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39.-A is a steamer going north, seeing a white light and a red light ahead at B. Are A and the vessel showing the two lights B meeting end on or nearly end on, or is B passing A, or is B crossing the path of A, and in what direction; and how do you know?
A.-Passing to port, because if I see a red light ahead I know that the head of the vessel carrying that red light must be pointing away in some direction to my own port or left hand. The ship showing the red light has her port or left side more or less open to A.
40.—If A is going north, within what points of the compass must the vessel B showing the white and red lights be steering?
A.-B must be going from a little W. of S. to W.N.W. 41.-How do you know this?
A.-Because, the screens being properly fitted, I could not see the red light of B at all with the vessel's head in any other direction. 42.-Is the steamer A to starboard, or to port, or to keep on? A. To do neither suddenly, but, if anything, to port a little. 43.-Why?
A. To bring the red light of A to the red light of the stranger B.
[The Examiner should then explain that if the steamer A starboards she will run across the path of the vessel carrying the lights B, because the vessel showing the red light must be passing to port.]
[The examiner should now substitute the mast with the white ball and green ball for the mast with the white ball and red ball. One ship only is still to be used.]
44.-A is a steamer going north, and seeing a white and green light ahead. Are A and B meeting, or is B passing A, or is B crossing the course of A, and in what direction; and how do you know?
A.-B is passing to starboard of A, because if I see a green light ahead I know that the head of the vessels carrying that green light must be pointing away in some direction to my starboard or right hand. The ship showing the green light has her right or starboard side more or less open to me.
45.-As A is going north, within what points of the compass must the vessel showing the white and green lights be steering?
A.-B must be going from a little E. of South to E.N.E.
46.-How do you know?
A.-Because, the screens being properly fitted, I cannot see the green light at all with the vessel's head in any other direction.
47.-Is the steamer A to starboard, or to port?
A. To do neither suddenly, but, if necessary, to starboard. 48.-And why?
A. To show her green light to the stranger's green light. There
can be no danger of collision when the green of one vessel is opposed to the green light of another.
49.—What would be the result if you ported to a green light ahead? A.-I should probably run right across the path of the vessel carrying the green light.
[The examiner should then explain that A must not port, because as the vessel showing the white and green lights B must be passing to starboard, A would run across the path of B by porting.]
[The examiner should now place the models of two steamers on the table meeting end on. One he should he call A, and the other B.]
50.-If a steamer A sees the three lights of another steamer B ahead or nearly ahead, are the two steamers meeting, passing, or crossing? A.-Meeting end on, or nearly end on.
51.-Do the regulations expressly require the helm of a ship to be put to port in any case; and if so, when?
A. Yes; in the case of two steamers or two sailing vessels meeting end on, or nearly end on.
52.-Do they expressly require the helm of a ship to be put to port in any other case; and if so, in what other?
A.-No. The use of the port helm is not in any other case expressly required by the regulations.
[The Examiner should then explain that the only case in which port-helm is mentioned in the regulations is in Articles 11 and 13 for two ships meeting end on, or nearly end on.]
53.-If you port to a green light ahead, or anywhere on your starboard bow, and if you get into collision by doing so, do you consider that the regulations are in fault?
A.-No, because the regulations do not expressly require me to port in such a case, and because by porting I know that I should probably and almost certainly run across the other vessel's path, or run into her. [The Examiner should see the candidate put the models in the positions indicated by the questions 54 and following.]
54. If a steamer A sees another steamer's red light B on her own starboard side, are the steamers meeting, passing, or crossing; and how do you know?
A.-Crossing, because the red light of one is opposed to the green light of the other; and whenever a green light is opposed to a red light, or a red light to a green light, the ships carrying the lights are crossing ships.
55.-Is A to stand on; and if not, why not?
A.-A has the other vessel B on her own starboard side. A knows she is crossing the course of B because she sees the red light of B on
her (A's) own starboard side. A also knows she must get out of the way of B, because Article 14 expressly requires that the steamer that has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other.
56.-Is A to starboard or to port in such a case?
A.-A must do what is right so as to get herself out of the way of B; she must starboard if necessary, or port if necessary; and she must stop and reverse if necessary.
57.-If A gets into collision by porting, will it be because she is acting on any rule?
A.-No; the rule does not require her to port. If she ports, and gets into collision by porting, it is not the fault of any rule.
58.-If a steamer A sees the green light of another steamer B on her own (A's own) port bow, are the two steamers meeting, passing, or crossing; and how do you know?
A.-Crossing, because the green light of one ship is shown to the red light of the other.
59.—What is A to do, and why?
A. By the rule contained in Article 18 of the Regulations, A is required to keep her course, subject only to the qualification that due regard must be had to all dangers of navigation; and that due regard must also be had to any special circumstances which may exist in any particular case rendering a departure from that rule necessary in order to avoid immediate danger. The crossing ship B on A's port side must get out of the way of A, because A is on B's starboard side.
60.-A, a steamer, sees the green light of another steamer, B, a point on her, A's, port bow. Is there any regulation requiring A to port in such a case, and if so, where is it to be found?
A.-There is not any.
61.-Are steam ships to get out of the way of sailing ships?
A.-If a steamer and a sailing ship are proceeding in such direction as to involve risk of collision, the steamer is to get out of the way of the sailing ship.
62.-What is to be done by A, whether a steamer or sailing ship, if overtaking B?
A.-A is to keep out of the way of B.
63.-When by the rules one of two ships is required to keep out of way of the other, what is the other to do?
A.-To keep her course.
64.-Is there any qualification or exception to this?
A. Yes. Due regard must be had to all dangers of navigation, and
to any special circumstances which may exist in any particular case to avoid immediate danger.
65.-Is there any general direction in the steering and sailing rules; and if so, what is it?
A. Yes, it is this: that nothing in the rules shall exonerate any ship, or the owner, master, or crew thereof, for the consequences of any neglect to carry lights or signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper look-out, or of the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case.
66.-Can you repeat article(-) of the regulations. I refer to the article containing the rule for (-)?
[The Examiner should repeat this question, naming a different article each time.] 67.-What does the Act of Parliament provide as to the obligation of owners and masters in obeying the regulations respecting lights, fog signals, and steering and sailing?
A.-Section 27 of "the Merchant Shipping Act Amendment Act, 1862," provides that owners and masters shall be bound to obey the regulations, and it also provides that in case of wilful default by the master or owner he shall be deemed to be guilty of a misdemeanor for each infringement.
68. What do breaches of the regulations imply?
A. If an accident happens through non-observance of the regulations, it implies wilful default on the part of the person in charge of the deck at the time, unless it is shown to the satisfaction of the court hearing the case that the special circumstances of the case rendered a departure from the rules necessary.
69.-If collision ensues from a breach of the regulations, who is to be deemed in fault for the collision?
A. The person by whom the regulations are infringed, unless the court hearing the case decides to the contrary.
70.--Do the regulations apply to sea-going ships in harbours and in rivers?
A.-Yes unless there is any rule to the contrary made by a competent authority.
71.-Do they apply to British ships only?
A.-No, to foreign ships as well.
72.-When did the present regulations come into operation?
A.-On 1st June 1863.
73.-Do you know where the present regulations are to be found?
A.-Yes in "the Merchant Shipping Act Amendment Act, 1862," and the Order in Council of the 9th January 1863. Copies are given. away on application to the Board of Trade.
74.-Is one ship bound to assist another in case of collision? A. Yes.
75.-What is the penalty for default?
A.-If the master or person in charge of the ship fails to render assistance without reasonable excuse, the collision is, in absence of proof to the contrary, to be deemed to be caused by his wrongful act, neglect, or default.
76.-Is there any other penalty attached to not rendering assistance? A. Yes. If it is afterwards proved that he did not render assistance, his certificate may be cancelled or suspended by the court investigating the case.
77.-Is it not expected that you should understand the regulations before you take charge of the deck of a ship?
A.-If I do not understand them and am guilty of default, the consequences will be very serious to me.
79.-What would be a serious offence?
A. To cause a collision by porting the helm when not required to port by the regulations and without due consideration.
ON TAKING IN HEAVY WEIGHTS.
A DERRICK.-A derrick is a single spar rounded off at the heel to set in a shoe (similar to a shear-leg); the upper end is made with shoulders. or cleats, to stop the purchase-blocks from working down, also the guys. The derrick may be used for many purposes instead of shears to great advantage, especially on board of merchant ships when discharging, it being so easily swung from a perpendicular position to rake over the ship's side, the heel resting in its shoe, and the head canted in any position by the guys. Any kind of a purchase may be used at a derrick-head, but the most general is the single and double burton.
On the subject of providing means.--Few ships go to sea without a spare topmast, or a spar to make one, which spar is in every way calculated for a derrick, if it will make a topmast. The rigging-that is the various guys and ropes necessary to sustain it in its position, and the purchase-blocks for lifting the weight-may be secured to the spar any height above the deck to suit the particular purpose in hand, without either cutting the spar, or nailing on cleats, as, by a well-managed arrangement of lashings, all slipping or shifting of position may certainly be prevented. It is necessary to observe, as a general rule, that in supporting a yard, or derrick, or shears, the supporting guys should