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The armies were not distant above 4 or 500 paces, when the Greeks began to sing the hymn of battle, and to march on, slowly at first, and with silence. When they came near the enemy, they set up great cries, striking their darts upon their shields to frighten the horse, and then moving all together, they sprung forwards upon the Barbarians with all their force, who did not wait their charge, but took to their heels, and fled universally; except Tissaphernes, who stood his ground, with a small part of his troops.
Cyrus saw with pleasure the enemy routed by the Greeks, and was proclaimed king by those around him. But he did not give himself up to a vain joy, nor as yet reckon himself victor. He perceived that Artaxerxes was wheeling his right to attack him in flank, and marched directly against him with his 600 horse. He killed Artagerses, who commanded the king's guard of 6000 horse, with his own hand, and put the whole body to flight. Discovering his brother, he cried out with his eyes sparkling with rage, “ I see him, and spurred against him, followed only by his principal officers; for his troops had quitted their ranks to follow the runaways, which was an essential fault.
a The battle then became a single combat, in some measure, between Artaxerxes and Cyrus, and the two brothers were seen transported with rage and fury, endeavouring, like Eteocles and Polynices, to plunge their swords into each other's hearts, and to assure themselves of the throne by the death of their rival.
Cyrus having opened his way through those who were drawn up in battle before Artaxerxes, joined him, and killed his horse, that fell with him to the ground. He rose, and was remounted upon another, when Cyrus attacked him again, gave him a second wound, and was preparing to give him a third, in hopes that it would prove his last. The king like a lion wounded by the hunters, was only the more furious from the smart, and sprung forwards, impetuously pushing his horse against Cyrus, who running headlong, and without regard to his person, threw himself into the midst of a flight of darts aimed at him from all sides, and received a wound from the king's javelin, at the instant all the rest discharged their weapons against him. Cyrus fell dead : some say that it was from the wound given him by the king; others affirm that he was killed by a Čarian soldier. Mithridates, a young Persian nobleman, asserted, that he had given him the mor
tal stroke with a javelin, which entered his temple, and 1 pierced his head quite through. The greatest persons of his he well knew how to choose his friends, and that he was truly beloved by them. Ariæus, who ought to have been the firmest of all his adherents, fled with the left wing, as soon as he heard of his death.
court, resolving not to survive so good a master, were all killed around his body ; a certain proof, says Xenophon, that
a Diod. l. xiv. p. 254.
Artaxerxes, after having caused the head and right hand of his brother to be cut off by the eunuch Mesabates, pursued the enemy into their camp: Ariæus had not stopt there, but having passed through it, continued his retreat to the place where the army had encamped the day before, which was about four leagues distant.
Tissaphernes, after the defeat of the greatest part of his left wing by the Greeks, led on the rest against them, and by the side of the river passed through the light-armed infantry of the Greeks, who opened to give him passage, and made their discharge upon him as he passed, without losing a man. They were commanded by Episthenes of Amphipolis, who was esteemed an able captain. Tissaphernes kept on without returning to the charge, because he perceived he was too weak, and went forward to Cyrus's camp, where he found the king, who was plundering it ; but had not been able to force the quarter defended by the Greeks left to guard it, who saved their baggage.
The Greeks on their side, and Artaxerxes on his, who did not know what had passed elsewhere, believed each of them that they had gained the victory ; the first, because they had put the enemy to flight, and pursued them ; and the king, because he had killed
his brother, beaten the troops *who had opposed him, and plundered their camp. The event was soon cleared up on both sides. Tissaphernes, upon his arrival at the camp, informed the king, that the Greeks had defeated his left wing, and pursued it with great vigour; and the Greeks, on their side learnt, that the king, in pursuing. Cyrus's left, had penetrated into the camp. Upon this advice, the king rallied his troops and marched in quest of the enemy; and Clearchus, being returned from pursuing the
Persians, advanced to support the camp.
The two armies were soon very near each other, when by a movement made by the king, he seemed to intend to charge the Greeks by their left, who, fearing to be surrounded on all sides, wheeled about, and halted with the river on their backs, to prevent their being taken in the rear. Upon seeing that, the king changed his form of battle also, drew up his
army in front of them, and marched on to the attack. As soon as the Greeks saw him approach, they began to sing the hymn of battle, and advanced against the enemy even with more ardour than in the first action.
The Barbarians again took to their heels, as at first, ran farther than before, and were pursued to a village at the foot of a hill, upon which their horse halted. The king's standard was observed to be there, which was a golden eagle upon the top of a pike, having its wings displayed. The Greeks preparing to pursue them, they abandoned also the hill, Aed precipitately, and all their troops broke, and were in the utmost disorder and confusion. Clearchus, having drawn up the Greeks at the bottom of the hill, ordered Lycias the Syracusan and another to go up it, and observe what passed in the plain. They returned with an account that the enemies fled on all sides, and that their whole army was routed.
As it was almost night, the Greeks laid down their arms to rest themselves, much surprised, that neither Cyrus, nor any one from him appeared ; and imagining, that he was either engaged in the pursuit of the enemy, or was making haste to possess himself of some important place, for they were still ignorant of his death, and the defeat of the rest of his army. They determined therefore to return to their camp, where they arrived about night-fall, and found the greatest part of the baggage taken, with all the provisions, and 400 waggons laden with corn and wine, which Cyrus had expressly caused to be carried along with the army for the Greeks, in case of any pressing necessity. They passed the night in the camp, the greatest part of them without any refreshment, concluding that Cyrus was alive and victorious.
The success of this battle shows the superiority of valour and military knowledge over the greatest numbers without them. The small army of the Greeks did not amount to more than 12 or 13,000 men ; but they were seasoned and disciplined troops, inured to fatigues, accustomed to confront dangers, sensible to glory, and who, during the long Peloponneşian war, had not wanted either time or means to acquire, and perfect themselves in the art of war. On Artaxerxes side were reckoned nearly 1,000,000 of men ; but they were soldiers only in name, without force, courage, discipline, experience, or any sentiment of honour. Hence it was, that as soon as the Greeks appeared, terror and disorder ensued amongst the enemy; and in the second action, Artaxerxes himselt did not dare to wait their attack, but shamefully betook himself to fight.
Plutarch here blaines.Clearchus, the general of the Greeks, very much, and imputes to him, as an unpardonable neglect, his not having followed Cyrus's order, who recommended to him above all things to fall upon that body where Artaxerxes commanded in person. This reproach seems groundless. It is not easy to conceive, how it was possible for that captain, who was posted on the right wing, to attack Artaxerxes immediately, who, in the centre of his own army, lay beyond the utmost extent of the enemy's left, as has been said be
fore. It seems that Cyrus, depending as he did with great reason upon the valour of the Greeks, and desiring they should charge Artaxerxes in his post, ought to have placed them in the left wing, which answered directly to the part where the king was ; that is, to the main body, and not in the right, which was very remote from it.
Clearchus may indeed be reproached with having followed the pursuit too warmly and too long. If after having put the left wing which opposed him into disorder, he had charged the rest of the enemy in flank, and had opened his way to the centre, where Artaxerxes was, it is highly probable, that he would have gained a complete victory, and placed Cyrus upon the throne. The 600 horse of that prince's guard committed the same fault, and by pursuing the body of troops they had put to flight too eagerly, left their master almost alone, and abandoned to the mercy of the enemy : without considering, that they were chosen from the whole army for the immediate guard of his person, and for no other purpose whatsoever. Too much ardour is often prejudicial in a battle, and it is the duty of an able general to know how to restrain and direct it.
Cyrus himself erred highly in this respect, and abandoned himself too much to his blind passion for glory and revenge. In running headlong to attack his brother, he forgot, that there is a wide difference between a general and a private soldier. He ought not to have exposed himself, but as became a prince; as the head, not the hand ; as the person who was to give orders, and not as those who were to execute them.
In these remarks I only adopt those which have been made by able judges in the art of war, and would not choose to advance my own opinion upon points which I am not competent to decide.
Sect. III.-Eulogy of Cyrus. a Xenophon gives us a magnificent character of Cyrus, and that not merely from the report of others, but from what he saw and knew of him in his own person. He was, says he, in the opinion of all that were acquainted with him, next to Cyrus the Great, a prince the most worthy of the supreme authority, and one who had the most noble, and most truly royal soul. From his infancy he surpassed all of his own age in every exercise, whether it were in managing the horse, drawing the bow, throwing the dart, or in the chase, in which he distinguished himself once by fighting and killing a bear that attacked him. Those advantages were enhanced in him by the nobleness of his air, an engaging aspect, and by all the graces of nature, that conduce to recommend merit.
a De Exped. Cyr. l. 1. p. 288, 267.
When his father had made him satrap of Lydia, and the neighbouring a provinces, his chief care was to make the people sensible, that he had nothing so much at heart, as to keep his word inviolably, not only with regard to public treaties, but the most minute of his promises ; a quality very rare amongst princes, which however is the basis of all good government, and the source of their own, as well as their people's happiness. Not only the places under his authority, but the enemy themselves, reposed an entire confidence in him.
Whether good or ill were done him, he always desired to return it twofold, and wished that he might live no longer, (as he said himself) than whilst he surpassed his friends in benefits, and his enemies in vengeance. (It would have been more glorious for him to have overcome the latter by the force of favour and benevolence.) Nor, was there ever prince, whom people were more afraid to offend, nor for whose sake they were more ready to hazard their posses sions, lives, and fortunes.
Less intent upon being feared than beloved, his study was to make his greatness appear only where it was useful and beneficial, and to extinguish all other sentiments, but those which flow from gratitude and affection. He was careful to seize every occasion of doing good, to conter his favours With judgment and in season, and to show, that he thought himself rich, powerful, and happy, only as he made others sensible of his being so by his benevolence and liberality. But he took care not exhaust the means by an imprudent profusion. He did not 6 lavish, but distribute, his favours. He chose rather to make his liberalities the rewards of merit, than mere donations, and that they should be subservient in promoting virtue, and not in supporting the soft and abject: Sloth of vice.
He was particularly pleased with conferring his favours upon valiant men, and governments and rewards were bestowed only on those who had distinguished themselves by their actions. He never granted any honour or dignity to favour, intrigue, or faction, but to merit alone ; upon which depends, not only the glory but the prosperity of governments. By that means he soon made virtue estimable, and rendered vice contemptible. The provinces, animated with a noble emulation, furnished him in a very short time with a considerable number of excellent subjects of every kind ;
Great Phrygia and Cappadocia.
Habebit sinum facilem, non perforatum : ex quo multa exeant, nihil excidat. Senec. de vit. btat. c. xxið.