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IN TIME TIME OF CHRIST. 31

nesareth, and the plain of Jezreel. It is in the north of Palestine, and was divided into lower or southern, and northern or upper Galilee. The latter section was denominated Galilee of the Gentiles, Talukata toy ovov, boar, bo, Mat. 4: 15. II. SAMARIA ; it was situated nearly in the centre of Palestine, but, though it ran across the country, it did not extend down to the Mediterranean. It reached from Ginea and Scythopolis on one side, to Acrabatene and Annuath on the other, John 4. III. JUDEA, which comprehended laumea as far as the town of Jardan in Arabia Petrea, and also the shore of the Mediterranean as far as Ptolemais, was surrounded by Samaria, the Jordan, the Dead Sea, Arabia Petrea, and the Mediterranean. In Perea or the country beyond the Jordan, that is, on the eastern side of it, were eight provinces or cantons. I. PEREA, in the more limited signification of the word, viz, the southern part of the whole district, extending from the river Arnon to the river Jabbok. II. GILEAD, situated north of the Jabbok. III. DECApolls, or the district of ten cities, which were inhabited chiefly by the heathen or gentiles. Their names were as sollows; Scythopolis, which lies west of the Jordan, Hippos and Gadara, Pella, Philadelphia, Dion, Canath, Gerasa, Raphana, and perhaps Damascus; in the enumeration of the ten cities of this district, however, ancient historians are not agreed, see Pliny H. N. Lib. V. c. 18. Mark 5: 1, Luke 8:26, Mat. 8:28. IV. GAULONITIs, a tract extending on the eastern shore of the lake Gennesareth and the Jordan as far as Hermon. W. BATANEA, the ancient Bashan, through somewhat diminished in its limits. It lies to the east of Gaulonitis and the north of Gilead. VI. Auranitis, formerly Chauran or Chavran. jor, Ezech. 47: 16–18, also called Iturea, was situated to the north of Batanea and to the east of Gaulonitis, Luke 3: 1. VII. TRACHONitis, to the north of Auranitis and to the east of Paneas otherwise called Cesarea Philippi, by which it was separated from Galilee; it was celebrated for its caves, which were inhabited in the time of Herod. VIII. ABILENE, on the northern limits of this territory, situated between Baalbec and Damascus from lat. 33° 30' to 33°40' ; it 32 § 26. The EARLIEST SHELTERs.

was called also Abilene Lysanias, from the robber Lysanias, who purchased it from the Romans. Luke 3: 1.

CHAPTER II.

OF DWELLINGS.

§ 26. The EARLIEST SHELTERs were shady TREES AND caves.

As men in the primitive condition of society were unacquainted with the arts, they were not of course in a condition to erect houses; they lived, consequently, under the open sky. In unpleasant weather, whether hot or rainy, they sought for a shelter under shady trees, in the clefts of rocks, and such caves as they happened to discover. Nor are we to suppose, that shelters of this kind were altogether inadequate. The inhabitants of mount Taurus even to this day, in a climate much more severe than that of Palestine, live in caves, as also do the wandering shepherds of Arabia Petrea, either in caves and the clefts of rocks, or beneath the shade of trees.

§ 27. THE MORE RECENT TRoGLoDYTES or DWELLERS IN CAves.

Caves are not only numerous in the east, but many of them are both large and dry. They formed convenient dwellings, being warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Hence in a comparatively recent age, when dwellings of a different kind were commonly resorted to, the caves were still preferred by many, especially by those, who had emigrated to distant regions. The dwellers in caves whom we find mentioned, at quite a late period, were robbers, who had abandoned the restraints of society, and were the latest occupants of these abodes. The inhabitants of caves and mountains commonly occur in the Old Testament under the designation of Horites; in regard to whom we are informed more particularly,

§ 28. TABERNAcLEs. 33

I. OF THE INHABITANTs of MoUNT SEIR ; they chiefly occupied the mountains of Seir, but were found dwelling as far as Paran in Arabia Petrea, Gen. 14:6. 21:21. Deut. 2: 12, 22. Num. 10: 12. Gen. 36: 20–30. - **

II. OF THE REPHAIMs, who in addition to their caverns had some fortified cities, and were divided into three tribes, as follows; (1.) The EMIMs, who dwelt in the region, which the Moabites afterwards occupied, Deut. 2: 11–12. (2.) The ZAMzuMMIMs, men of large stature, living in the region, which was afterwards possessed by the Ammonites. (3.) The Rephaims, or giants strictly so called, who lived in the country of Bashan, were also of large stature, and were driven out by the Hebrews, Deut. 2: 10–23. 3: 3–16.

III. OF THE TRoglodyTEs, or, as the Hebrews denominated them, the sons of the caves, D"P:: ***. called in the English version Anakims, Deut. 1: 28. 2: fo. 9; 1–2. The three tribes, into which they were divided were, (1) the NEPHILIM, Num. 13:33. (2.) THE CLANs of ACHIMAN, Sheshai, and Talmai, Num. 13:22, 23. Jos. 14: 15. (3.) THE ANAKIMs, inhabiting Debir, Anab, and the mountains of Judah, Jos. 11:21, 22. (4.) THE ANAkums around Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod, 1 Sam, 17:4.

NoTE,--The caves, of which we have spoken, when they had become less frequently selected for the abodes of the living, were employed as sepulchres for the dead, Gen. 23. In times of persecution and war also, those, which were not converted into cemeteries, nor occupied, as they sometimes were, by hordes of robbers, became a refuge to the oppressed and the vanquished, Jos. 10: 16. Jud. 15: 8. 20: 45. 1 Sam. 13: 6, 22: 1, et seq. In these caves, the necromancers sometimes practised their inauspicious arts and the beasts of the forest found a dwelling place, 1 Sam. 28:8–24.

§ 28. TABERNACLEs.

As caves could not always be readily found, and as it was sometimes great labour to excavate one, men were compelled by the exigencies of their situation, to form some other sort of residence. The shady trees and tall shrubs, whose tops approached each other and were twisted together, suggested the plan of cutting down 34 § 29. on TENTs.

large branches, fixing them into the ground in parallel lines, binding them together at the top, and covering them with leaves, herbs, reeds, branches, and even broad flat stones, in order to shield themselves from the cold, the heat, and the dew. Thus they built tabernacles, huts, or lodges, in Heb. Hop. The Romans called them Mappalia. They were small and low in the beginning, so that a person could not stand erect, but was obliged either to lie down or to sit, but afterwards were built higher.

The use of these tabernacles did not cease, even after the erection of more stable and convenient dwellings. They were frequently made, sometimes from necessity,sometimes for convenience, and sometimes for pleasure, and are to this day erected in the summer among the wandering tribes or Nomades of Mesopotamia. A collection of such tabernacles is called in Heb. non and Hot. The word root is used, however, for uncovered sheep-cotes, towers, castles, and turrets, Gen. 33: 17. Ps. 27: 5. Jon. 4: 5. Mat. 17:4. Gen. 25: 16. Ezech. 25: 4. 1 Chron. 6: 54. Num. 31: 10. Cant. 8: 9.

§ 29. ON TENTs.

As tabernacles, which could not readily be moved from place to place, and from a want of materials could not every where be built, were made partly of skins, the design arose of erecting a shelter wholly of skins extended round a long pole, and so light, as to be easily moved from one place to another. It was tents of this kind, we may suppose, which Jabal invented, Gen. 4: 20. In the progress of years they were no longer covered with skins, but with various kinds of cloth, particularly linen. The Nomades of the east still use them. They pitch them in any place, which appears suitable, but they give the preference to a spot near some shady tree, Gen. 18; 4. Judg. 4: 5.

§ 30. ForMATION of TENTs.

The first tents, which were made, were undoubtedly round in their construction, and small in size; afterwards they were made larger and oblong. The Nomades of Arabia Petrea have two kinds, the one larger, the other smaller, Gen. 33:17.

§ 30. ForMAtion of TENTs. 35

They call the former kind, in distinction from the smaller ones, baiton or houses. The smaller tents are sustained by three poles only, and covered with a fabric, woven of wool and camel's hair; the large ones are sustained sometimes by seven, and sometimes by nine poles. The three longest of these poles, whether seven or nine in number, are erected in the middle, and on each side of the middle row are placed 2 or 3 others parallel, though shorter much than those between them ; they are covered with a black cloth made of goat's hair. The pole in the middle is taller than any of the rest, though it rarely exceeds 8 or 10 feet, The Arabians take a pleasure in pitching their tents on hills, in such a way, as to form a sort of circular encampment. When thus pitched, being of a dark hue, they exhibit a beautiful appearance to the distantly approaching travellers, Cant. 1: 5. The flocks and cattle during the night are driven into the space in the centre of the encampment, called hors, and guarded by dogs, Job 30: 1. Some one of the shepherds keeps watch also during the night, a duty, which is performed alternately, Isa. 56: 9–11. The tent of the Emir is pitched in the centre of the others, which are about 30 paces distant, and is both larger and higher. The Emir has a number of tents in addition to the one appropriated to himself; viz, one for the females of his family, one for his servants, and a third, covered with green cloth for the reception of those, who wish to see him on business or come to render him their homage. On the same principle are arranged the tents of the subordinate Emirs when in the company of a superior Emir or chief, at some distance, it is true, but as D'Arvieux testifies, not exceeding 4} miles.

§ 31. INTERNAL STRUCTURE of TENTs.

The larger kind of tents are divided by curtains into three parts, as was done also in the holy Tabernacle. In the external division or apartment the servants lodge, and during the night the young animals also, to prevent their sucking the dam. In the second apartment are the males, but if the tent be smaller than usual, all the males of the tent, together with the animals just mentioned, are lodged together. The third or interiour apartment, called Hop, is allotted to the women, Num. 25: 8. The more

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