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(as he is called,) or the clerk of Batticotta. These clerks, or notary publics, are commonly called, by the natives, schoolmasters. In the time that the Dutch governed this island, these notaries were properly called schoolmasters, for they had to teach the youth their catechism, &c. And they (the notary publics or clerks) were obliged to profess Christianity. But at present, they are under no such compulsion. They are generally heathens in public, as well as in private. This notary public of the parish of Batticotta, like those of the other parishes, is employed by the government, to write all bonds, promissory notes, contracts, title deeds, &c., for the parish. He is a heathem, though he has frequently heard the gospel. hen I went to his fioso I found an assembly of people there; but they were busy, in getting a bond written. With the consent of the notary, I read a Tamul tract, in which the defective and immoral character of their supreme and other gods were exposed. A brahmin, who is a friend of mine, sat down there, and when he heard the title of the tract, he objected to my reading it; but I insisted on it, and read the tract almost through in the hearing of the people. But some in the assembly were very clamorous. They freuently endeavored to interrupt me, when T. reading. One of them reviled me disgracefully, and uttered obscene words. Another, a usual opposer, was angry, and very much against what was read. The sun set, the assembly dispersed, having accomplished their business, and returned home. Oct. 3. I am making a Tamul translation of a part of an essay on natural philosophy. #. king's commissioners, who have been to Ceylon, as well as to another or two of his majesty's colonies, assigned a part of this book to be translated, and gave a premium for the translation. This part was subdivided among several of the students in the seminary and myself. This being the vacation in the seminary, I have time to spend in this translation.
9. Sabbath. In the afternoon, I went to a village in the vicinity of this place. Owing to the badness of the roads, it being the rainy season, I arrived in the village but late. Spoke, but to two men, one working in the field near his house, and another sitting near the door of his house. I had to go a considerable distance to speak to each of these men, through muddy and bad roads. A girl also heard me while speaking to one of them. A woman came near, but went on her business without hearing much. Besides instructing and exhorting the men, I invited them to come to, meeting every Sabbath, and they Fol. to come, one of them particularly, with some apparent desire of keeping his promise. e wanted also to have
...” son taught in some of our free
Efforts to Induce Parents to Attend Wor. ship.
Oct. 16. Sabbath. Mr. P. preached in the forenoon. The men and women in the audience were many more than usual. This is chiefly owing to a new plan, which was to call a meeting of the fathers of the students in the seminary, and after proper exhortation, as it respected the temporal as well as the eternal welfare of their sons, to request them to attend meeting on the Sab. bath, in the different parishes, where they live. Yesterday the boys were sent home, to attend worship on the Sabbath, with their parents. As many of these persons have not had a habit of attending preaching on the Sabbath, the boys are to take them to meeting to-day. They will visit their parents for this purpose, the last Saturday of every month. In the mean time the fathers and other relatives are to attend worship every Sabbath. In two or three cases, where the boys' fathers are dead, their mothers attend worship. The fathers of those boys, also, who learn English in the bungalow, mentioned under date of September 28th, attend meeting on the Sabbath and on some other days. The schoolmasters have also been exhorted to bring their wives to meeting, which some of them accordingly do. In the afternoon visited the same §: where I had been the Sabbath before. Went to some more houses. Two of these I found empty, the people having gone somewhere. In anoth: er, a woman pleaded work and so declined hearing. In the fourth, I spoke to two men and a woman. A young man, who former, ly learned in one of our free schools, heard me towards the end of my discourse. One of the hearers, an old man, said, as people usually do in this district, and in many other parts of the world, “Will the misSionaries give me first for my belly? Then I will come to hear preaching.” so him that God gave him all the mercies he had But he wanted to have the necessaries of life, without laboring for them. The woman had a sick child, She said, “See here, God torments us with sickness." I told her that sin was the cause of all suffering, that we were all sinners. (Here she assente
to the truth of my proposition, by repeal; .
ing after me, “we are all sinners.") That Christ was the only Savior, and that we must believe in him for salvation. I read to them a miracle of Christ, from one o the gospels. They could not read; so they received no tract. In my way home, dropped a few words, by way of exhoru. tion, to an old man, o I met in the way, an old acquaintance of mine.
On week days, I have my usual duties in the seminary, which is to hear a class at eleven o'clock, A. M., and be correcting the students' translations or compositions;
till half past five, P.M., and then attend Prayers with them.
Oct. 22. A man of considerable rank and fortune, living at Batticotta, came to ask me to exchange some Ceylon money into Sicca rupees for him, as he was going a pilimage to a distant temple on the coast. §. of the currencies of this island will not circulate on the coast. He was to be at the temple at Tiroochentoor, about nine days' journey west by south of this place, after sailing to the nearest coast. The great festival there is on the day, when the moon is in the sixth phasis in her increase, in the month of October, according to the heathen chronology. The heathen months begin #. sout twelve days before ours. The abovesaid day was the time when the god Camdaswany killed the tyrant Soora, on the shore of that place. He then returned to the said place, called Tiroochentoor, where the demi-gods came and worshipped him, by performing that kind of worship, which is called poojah. The proper name of the place is Chentoor; Tiroo, means holy or divine. I believe that, in remembrance of the said great achievement near that place and his subsequent stay there, the temple was built there for his worship. The man said, that some of his relations were keeping the six days' fast, and he should see and worship the god (he meant the idol) on the roper day, whereby he thought he should ... great reward. They eat a little milk and a little plantain fruit during each of the six days, or yery little food of any kind; and, in some instances, I suppose, they take no food at all during those six days. At the end o the six days, they become exceedingly weak. The fast days begin on the first phasis of the moon, in the above month. Candaswamy's war with Soora, began on the first, and ended on the sixth phasis of the moon, in the said month, so that I believe the festival, as well as the fast, lasts those six days, though the last is the great day, as it is in all temples. I gave some accounts of fasts in my former journal. I told the man I had no sicca rupees. I then Preached to him the gospel. Hundreds or thousands go pilgrimages every year to the temples on the coast, and the one at Ramisferam, mentioned by Dr. Buchanan. I long to see them as earnestly flocking to the standard of the cross.
verses, quoted in order to expose the absurdity of the heathen system of religion, or rather superstition. I next went to see and speak to a man known by the name of “Cander, the wise or devout man.” He is a man of very intelligent looks, and of much fluency and grace in conversation. There was a man in the company, who is called a god. His hair consisted of very long and entangled locks, which he had tied round into a large knot on the top of his head. He had a long beard; and he wore a certain kind of red clothes. This particular kind of hair and clothes and the ong beard are emblems of a vow of celibacy, and a kind of monastic life, attended with several religious austerities. In each of his ears he had an earing, made of copper and fine gold mixed. He had a string of a black kind of beads around his neck. These beads are the stones of the fruit of a certain tree, growing in India. These stones or beads, have ridges on their surface, a number of which are said to form a face, so that they are said to be of three, four, five, or six faces, as the superior heathen deities have. Much is said in heathem books concerning the divine virtue of this bead, and of the god Siva granting it to men as highly precious for the salvation of the soul. It is called Siva's eye. The Tamul word is, Ruttratchem—“Rutha, Siva– and ‘Atchem,' eye. These strings of beads are bought for money and used by the heathen in their worship. I mean they are worn around their head or neck, or held in their right hand, when they whisper their prayers or incantations. Some use them always. On the continent of India, there are many who wear the habit which this man wears, and lead a monastic life. The man of whom I speak is a native of this place; but he left the country when he was a boy, went to the coast, attended to the preparatory studies, and entered the order in which he now lives. When these men that are called gods depart this life, they bequeath their estates to a son of a sister, who is to follow them in their mode of life and employment. They sometimes bequeath their estates and employments to a boy who has the said kind of entangled locks of hair, though he is not a relation of theirs. An idea of great sanctity is attached to this particular kind of hair; and it is considered supernatural. The god Siva has this kind of hair. The general employment of this class of men is to take care of the revenues of heathen temples. For these temples have large grants of lands for their support. . The one that has the largest revenue in Jaffna, is a temple of Sidemberem, on the coast, of which mention is made in my former journal. May the time soon come, when there will be as large grants for Christian churches, in this pit of the world, I preached the gospel to the abovesaid wise man, as he is called, and to all who were assembled in the place, which was a rest house belonging to the above. 41
said temple at Sidemberem. There was a learned man in the company, who was formerly one of the class of men above mentioned, and was called a god, and , who, since he unbecomingly left the order to which he belonged, is not respected now much above a panderam, (the priest of a temple, not of the brahmin caste.) I gave some account of this. man in my former journal. This man was raising some cavil at my preaching. But the wise man said, that it was all just and that there was no room for cavilling. I should farther observe of this wise man, that he is consulted in cases of possessions of evil spirits. He
is said to have power to expel them by a
word. He is not considered to have the ower of working miracles, but to have earned certain enchantments, by which he
can exorcise, and sometimes cure diseases,
or obtain an intermission of them.
.Noor. 6. Sabbath. Went to a near village, and spoke to a few who gathered together. I read to them about Christ's distributing seven loaves to 4,000 men, and spoke to them concerning it. They said there were miracles done even in these days, in their temples. “A man,” said they, “cut off his tongue, praying to god Candaswamy to heal an incurable disease he had in his stomach; and now his tongue has grown again, and his disease is cured.” In their opinion, such an act of self-torture, expresses love and zeal towards the imagi. nary deity, while, in our view, it manifests a bad spirit. The case which they referred to, of a man's cutting off a part of his tongue, is considered by the people to be a fact, that has lately taken place in the temple at Nellore, about eight miles distant from this place. They also believe that his tongue grew again, and that his disease was cured. Whether he really cut off a large
t of his tongue, or there was some delusion in it, I do not know. Some of the missionaries went to see it. They saw the man and the large piece of the tongue, that was said to have been cut off; but they could not ascertain whether it had been the fact, as the man neither opened his mouth, nor said any thing. The people who assembled to hear me, said also that a man cut off his head in the temple at Cadergamem, near Candy, in the interior of the island, and that his head rolled down some distance on the ground, when it was joined again, and life restored, by the power of the god. They are left to believe a lie; or God permits satan to imitate miracles, that these stubborn people may be judicially given to unbelief and hardness of heart. On any consideration, they are objects of pity, and fit subjects for the #. of Christians. Q may they be enğ. and made willing in the day of
Riding on the Sabbath,
The place where I spoke to the people, was hard by the schoolhouse, where a brahmin kept a school. The brahmin saw at a distance Mr. M. or Mr. P. riding home after being out to preach. “Is it proper," said the brahmin, “to ride on the Sabbath? Is not the horse to rest on that day?" I told him that no beast should be made to labor on the Sabbath, that wo may get money, so that ploughing, &c. should not be done on the Sabbath, but a man may ride on the Sabbath to go to worship God at a distance. He said, ironically, “No fault indeed, if the teacher transgress.” This is a satirical proverb. I answered “Fault is fault, by whomsoever done,” and explained my for. mer answer. Gave away a few tracts, mostly to the boys of the brahmin's school. Most of the tracts contained the sacred prayers, which those heathen repeat in a whisper, who have received discipleship from the gooroo or instructer. The head brahmins are generally the gooroos or instructers, of whom there are very few. Some of the people however have gooroos of the villalle caste. These prayers are considered sacred and such as are not to be told to Christians, or even to those hea. thens, who have not received the said dis. cipleship. At the end of the tracts, there are a few remarks by the Christian editor. They rather wondered that we Christians possessed their sacred prayers. The brah. min, at first said, “How could these men have the sacred prayers?” meaning that we were unworthy to have them, and that since we had them, it was probable, that they were not the sacred prayers... I read the tract to them myself. I generally make those, who receive tracts, read most of the contents thereof, on the spot.
20. Sabbath. I am in the town to-day, My wife being confined and she being in the town, among her friends; it has been necessary for me to come and see her, and to do what I can to make her comfortable. She was seriously ill; but, through God's mercy, she is now a little better.
I went to hear the Rev. C. David, minio ter of the native Episcopalian congregation in the town of Jaffna. It is Trinity Sunday in the church; and the minister commemo: rates it as the anniversary of his arri among his people. This is the 31st year of his arrival.
27. Sabbath. In the forenoon attended divine service in the chapel. In the after noon, visited some people in the same vil; lage that was mentioned on the 6th. I distributed a few tracts. One of them was given to the brahmin who teaches a school there, Having first asked him whetherho would have a tract, I gave him one, but he, after I was gone away, gave it to one of his schoolboys, without reading it himself , met him again, and spoke to him about it, and he mo some plausible apology.
Baptism of a Child.
Dec. 11, Sabbath. In my visits this aslernoon, I gave a tract to a young man, in which their sacred incantations or prayers, called muntrum were written. After reading a little, he expressed much grief at having unworthily read the sacred lo. he took off his turban, beat upon is head, and said, “Alas! I should not have heard them.” He meant, he should not have heard them, before he is judged worthy by his gooroo or brahmin instructer, who is to teach him those prayers, in person. Distributed a few tracts, and spoke to a few individuals in their houses.
25. Sabbath. My infant son was baptised this morning, immediately after sermon. This is my second child. I lost my first-born son last year. He died two months and a few days old. May the Lord make this new-born child a blessing to me and to his church,
The following is a letter from G. Tissera, dated Batticotta, January 25, 1832.
Since I sent my former journal, several o have elapsed. During this time I ave frequently made notices of my labors among the people, but, as they are by far too much to send for once, I have selected the last part of my journal, which comprised the transactions of about three months. From the latter part of June 1828, till about October 1829, I was in a state of derangement, and was much afflicted in that situation. But through God's blessing on the means used for my recovery, I was permitted to regain the right use of my intellectual faculties, and have since that time been performing the duties of my station, as usual. I heard with sorrow the death of Dr. S. Worcester, the first secretary of the Board, and one, who, for a long time, took an active part in its concerns. “How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!” “Precious in the #. of the Lord is the death of his saints.” His successor, Mr. Jeremiah Evarts, from what I know of him, was a Yery able and good man; but I have heard that this good man also is no more. He is gone to enjoy the fruit of his labors. He is gone, eternally to see and enjoy his Savior and his God. Though we may rejoice at his fruition of of rest, yet our loss of
in has been matter of grief to me. While these events are of a melancholy nature, there are others of a more cheering aspect, among which is the success of the gospel among these heathens, though that success * but partial. The church members have oncreased to above two hundred. About fourteen joined the church on the 19th in*no four females and about nine males, *" of whom received baptism, except two
boys, who received it formerly when their parents joined the church. It is pleasant once in a while to see a number standin up and presenting themselves to the | A much larger number so presented them. selves six months ago. But I am sorry to say that there have ion some falls among church members. This however is what we may reasonably expect among a heathen people, enveloped in the darkness of so. and but just emerging from its influence. The preached word is heard with more attention, and has more hearers, than o The improvement, by the education of youth, you are and will be made fully acquainted with, by the various journals and communications of this mission. The seminary at Batticotta has not been surpassed by any in the island. Other schools also of the mission have generally answered its expectations. I have heard from the missionaries of the late and unexampled revivals of religion in America. In almost every respect we have much cause for gratitude to God. We are called upon to praise him for what he is doing. You will hear from the missionaries, of the death of Miss Harriet Meigs, and Whelply, once a student and since an assistant in the seminary. They both died in hope. Whelply was particularly useful as a practitioner in medicine. He was much loved during his life, and much lamented in his death.
ExTRACT's FROM A CoMMUNICATION or N. NILEs, NATIVE PREACHER AT BATTIcott A.
Licensure—First Sermon–Mode of Spend. ing the Week.
On January 20, 1831, I was licensed as a native preacher, and on the same da
preached a sermon in the church at Tillipally. The text was, Jeremiah i, 6–7. “Then said I, Ah Lord God behold I cannot speak for I am a child! But the Lord said unto me, say not I am a child for thou shalt go to all that I shall send thee, and whatsoever I command thee thou shalt speak." While employed by the missionaries at Batticotta, my general course of labor both in the seminary and among the people is as follows. Every morning, at sunrise, I attend prayers in the chapel with the members in the seminary and conduct the service. About 100 persons usually attend. From half past seven o'clock to ten, I am engaged in the preparation of ser: mons, o: the scriptures, reading church history, the scripture help, Horne's study of the Bible, &c. The time from ten to twelve o'clock, is spent in correcting the Tamul translations, prepared by some mem. bers of the first class, and also some other translations. Every afternoon of the week except Monday, and Saturday, I spend among the people, to distribute tracts and oi the glad tidings of salvation through their souls. On the Sabbath, when I am not called by other missionaries to preach at any of the other stations or in any other places, 1 remain at Batticotta and attend the various religious meetings and hear the scripture lessons of the second, third and fourth classes, and also preach in the chapel when it is my turn. The present number of the boys in the three classes above mentioned, is seventy. What I have written above will give you some idea of the manner in which I spent my time for two or three months after I was licensed. I shall now make some extracts from my journal, beginning
Jesus Christ. On Monday forenoon, I got had come to her house, of course she ought to the Bazar at Changany, to distribute | to come to the church.
tracts and converse, with the people. On , 24. Mrs. Poor went to east Araly, and Saturday evening, I usually hold a relig- held a meeting with the women. She gave ious uleeting with those in the seminary, a brief account of her brother, who went to who have some concern for the salvation of Africa as a missionary and died there, and
tract immediately to the boy.
stop and read a tract to the people, which | he did accordingly. After this boy wenti away, and having heard a brahmin talk at the island Caradive to preach. I preached
the bazar about taking my tracts and tear
ing them to pieces, he came and whispered in my ear and said the brahmin intends to receive tracts from you and to tear them before your face, do not go and talk with him. This brahmin, of whom the boy came and spoke, was a Batticottian. eople receive the tracts relating to the Koi... and to eclipses. He was quite sorry in these days. I noticed that the tract, which Mr. Poor, the principal of the seminary, wrote on eclipses, is having a ood o, upon the minds of many of the #. I heard even the haughty brahmin, Sinnim confess that they are not able to calculate eclipses as correctly as the English astronomers. Also the notary public, at Batticotta, after he read the tract, said, it is a lie, to say the serpents devour the sun and moon. 22. As the women in the country generally have strong prejudices against attending Poor, intend to go to the villages and hold meetings with the women, at the schoolmaster's houses.
and held a meeting there. eighteen or twenty women on the advan
tages of attending the church of God on is this man
also the motives of her coming to Ceylon. Afterwards I read to them some things from a tract. After the meeting, a woman said, all the things which were spoken in the meeting are very good. But as soon as a man heard this, he scolded the woman and said, be quiet and go to your house, so the worman said no more and went away. The man forbid the woman to come any more. .lpril 11. I could not make the people hear me read tracts at the bazar, as the ensuing day is the new year's day with the Tamulians. The o: were busy in buying and selling. However, I met some in: dividuals separately and talked to them and gave them tracts. One of my acquaintances appeared with ashes on his forehead. I was a little dis. pleased. He said he had left all Tamul ceremonies except rubbing ashes. This also he will leave as soon as he can be con
He saw the '
| year and a half from This afternoon, Mrs. || Meigs went to Changany, to the house of the schoolmaster, who is a church member, I spoke to
vinced of the truths of Christianity.
mand for the tract... I did not give the I made him
- ..Monthly Concert. .May 1. Sabbath. Mr. Meigs went to to the people in the afternoon, in the chapel, on Heb. xii. 3, “For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himselflest ye be wearied and faint in your minds.” 2. As it was our monthly prayer meet. ing, I was prevented going to the bazar. After I opened the meeting with singing a hymn with the seminarists, called two of the church members, Chester and Win. fried, to give short addresses in the meet. ing. They spoke on the subject of prayer. infried, the scholar from Palamootta, is a very good young man, who is much lo quainted with the holy scriptures and who is able even to make sermons. Fourteen ..". men in the first class are commited by the principal of the seminary, to my especial care, that I may assist them in proparing public addresses on religious so jects in Tamul. I hope they will in this way be better prepared to attend the theo:
church, Mrs. Meigs and Mrs. logical studies under Mr. Winslow, at the
the seminary, one is time.
time of their leavin
Comparison of Christ with an Idol.
3. The first man whom I met with, was || the ...'. public of Batticotta. Though as heard the gospel many times,
the Sabbath. They were very attentive. still he is a rank heathem. When I spoke After the meeting, Mrs. Meigs asked the to him about the Savior, he said the Savior,
wife of the schoolmaster to come to church
iven. The mistake with the