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prince, who piqued himself more upon his affability and politeness than nobility and grandeur, pleased himself with conducting in person so illustrious a guest through his gardens, and with making him observe the various beauties of them. Lysander, struck with so fine a prospect, admired the manner in which the several parts were laid out, the height of the trees, the neatness and disposition of the walks; the abundance of fruit-trees, planted checker-wise, with an art which had known how to unite the useful with the agreeable; the beauty of the parterres, and the glowing variety of flowers, exhaling odours universally throughout the delightful scene. "Every thing charms and transports me in "this place," said Lysander, addressing himself to Cyrus; "but what strikes me most, is the exquisite taste and elegant industry of the person, who drew the plan of the "several parts of this garden, and gave it the fine order, "wonderful disposition, and happiness of symmetry, which I "cannot sufficiently admire." Cyrus infinitely pleased with. this discourse, replied, " It was I that drew the plan, and en"tirely marked it out; and many of the trees, which you see, were planted with my own hands.” What," replied Lysander, considering him from head to foot," is it possible "with these purple robes and splendid vestments, those "strings of jewels and bracelets of gold, those buskins so "richly embroidered, that you could play the gardener, "and employ your royal hands in planting trees!" "Does "that surprise you?" said Cyrus; "I swear by the god "Mithras, that, when my health admits, I never set down






to table without having made myself sweat with some "fatigue or other, either, in military exercise, rural labour,



or some other toilsome employment, to which I apply with pleasure, and without sparing myself." Lysander was amazed at this discourse, and pressing him by the hand; "Cyrus," said he, "you are truly happy, and deserve your high fortune; because in you it is united with virtue."

Alcibiades without any trouble discovered the mystery of the levies made by Cyrus, and went into the province of Pharnabasus, with design to proceed to the court of Persia, and to apprise Artaxerxes of the scheme laid against him. Had he arrived there, a discovery of such importance would have infallibly procured him the favour of that prince, and dimensa atque descripta. Et ei Cyrum respondisse: Atqui ego ista sum dimensus, mei sunt ordines, mea descriptio, multæ etiam istarum arborum mea manu sunt sate. Tum Lysandrum, intuentem ejus purpuram et nitorem corporis, ornatumque Persicum multo auro multisque gemomis, dixisse: Recte vero te, Cyre, beatum ferunt, quoniam virtuti tuæ fortuna conjuncta est. Cic. de Senec. n. 59

a The Persians adored the sun under that name, who was their principal god. ο Δίκαιος ο Κύε, εὐδαιμονείς ανθός γάρ ὢν εὐδαιμονείς Recte vere te, Cyre, beatum ferunt, quoniam virtuti tuæ fortuna conjuncta est,




the assistance he wanted for the re-establishment of his country. But the Lacedæmonian partisans at Athens, that is to say, the thirty tyrants, apprehended the intrigues of so superior a genius as his, and represented to their masters, that they were inevitably ruined if they did not find means to rid themselves of Alcibiades. The Lacedæmonians thereupon wrote to Pharnabasus, and with an abject meanness not to be excused, and which showed how much Sparta had degenerated from her ancient manners, pressed him with great earnestness, to deliver them at any rate from so formidable an enemy. The satrap complied with their wish. Alcibiades was then in a small town of Phrygia, where he lived with his concubine a Timandra. Those who were sent to kill him, not daring to enter his house, contented themselves with surrounding and setting it on fire. Alcibiades, having quitted it through the flames sword in hand, the Barbarians were afraid to stay to come to blows with him, but flying and retreating as he advanced, they poured their darts and arrows upon him, and he fell dead upon the spot. Timandra took up his body, and having adorned and covered it with the finest robes she had, she made as magnificent a funeral for it, as her present condition would admit.

Such was the end of Alcibiades, whose great virtues were stifled and suppressed by still greater vices. It is not easy to say, whether his good or bad qualities were most pernicious to his country; for with the one he deceived, and with the other he oppressed it. In him distinguished valour was united with nobility of blood. His person was beautiful and finely made, he was eloquent, of great ability in business, insinuating, and formed for charming all mankind. He loved glory; but without prejudice to his inclination for pleasure; nor was he so fond of pleasure, as to neglect his glory for it. He knew how to give into, or abstract himself from it, according to the situation of his affairs. Never was there ductility of genius equal to his. He metamorphosed himself with incredible facility, like a Proteus, into the most contrary forms, and supported them all with as much ease and grace, as if each had been natural to him.

This convertibility of character, according as circumstances, the customs of countries, and his own interests required, discovers a heart void of principles, without either truth or justice. He did not confine himself either to religion, virtue, laws, duties, or his country. His sole rule of action was his private ambition, to which he referred every thing.

It was said that Lais the famous courtesan, called the Corinthian, was the daughter of this Timandra

Cujus nescio utrum bona an vitia patriæ perniciosiora fuerint; illis enim dives suos decepit, his affixit. Val Max. I. iii. c. 1.

His aim was to please, to dazzle, and be beloved; but at the same time to subject those he soothed. He favoured them only as they served his purposes; and made his correspondence and society a means for engrossing every thing to himself.

His life was a perpetual mixture of good and evil. His sallies into virtue were ill-sustained, and quickly degenerated into vices and crimes, very little to the honour of the instructions of that great philosopher, who took no small pains to cultivate him into a man of worth. His actions were glorious; but without rule or principle. His character was elevated and grand; but without connexion and consistence. He was successively the support and terror of the Lacedæmonians and Persians. He was either the misfortune or refuge of his own country, according as he declared for or against it. In fine, he was the author of a destructive war through the whole of Greece, from the sole motive of commanding, by inducing the Athenians to besiege Syracuse; much less from the hope of conquering Sicily, and afterwards Africa, than with the design of keeping Athens in dependence upon himself; convinced, that having to deal with an inconstant, suspicious, ungrateful, jealous people, averse to those that governed, it was necessary to engage them continually in some great affair, in order to make his services always necessary to them, and that they might not be at leisure to examine, censure, and condemn his conduct.

He had the fate generally experienced by persons of his character, and of which they cannot reasonably complain. He never loved any one, himself being his sole motive; nor ever found a friend. He made it his merit and glory to cajole all men, and consequently nobody confided in, or adhered to, him. His sole view was to live with splendour, and to domineer universally; and he perished miserably, abandoned by the whole world, and obliged at his death to the feeble services and impotent zeal of one only woman for the last honours rendered to his remains.

About this time died Democritus the philosopher, of whom more will be said elsewhere.


The Thirty exercise the most horrid cruelties at Athens. They put Theramenes, one of their colleagues, to death. Socrates takes his defence upon himself. Thrasybulus attacks the tyrants, makes himself master of Athens, and restores its liberty.

The council of Thirty, established at Athens by Lysana Xenoph. Hist. 1. ii. p. 462-179. Diod, l. xiv. p. 235-238. Justin. 1. v. c. 8, 10.

der, committed the most execrable cruelties. Upon pretence of restraining the multitude within their duty, and of preventing seditions, they had caused guards to be assigned them, and armed 3000 of the citizens for that service, and at the same time disarmed all the rest. The whole city was in the utmost terror and dismay. Whoever opposed their injustice and violence, became the victims of them. Riches were a crime, that never failed of drawing a sentence upon their owners, always followed with death, and the confiscation of estates; which the thirty tyrants divided amongst themselves. They put more people to death, says Xenophon, in eight months of peace, than the enemies had done in a war of thirty years.

The two most considerable persons of the Thirty were Critias and Theramenes, who at first lived in great union and always acted in concert with each other. The latter had some honour, and loved his country. When he saw with what an excess of violence and cruelty his colleagues behaved, he declared openly against them, and thereby drew their resentment upon him. Critias became his most mortal enemy, and acted as informer against him before the senate, accusing him of disturbing the tranquillity of the state, and of designing to subvert the present government. As he perceived, that the defence of Theramenes was heard with silence and approbation, he was afraid that if the affair was left to the decision of the senate, they would acquit him. Having therefore caused a band of young men, whom he had armed with poinards, to advance to the bar, he said that he thought it the duty of a supreme magistrate to prevent justice from being abused, and that he should act conformably upon this occasion. "But," continued he, as the law



does not permit, that any of the 3000 should be put to "death without the consent of the senate, I exclude Thera"menes from that number, and condemn him to die in virtue "of my own and my colleagues' authority." Theramenes at these words, leaping upon the altar; "I demand,” said he," Athenians, that I may be tried according to the laws; "which cannot be refused me without manifest injustice. "Not that I imagine, that the goodness of my cause will "avail me any thing, or the sanction of altars protect me, "but I would show, at least, that my enemies respect nei"ther the gods nor men. What most astonishes me, is "that persons of your wisdom do not see, that your own names may as easily be struck out of the list of the citizens, " as that of Theramenes." Critias upon this ordered the officers of justice to pull him down from the altar. An universal silence and terror ensued upon the sight of the armed soldiers, that surrounded the senate. Of all the senators, So



crates alone, whose disciple Theramenes had been, took upon him his defence, and opposed the officers of justice. But his weak endeavours could not deliver Theramenes, who was led to the place of execution, notwithstanding all he could do, through crowds of the citizens, who saw with tears, in the fate of a man equally considerable for his love of liberty and the great services he had done his country, what they had to fear for themselves. When they presented him the hemlock, that is, the poison, (which was the manner of putting the citizens of Athens to death,) he took it with an intrepid air, and after having drunk it, he poured the bottom upon the table, after the usual manner observed in feasts or public rejoicings, saying, This for the noble Critias. Xenophon relates this circumstance, inconsiderable in itself, to show, says he, the tranquillity of Theramenes in his last mo


The tyrants delivered from a colleague, whose presence alone was a continual reproach to them, no longer observed any measures. Nothing passed throughout the city but unprisonments and murders. a Every body trembled for themselves or their friends. The general desolation had no remedy, nor was there any hope of regaining their liberty. Where had they then as many Harmodiuses as they had tyrants? Terror had taken entire possession of their minds, whilst the whole city deplored in secret their loss of liberty, without having one amongst them generous enough to attempt the breaking its chains. The Athenian people seemed to have lost that valour, which till then had made them awful and terrible to their neighbours and enemies. They seemed to have lost the very use of speech; not daring to ent the least complaint, lest it should be made a capital crime in them. Socrates alone continued intrepid. He consoled the afflicted senate, animated the desponding citizens, and set all nen an admirable example of courage and resolution; preserving his liberty, and sustaining his port in the midst of thirty tyrants, who made all else tremble, but could never shake the constancy of Socrates with their menaces. Critias, who had been his pupil, was the first to declare most openly against him, taking offence at the free and bold discourses which he held against the government of the Thirty. He went so far as to prohibit his instructing the youth; but Socrates, who

a Poteratne civitas illa conquiescere, in qua tot tyranni erant, quot satellites essent? Ne spes quidem ulla recipiendæ libertatis animis poterat offerri, nec ulli remedio focus apparebat contra tantam vim maloruin. Unde enim misere civitati tot Harmodios? Socrates tamen in medio erat, et lugentes patres consolabatur, et desperantes de republica exhortabatur-et imitari volentibus magnum circumferebat exemplar, cum inter triginta dominos liber incederet. nec. de tranquil. anim. c. iii.


6 Harmodious formed a conspiracy for the deliverance of Athens from the fyranny of the Pisistratidæ, c_Xenoph, memorab. l. i. p. 716, 717.

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