my deficiency in the rudiments of literature, in conseqnence of my humble station in life. I do not wish to ascribe this prosecution to any malicious motives on the part of the prosecutors; and had rather consider it as a proof of their zeal for the glory of God; but I must declare it is not according to existing knowledge, that they make use of such means to render assistance to God. These prosecutions cause people to distrust the truth of Christianity. They consider that God is omnipotent, and able, with the “ sword of his spirit,” to fight his own battles, and defend his own cause without calling in the aid of a magistrate. Christianity, like all other religions, is not without its champions, who are now panting for the bonour of defending it, by force of argument, from the attacks of its enemies; but who scorn to take advantage by entering the lists against a man fettered by the arm of power; and who think those prosecutions a disgrace to Christianity: therefore, instead of rendering any assistance to God, they are injuring his cause, and conferring upon me the greatest honour possible. But for the exertions of George Maule, Esq. my name would have been lost in obscurity. To that gentleman, then, I feel myself everlastingly indebted, and want words to express my gratitude for placing me in so conspicuous a manner, in the midst of the whole nation, upon so noble and just a 'cause. While posterity are being instructed in the principles of that imMORTAL man, Thomas Paine, the greatest CHAMPION that ever ventured to support the cause of human freedom, the name of Richard Carlile, that undaunted, persecuted HERO, with those of his fellow-sufferers, his wife, bis sister, his assistants, Mrs. Wright, Messrs. Tunbridge, Boyle, Holmes, Campion, Jefferies, Hassell, and all the noble army of martyrs, who have sacrificed their liberty, their property, and are even ready to sacrifice their lives in support and defence of truth and justice; while children shall lisp their names with gratitude and delight; to them shall the name of Clarke be added; whilst those of my persecutors, if not buried in oblivion, will be remembered with shame, covered with infamy and disgrace. Lest they should regret our want of courage and judgment to resist tyranny and oppression, saying, while like oxen we were led to the slaughter, so like sheep before the shearers we opened not our mouths, I, this day, PROTEST against those proceedings, as being both unlawful and unjust, and challenge those my persecutors, even M. A. Taylor, the honourable member for Durham, to show any law, or to produce any act, passed by the representatives of the British nation, and left unrepealed, which authorizes any person to bring my body into this court without my consent; and where there is no law, Paul says, " there is no transgression." You, Gentlemen, are told that Christianity is a part and parcel of the law of the land ; but this is were assertion: I demand proof. The honourable member for the city of Norwich, Mr. William Smith, has publicly declared in the House of Commons, that “ Christianity did not depend upon law, it was founded upon stronger grounds, those of reason and argument.” Christianity does not depend upon the mere assertion of Chief Justice Hale, that most learned, most excellent and pious man, as he was called by the learned Judge, the other day; and yet upon the subject of witchcraft, you acknowledge him to have been a most ignorant and superstitious man; or why repeal the laws of such a learned and excellent man? You will observe, Gentlemen, that this, like many other things which have been told in this court, will not be taken notice of, and why? because it is unanswerable. Is then a man to be torn from his wise, his family, bis friends, and business, and cast into a prison upon a door mat covered with black beetles, through the ipse dixit of a single individual, a fallible man? Is it this, Gentlemen, that raises the “ envy and admiration of surrounding nations?” The common law of this land is, properly speaking, Saxon; persons who knew nothing about Moses, Jesus, or any printed books whatever, and whose religion was Paganism, afterwards, the established religion was the Polytheism of the Romans, then Catholicism, and now Protestantism. How, then, can it be said, that Christianity, as it is now explained, is part and parcel of the law of the land, seeing there have been so many diffe