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This degenerate disposition of theirs, and of the rest of the Greeks, who were also lulled into the same secu. rity, gave opportunity and leisure to Philip, who had been educated under Epaminondas and Pelopidas, to raise the Macedonians from a mean and obscure condition, to the empire of all Greece and Asia. This design was projected and commenced by Philip, but atchieved and perfected by his son, Alexander the great.
The State of Athens from Philip of Macedon to
its Delivery by the Romans. The Athenians and the rest of the Grecians made some resistance against the victorious arms of Philip, but were overthrown in a pitched battle at Chæronea, in the third year of the one hundred and tenth olympiad. This defeat put an end to the Grecian glory, and in a great measure to their liberty, which for so many ages, and against the most puissant monarchs, they had preserved entire till that time, but were never again able to recover it. · However Philip, to the end he might be declared captain-general of Greece against the Persians, without any farther trouble, and strengthen his army by the accession of their forces, was content to forbear any farther attempt upon the Athenians, and to permit them to enjoy a shew of liberty..
No sooner was Philip dead, than they'revolted, and endeavoured to free themselves from the Macedonian yoke, but were easily brought into subjection by Alexander, and as easily obtained pardon of him, being then very eager to invade Persia, and unwilling to be diverted, by taking revenge upon those petty states, from a more noble and glorious enterprize. And during his life they continued quiet, not daring to move so much as their tongues against him. Only towards the latter end of his reign, when he was busied in the wars with remote countries, and not at leisure to take
notice of every little opposition, they refused to entertain the banished persons, which Alexander had commanded should be restored in all the cities of Greece. However, they durst not break out into open rebellion ; but gave secret orders to Leosthenes, one of their captains, to levy an army in his own name, and be ready whenever they should have occasion for him: Leosthenes obeyed their commands, and as soon as certain news was brought that Alexander was dead in Persia, being joined by some others of the Grecian states, proclaimed open war against the Macedonians, in defence of the liberty of Greece. But being in the end totally defeated by Antipater, they were forced to entertain a garrison in Munychia, and submit to what condition the econqueror pleased to impose upon them. He therefore changed their form of government, and instituted an oligarchy, depriving all those that were not worth two thousand drachms, of the right of suffrage, and the better to keep them quiet, all mutinous and disaffected persons he transplanted into Thrace. And by this means the supreme power came into the hands of about nine thousand. *
About four years after Antipater, died, and the city fell into the hands of Cassander, who succeeded in the kingdom of Macedon. From him they made many attempts to free themselves, and regain their beloved democracy, but were in the end forced to submit themselves, in the third year of the hundred and fifteenth olympiad, and accept of a garrison like to that which Antipater had imposed upon them, to live under the same form of government, and obey any person that the conqueror should nominate to the supreme power in it. The man appointed to be their governor was Demetrius the Phalerean, who, as Diogenes Laertius reports, was of the family of Conon, and studied philosophy under Theophrastus. He used them with all possible kindness and moderation, enlarged their revenues, beautified their city with magnificent struetures, and restored it almost to its' former lustre; and they, in requital of these favours, bestowed on him all the honours, which in so poor a condition they were able to give, erecting to him three hundred statues, according to the number of days in the attick' year, most of which were on horseback. But all this was the effect of flattery and dissimulation, rather than any respect to him. All his moderation, all the benefits he had conferred on them could not beget in them any sincere affection for him : they still hated him, though they had no other reason for it, than that he was set over them by Cassander; and though their power was gone, yet their spirits were still too high to brook any thing that savoured of tyranny. And this in a few years was made manifest, for when Demetrius Poliorcetes, the son of Antigonus, took up arms, as was pretended, in defence of the liberty of Greece, they received him with loud acclamations, and all possible expressions of joy, compelled the Phalerean to secure himself by flight, in his absence condemned him to die, and lay in wait to apprehend him, and bring him to execution; and, when they could not compass his person, vented their rage and malice upon his statues, which they pulled down with the greatest detestation and abhorrence, breaking some to pieces, selling others, and drowning others; so that of three hundred there was none left remaining, except only one in the citadel, as the forementioned author had reported.
Demetrius Poliorcetes, having gotten possession of the city, restored to the Athenians their popular government, bestowed upon them fifteen thousand measures of wheat, and such a quantity of timber, as would enable them to build an hundred gallies for the defence of their city, and left them in full possession of their liberty, without any garrison to keep them in obedience. And so transported were the Athenians with this deliverance, that, by a wild and extravagant gratitude, they bestowed upon Demetrius and Antigonus, not only the title of kings, though that was a name they had hitherto declined, but called them their tutelar deities and deliverers; they instituted priests to them, enacted a law, that the ambassadors whom
they should send to them, should have the same stile and character with those who were accustomed to be sent to Delphi, to consult the oracle of the Pythian Apollo, or to Elis to the Olympian Jupiter, to perform the Grecian solemnities, and make oblations for the safety and preservation of their city, whom they called Theori.* They appointed lodgings for Demetrius in the temple of Minerva, and consecrated an altar in the place where he first alighted from his chariot, calling it the altar of Demetrius, the alighter, and added infinite other instances of the most gross and sordid flattery, of which Plutarch and others gives us a large account; for (says a learned modern author) the Athe nians, having forgotten how to employ their hands, made up that defect by their tongues ; converting to base flattery that eloquence, which the virtues of their ancestors had suited unto more manly arguments. .
• But afterwards when Demetrius's fortune began to decline, he was no longer their god, or their deliverer, but, in requital of all his former kindnesses, they basely deserted him, denied him entrance into their city, and by a popular edict made it death for any person so much as to propose a treaty or accommodation with him. Then the city being embroiled in civil dissensions, one Lachares seized the government, but upon the approach of Demetrius, was forced to quit his newly usurped authority, and preserve 'himself by a timely flight. .
' Thus they were a second time in the possession of Demetrius, who, notwithstanding their former shameful ingratitude, received them again into favour, bestowed upon them an hundred thousand bushels of wheat, and, to ingratiate himself the more with them, advanced such persons 'to public offices, as he knew to be most acceptable to the people. This unexpected generosity transported them so far beyond themselves, that, at the motion of Dromoclides, an orator, it was decreed by the unanimous suffrage of the people, that the haven
* Inspectors of the sacred rites.
of Piræus and the castle of Munychia should be put into the hands of Demetrius, to dispose of them as he pleased. And he, having learned by their former inconstancy not to repose too much trust in such humble servants, put strong garrisons into those two places, and by his own authority placed a third in the museum, to the end (saith Plutarch) that those people, who had shewed so much levity in their dispositions, might be kept in subjection, and not by their future perfidies be able to divert him from the prosecution of other enterprizes.
But all this care was not sufficient to keep a people restless, and impatient of any thing that savoured of servitude, in obedience; for Demetrius's power being again diminished by divers bad successes, they made another revolt, expelled "his garrison, and proclaimed liberty to all Athenians; and to do him the greater disgrace, they displaced Diphilius, who was that year the priest of the two tutelar deities, that is, Antigonus and Demetrius, and by an edict of the people restored the priesthood to its ancient form. Again, Demetrius having recovered himself a little, and being justly enraged against them for their repeated perfidies, laid close siege to the city, but by the persuasion of Cra. terus the philosopher, was wrought upon to quit it, and leave them once more in possession of their freedom.
Some time after this, Demetrius died, and was succeeded by Antigonus Gonatus, who again recovered Athens, put a garrison into it, and left it in the hands of his successor: but upon the death of Demetrius the son of Gonatus, the Athenians made another attempt to regain their liberty, and called in Aratus to their assistance, who, though he had been signally affronted by them, and lain a long time bed-rid of an infirmity, yet, rather than fail the city in a time of need, was carried thither in a litter, and prevailed with Diogenes the governor, to deliver the Piræus, Munychia, Salamis, and Sunium, to the Athenians, in consideration of an hundred and fifty talents, whereof