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and oyl, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, and fouls of men.

14 And the fruits that thy foul lusted after, are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly, are departed from thee, and thou malt find them no more at all.

15 The merchants of these things which were made rich by her, shall stand afar off, for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing, .

16 And saying, Alas, alas, that great city, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls! for in one hour so great riches is come to nought.

17 And every ship-master, and ail the company in mips, and sailers, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off,

18 And cried when they saw the smoke • of her burning, saying, What city is like

unto this great city?

19 And they cast dust on their heads, and cried weeping and wailing, faying, Alas, alas, that great city wherein were

. r made

evi rtit rauros, domos aliquantas Chron. p. 54. ibid. Sigonius. hfii comhurent, &c. Marccllini ibid. Lib. 19.

(1) See made rich all that had ships in the sea, by

reason of her costliness! for in one

ihe made desolate.

20 Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and

ye holy apostles and prophets, for God :t

hath avenged you on her. . v o; .-j3v '.

In this solemn manner, by ah angel and bya voice from heaven, is declared the fall of Rqme«[ and her destruction by fire: and then are set fprth the consequences of her fall, the lamentations of some, and therejoicingsof others. Thekingsoiher communion, who have committedfornication^aff4 lived delicioujly with her, bewail and lament jbfi her: (ver. 9, 10.) but what kings were they/w$hj& lived delicioujly with old Rome, and had reason to lament her fall? The merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her; (ver. 11—-ijSpSqt there is an end of all traffic and commerce with her, whether spiritual or temporal; for it i&intimated (ver. 13.) that they make merchandise of the fouls as well as of the bodies of men. The Jhip masters, and Jailers, and as many as trade by sea, weep and wail: (ver. 17, 18, 19.) for they can now no longer import or export commodities for her, or convey strangers to and froj/or there is an end of all her costliness. These lamentations are copied from the like lamentations over Tyre in the..26th and 27th chapters .of \,.:'\ Ezekiel; Ezekiel; and are equal to the most mournful strains- of the Greek tragedians over Thebes or Troy. In all they stand afar off, (ver. 10, 15, 17.) as if they were unable or afraid to help and assist her. In all they cry »*1, alas, alas, (ver. 10,16,19.) which is the third woe ««»before mentioned j (VIII. 13. XI. 14.) for as the fall of the Othman empire is the end ot the second woe, to the fall of Rome is the completion of the third woe. In all they lament the suddenness of her fall j (ver. 1 o, 17, r 9.) for in one hour is her destruction come. At the fame time her destruction is matter of joy and triumph (ver. 20.) to the holy apostles and prophets, for God hath avenged them on her: but what reason had the Christians to 'rejoice over the calamities brought on Rome by Alaric or Totilas, in which they themselves were the principal sufferers? and how were these calamities any vindication of their cause, or of the cause of true religion? ,*aT .11? . ., ' ,

V 21 And a mighty angel took up a stone i 'like a great milstone, and cast it into the le*,' saying, Thus with violence shall that , ^gre&f city Babylon be thrown down, and i;ftMll be found no more at all.

42 And the voice of harpers and musicians, ahd of pipers, and trumpeters, ,: »u'.a\£ shall shall be heard no-mere at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in theei; and the sound of a milstone shall be heard no more at all in thee; ,;..:' »! rl .-.'i .


23 And the light of a candle ,shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; , for by. thy sorceries were all nations de^ceived: . ,; v. 1 .— j ,> i-.

24 And in-her was found the blood of prophets, and- of faints, and of all that were slain upon the earth. • - , , r.

Yet farther to confirm the sudden fall and irrecoverable destruction of Rome, an emblem is copied and improved from Jeremiah; (LL-63, 64.) a mighty angel (ver. 21.) cajleth a miifione into the sea, declaring that with the same violence this great city JJjall be thrown down, and shall never rife again. Her utter desolation is farther described (ver. 22, 23.) in phrases and expressions borrowed from the ancient prophets. (If. XXIV. 8. Jer. VII. 34. XVI. 9. XXV. 10. Ezek.XXVI. 13.) There (hall be no more musicians for the entertainment of the rich and great; no more

tradestradesmen or artificers to furnish the conveniencies of life; no-more servants Ot slaves to grind at the mill, and' to supply the necessaries of life. Nay, there shall be no more lights, no more bridal songs; the city shall never be peopled again by new marriages, but shall remain depopulated for ever. ,• -For which utter desolation there are assigned these reasons, (ver. 23, 24.) liex-pride and'luxury, her superstition and idolatry'-, her tyfariny^nd cruelty. Her punishment shall be as levere and exemplary, as if she had been guilty , of all the persecutions that ever were upon- account of religion; for by her conduct she hath approved, and imitated, and surpassed them all. But Rome hath never yet been depopulated and desolated in this manner. She-hath been taken indeed and plundered (1) by Alaric king of the Visigoths in the year 410, by Genseric king of the Vandals in the year 455. by Totilas king of the Ostrogoths in the year 546, and by others since that time: but yet she is still standing and florishing, and is honored by many nations as the metropolis of the Christian world; she still resounds with fingers and musicians; she still excels in arts which serve to pomp and luxury; she still


(1) See Pstav. Rat. Temp, and Elair's Chron. Tables.

W ' (2) R.

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