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wheeled away the rubbish of the old pa- their employers, their temperance, and godas, I had nothing better than simple (wherever these are found) their huDeism to erect in their stead, I should still manity and gentleness of disposition, feel some of the anxiety which now urges appear to arise exclusively from a natural me. It is necessary to see idolatry, to be happy temperament ; from an honourable fully sensible of its mischievous effects on pride in their own renown, and the renown the human mind. But of all idolatries of their ancestors; and from the goodness which I have ever read or heard of, the of God, who seems unwilling that his religion of the Hindoos, in which I have image should be entirely defaced even in taken some pains to inform myself, really the midst of the grossest error. The Mus. appears to me the worst, both in the de- sulmans have a far better ereed; and, grading notions which it gives of the though they seldom either like the English Deity; in the endless round of its burden- or are liked by them, I am inclined to think, some ceremonies, which occupy the time are, on the whole, a better people. Yet, and distract the thoughts, without either even with them, the forms of their worship instructing or interesting its votaries; in have a natural tendency to make men hythe filthy acts of uncleanness and cruelty pocrites ; and the overweening contempt not only permitted but enjoined, and in- with which they are inspired for all the separably interwoven with those cere- world beside, the degradation of their wo monies; in the system of castes, a system men by the system of polygamy, and the which tends, more than any thing else the detestable crimes, which, owing to this devil has yet invented, to destroy the feel- degraulation, are almost universal, are such ings of general benevolence, and to make as, even if I had no ulterior hope, would uine-tenths of mankind the hopeless slaves make me anxious to attract them to a of the remainder; and in the total absence better or more harmless system. In this of any popular system of morals, or any work, thank God, in those parts of India single lesson, which the people at large which I have visited, a beginning has been ever hear, to live virtuously and do good made, and a degree of success obtained, to each other. I do not say, indeed, that at least commensurate to the few years there are not some scattered lessons of during which our missionaries have lathis kind to be found in their ancient boured; and it is still going on, in the best books; but those books are neither acces- and safest way, as the work of private persible to the people at large, nor are these sons alone, and, although not forbidden, last permitted to read them; and, in gene- in no degree encouraged by government." ral, all the sins which a Sudra is taught In a letter dated from Trichinopoly, Ist to fear, are, killing a cow, offending a April 1826, two days only before his death, Brahmin, or neglecting one of the many the Bishop writes : frivolous rites by which their deities are “Of Schwartz and his fifty years' labour supposed to be conciliated. According- among the heathen, the extraordinary inly, though the general sobriety of the Hin- fluence and popularity which he acquired, doos (a virtue which they possess in com- both with Mussulmans, Hindoos, and con'mon with most inhabitants of warm cli- tending European governments, I need mates) affords a very great facility to the give you no account, except that my idea maintenance of public order and decorum, of him has been raised since I came into I really never have met with a race of men the south of India. I used to suspect that, whose standard of morality is so low, who with many admirable qualities, there was feel so little apparent shame in being de- too great a mixture of intrigue in his tected in a falsehood, or so little interest character; that he was too much of a in the sufferings of a neighbour not being political prophet ; and that the veneration of their own caste or family; whose ordi- which the heathen paid, and still pay him nary and familiar conversation is so licen- (and which indeed almost regards him as tious; or, in the wilder and more lawless 'a superior being, putting crowns and burndistricts, who shed blood with so little ing lights before his statue), was purrepugnance. The good qualities which chased by some unwarrantable comprothere are among them (and, thank God! mise with their prejudices. I find I was there is a great deal of good among them quite mistaken. He was really one of the still) are, in no instance that I am aware most active and fearless (as he was one of, connected with, or arising out of, their of the most successful) missionaries who religion, since it is in no instance to good have appeared since the Apostles. To deeds or virtuous habits of life that the say that he was disinterested in regard to future rewards in which they believe are money is nothing; he was perfectly carepromised. Their bravery, their fidelity to less of power, and renown never seemed to affect him even so far as to induce an report so gratifying to him as a Christian outward show of humility. His temper and a parent. was perfectly simple, open, and cheerful ;
· Galle, Ceylon, Sept. 28, 1825. and in his political negotiations (employ- “ My dear sir, -I seize a few moments ments which he never sought, but which of the first leisure which I have had for a fell in his way,) he never pretended to long time (while waiting a change of wind impartiality, but acted as the avowed, to enable our ship to leave this harbour for though certainly the successful and judi- Calcutta) to give you some account of cious, agent of the orphan prince intrusted those most dear to you in this island. I to his care, and from attempting whose arrived at this port five weeks ago, in conversion to Christianity he seems to visiting the different parts of my great have abstained from a feeling of honour. diocese ; and had the pleasure to be His other converts were between six and greeted, among those who first came off seven thousand, besides those which his to our vessel, by your son Robert, looking predecessors and companions in the cause stout and well, and very little altered from had brought over. The number is gra. what he was when I last saw him in dually increasing, and there are now in England...... Mrs. Heber and I had the the south of India about two hundred pleasure, in our return from the North, Protestant congregations, the numbers of passing the best part of three days with of which have been sometimes vaguely him and Mrs. Mayor, in their romantic stated at forty thousand. I doubt whether abode at Baddagamme, where we also they reach fifteen thousand; but even found his colleague Mr. Ward, his wife, this, all things considered, is a great and family, in perfect health and contented number. The Roman Catholics are con- cheerfulness. I consecrated their church, siderably more numerous, but belong to which is really an extraordinary building, a lower caste of Indians (for even these considering the place in which, and the Christians retain many prejudices of circumstances under which, it has been caste), and, in point of knowledge and erected; and I had also the happiness of morality, are said to be extremely inferior. administering confirmation and the Lord's
“ The Brahmins, being limited to vo- Supper to a small but promising band of luntary votaries, have now often very hard their converts and usual hearers; and I work to speed the ponderous wheels of can truly say, both for my wife and mySuon and Bali through the deep lanes of self
, that we have never paid a visit which this fertile country. This is, however, still has interested and impressed us more the most favoured land of Brahminism, and agreeably, from the good sense, good taste, the temples are larger and more beautiful and right feeling, the concord, zeal, and than any which I have seen in Northern orderly and industrious piety, which apIndia. They are also decidedly older; peared to pervade both families and every but as to their very remote age, I am still part of their establishment. Mr. Ward incredulous."
has in some degree got the start in CingaAn original letter of the Bishop's lies lese studies, but the progress which both before us, written, during his visit to Cey- have made in so difficult a language has lon, to the late Rev. J. Mayor, vicar of been mentioned to me as highly honourable Shawbury, Shropshire, the father of the to them; and Robert, from his medical Rev. Robert Mayor, one of the Church skill, his truly masculine sense, his bodily Missionary Society's missionaries in Cey- as well as mental energy, and his cheerJon. Though some of the remarks in it fulness under difficulties, has qualifications are chiefly local and personal, we copy of the most valuable kind for the life which nearly the whole as shewing not only the he has chosen. Both of them are all in deep anxiety of the writer for the pro- fact which you or I could wish them ; motion of the Gospel of Christ among active, zealous, well-informed, and orderly the heathen, but as highly encouraging to clergymen, devoted to the instruction and the members of the Church Missionary So- help of their heathen neighbours ; both ciety, to the character of whose missionaries enjoying a favourable report, I think I may the Bishop offers so warm a testimony of say without exception, from the governor, respect and affection. When the letter publie functionaries, and in general from reached its destination, the revered all the English in the colony whom I have writer was no more ; and the vene- heard speak of them. rable servant of God to whom it was “ The cause of Christianity is, I hope, addressed, lived only just long enongh going on well here. There is among the Cinto have bis last moments gladdened by a galese and Tamul population a very large proportion of nominal Christians who, al- emotion, the power of the command, to though unhappily they are only nominal, go into all the world and preach the because their fathers were so before them, Gospel to every creature. It is believed, or because the profession of Christianity therefore, that no ungrateful office is disis creditable, and though too many of them charged, if attention be awakened and restill pay their superstitious homage to called to societies which were the first Budhu, and to the evil principle, have not missionary fruits of the Reformation ;withstanding fewer exterior difficulties to societies which have laboured with zeal contend with in embracing the true faith and with success in the cause of Christ, than fall to the share of the poor Hindoos. but which are now oppressed by the Among them, and in fact among the pro. magnitude and weight of the claims made fessed Pagans, I am rejoiced to find that upon their funds, while they are scarcely conversions are going on, if not very rapidly able to nourish and support children in yet steadily; and that the rising genera- the faith which they themselves have tion afford excellent hopes of repaying reared. The liberality of the public is richly, and even in our own time, the la- very earnestly solicited in favour of these bours of the good men who have given up two societies; a short detail of whose deparents, and friends, and country, in their signs, it is trusted, will shew at once their service. I have had myself the pleasure necessitous state, the worthiness of their of confirming in this place, Candy, and cause, and the strong claim which they Columbo, three hundred natives of the have upon every Christian, and particuisland ; Portuguese (that is, descendants of larly upon every member of the Church of Portuguese), Cingalese, and Malabarians; England, who, in his Redeemer's spirit, besides which, had I been able to go to feels a love for souls, and a desire to Jaffna, for which the season has too far advance the kingdom of God on earth. advanced, I am assured that I should have " At a period when this country was had at least a hundred candidates more. threatened on the one hand with the In the great church at Columbo, I had to danger of Popery, and on the other with pronounce the blessing in four different atheism and infidelity-in 1699,- Solanguages. Surely this should encourage ciety for promoting Christian Know. our best hopes and best exertions, and ledge' was formed, and was, in the folshould fill us with gratitude to that good lowing year, divided into two branches; God who has already made the fields white one of which, the Society for the Prounto the harvest.”
pagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts,'
undertook to provide for the instruction SOCIETY FOR CHRISTIAN of the British Colonies in North America; KNOWLEDGE.
-the other, under the original name, We rejoice to see our older church so- continued to promote the cause of the cieties zealously urging on the attention Gospel and the growth of Christian of the public their claims to patronage Knowledge, in every way which gave and support ; claims which for many years reasonable promise of success. There are appeared to lie almost dormant, or were three departments of Christian charity, in known only to a comparatively few indi- which the latter institution bas laboured viduals, but are now recognised by mul- constantly and faithfully; and each of titudes of the friends of religion, and of which alone contains a sufficient plea for the Established Church in every part of the most liberal support of a Christian the kingdom. An interesting pamphlet has public. I. The education of the poor. just been issued, entitled “ An Invitation 2. The distribution of religious booksaddressed to all Christians, and most es- The Bible, Testament, Prayer and other pecially to the Members of the Church of books of piety, and Tracts in accordance England, in behalf of the Society for pro- to the doctrines of the Established Church, moting Christian Knowledge, and the So- And, 3. The maintenance of Christian ciety for the Propagation of the Gospel.” missions abroad. From the “ Invitation" on behalf of the “1. This society has the glorious praise former Society, we copy the following of having first stood forward in the cause passages ; purposing in another Number of education and the encouragement of to add the substance of the plea on behalf schools. It laid the foundation of that of the latter.
noble work of Christian charity, which “ Christians, in these latter times, ap- the national system of education is carrypear to be awakened to a sense of the ing on towards its consummation. Within worth of souls, and to feel, with a lively ten years from its origin, 5000 poor children were partly educated and clothed very largely upon the Society,) and which by it in the metropolis alone. In 1741, opens an unbounded field for exertion more than 2000 schools were established in all our colonies and foreign connexions. throughout the country. And now! In 1819, when it was permitted, for the under its auspices, from 10 to 12,000 inscrutable purposes of that Divine Provichildren are yearly assembled in the tem- dence which ruleth all things, and for the ple of the Lord, and more than 300,000 trial of his church, that atheistical and inchildren are receiving a Christian educa- fidel publications should spread abroad the tion. This gratifying and splendid in- poison of unbelief, not fewer than one crease, under the Divine blessing, is due million tracts, &c. were issued by the to the co-operation of The National Society, in order to correct and refute School Society,' which has relieved the such dangerous principles. Of these tracts, Society entirely from the superintendance, and the exertions of those pious and learnand in great measure from the expense, of ed members of the church who prepared these establishments. But still it mani- them, we have (thank God!) lived to see fests its tender regard for their success and the good effects. Under the Society's welfare, and at very reduced prices (in superintendance, the Holy Scriptures have some cases gratuitously) furnishes all the been translated into the Welsh, Irish, elementary books of instruction which are Gaelic, and several of the Oriental lannecessary for the schools. It is evident guages. And various religious tracts have that a vast and increasing expense is thus been printed either by itself, or its district annually incurred by the Society's fund; Committees in India ;-one of which, at whilst,
Calcutta, in the present year, sends home “ 2. A still more expensive depart- the grateful tidings, that ‘many have hard ment is the distribution of the word of reason to bless its institution, as the instruGod, and other books and tråcts calculat- ment whereby they have been brought ed to promote the knowledge and practice under the grace of God to a saving knowof Christianity. The general diffusion of ledge of Jesus Christ, '--adding, of this knowledge amongst a rapidly increasing fact the frequent legacies left in its behalf population renders this department more by the humble soldier and other individuals important every year, at home,-while a afford a sufficient testimony.'-It must closer union and intercourse with foreign however be repeated; that in prosecuting countries presents, year by year, new the work of foreign translations of the channels for dispersing the same books Bible, and any other books which are in foreign languages ;—an advantage the upon the Society's catalogue, (a work Society is compelled to decline, or execute which comes strictly within the Society's very inadequately, from the limited state design and desire,) an insuperable difficulty of its funds. Of what might, and, with must exist (until our renewed exertions God's grace, would be effected with a shall have been blessed with large success) larger revenue, some notion may be form- in the want of funds. The society has at ed from the fact, that, with its present present about 15,000 subscribing members, means, within the last fourteen years at --a number sufficient to attest its good least fifteen millions of books have been name and report, and excite at once our distributed by the Society; of which the gratitude and joy, but totally insufficient Book of Common Prayer formed a large to enable it to carry forward its vast deproportion. And, in addition to a prodi- signs, or even to meet, with its wonted gious number of tracts, 24,000 copies of liberality, the daily necessities which dea large Family Bible have been rapidly mand its pious aid. A large proportion disposed of. The demand for this spiri- of the present members are clergymen; a tual food is found, in the National Schools, body of men whose means are generally -in the establishment of Lending Libra- inadequate to meet the claims of charity ries throughout the country,—in the wants within their own parishes. And yet the of our Christian brethren in the most po- number of subscribers to the Society does pulous and often the poorest districts of not equal the number of the ministers of the kingdom,in those who suffer afflic- the Established Church. The laity are tion in hospitals and infirmaries,—and in not yet aware of the need there is for cothose whom the laws of their country operation. The cause of the Society is detain in prisons; whose deluded and un- not yet fully known. Its pure, and happy condition has ever most warmly Christian, and charitable views have not attracted the sympathy of the Society. yet reached the ears of thousands of true It is found, also, in the wants of our navy, friends to the cause of virtue, religion, and our armies, (who have recently drawn our Christian church, whose hearts are sensible, and whose wealth is ready to save ment of the first Protestant bishop in their fellow-creatures from perishing for India, it was that the Society granted lack of knowledge !
11,0001. towards the erection and endow“ 3. Is it needful, that other claims ment of a college at Calcutta, where should be advanced to obtain the immedi. students may be regularly educated for ate and liberal aid of Christians ?--Those, the work of preaching the Gospel to the surely, which have been related cannot be heathen, and the business of printing in considered without effect; and others need Eastern languages conducted with greater not be adduced, but to vindicate to the facility and less expense. Under the care Society that honour which is her due, of and superintendence of a bishop, and a being the first Protestant Society which regular ministry, the work of christianizing displayed a missionary zeal.-The Danish India has assumed a promising aspect; Government had scarcely commenced the and the Society, grateful for the opporcelebrated mission in Southern India, tunity of placing its missions in Southern when this Society took up that labour of India under an immediate and vigilant love, and bore far more than an equal superintendence (acting under those feel. share in the work of preaching glad tidings ings and convictions which in 1701 led to the Gentiles of the East. Very nume to the establishment of that Society) has rous attempts were made (but made in committed the care and superintendence vain) to form a connexion with the native of the missionaries at Tanjore to the SoSyrian church in India—to purify its cor- ciety for the Propagation of the Gospel rupted faith, and stimulate its sluggish in Foreign Parts. The charge has been zeal. We trust, however, fruit may still willingly undertaken, and no doubt is enbe reaped in our own days, from seed thus tertained of many advantages resulting early sown (about 1725). The mission- from the arrangement, in consequence, aries of the Society (furnished from Ger- more especially, of Bishop's College, Calmany) at Tanjore, Trichinopoly, Cud- cutta, being under the superintendence dalore, &c. continued their unostentatious, of this latter Society. The only charge, but laborious work. Among their names
therefore, remaining on the Society for are numbered Gerické, Jænicke, Poezold, promoting Christian Knowledge, for &c., and Swartz, whom the heathen prince foreign missions, is, the fulfilment of was wont to call the holy man,'--to those engagements which it originally whose care and guidance, on his death, made with the present missionaries, so bed, he committed his son; and who, long as it may please the Almighty to dying himself, amidst his own children in spare them for the work of the ministry.' the faith, well-stricken in years, was wept That mysterious dispensation, which de over, and commemorated by the young prived India a second time of a zealous heathen king. The present actual result and indefatigable Christian bishop, was of their pure and apostolic zeal in the dis- received by the Society as a new argument trict around Madras, is estimated at not for persevering to the end; and in memory less than 20,000 native Christians, to of Bishop Heber, a further grant was made whose good conduct and Christian be to the College of 20001. haviour abundant testimonies have been “ May He who has given the means given. These and other Christian mis and the desire, thus to promote his kingsions, though at present not under the dom, bless the intentions and labours of immediate superintendence of the Society, his servants, and strengthen their hands are constantly drawing upon its funds for in the work of converting souls, and makbooks, &c., and other necessaries for the ing known the saving truths of his Gospel, mission.-The labours of the Society in that this privileged nation and church may 1814 received great encouragement, and
become the glorious instrument of enlarge are now materially aided by the introducing the boundaries of his kingdom, and tion into the East Indies of an Episcopal
• turning many unto righteousness ! ' Establishment. District societies have,
The whole of the “ Invitation” is writ. in consequence, in some places been
ten in the same truly Christian spirit, and, formed, in others derived new energies ;
we trust, will be the means of conciliating and a prospect, glorious and cheering,
a large measure of the public regard to the opens before the Society, of carrying on with rapidly increasing success the work of Calcutta, we can assert the great anxiety of disseminating the truth as it is in
manifested by the natives to send their Jesus*. In consequence of the establish of which were then supported by this So
children to the Missonary schools (eleven
ciety), where, in their own language, they “. On the testimony of the late Bishop read the wonderful works of God."