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gainst the express Command of God. God forbade it to be eaten, for the Trial of Man's Obedience. And the Fitnefs of taking Trial of Man by that Mean, appears in that fo it was taken in an external Thing, in itself indifferent, wherein Man's Obedience behoved to turn precisely upon the Point of the Will of God. This Sin was then, in effect, Man's practical Declaration that he would not be ruled by God's Will, but by his own: And therefore it was not a little Sin, but a breaking of the whole Law at once: Fam. il IO. II. For whofoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. For he that faid, Do not commit adultery; faid · alfo, Do not kill. Now, if thou commit no " adultery, yet if thou kill, thou art become a · tranfgreffor of the law.'

Queft. 16. Did all Mankind fall in Adam's first Tranfgreffion?

Anf The Covenant being made with Adam, not only for himself, but for his Pofterity; all Mankind, defcending from him by ordinary Generation, finned in him, and fell with him, in his first Tranfgreffion.

EXPLICATION.

Adam did not fall alone in this Tranfgreffion: But all Mankind, defcending from him by ordinary Generation, were involved with him in the Ruins

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of his Fall: And these are all his Pofterity, except the Man Chrift: 1 Cor. v. 22. In Adam • all die."

Christ as Man did indeed descend from Adam : Luke iii. 23. And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as was fuppofed) the fon of Jofeph. Compared with Verse laft, • Which was the fon of Adam.' But he did not defcend from him by ordinary, but extraordinary Generation. That which was extraordinary in Chrift's Generation, was, that he was born of a Virgin Matth. i. 18. Now the birth of Jefus 'Chrift was on this wife: When as his mother Mary was efpoused to Jofeph, before they came together, fhe was found with child of the Holy Ghost.'

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All the rest of Adam's Pofterity fell with him: They fell with him, from the State of Holiness and Happiness; both which they had in hand, and which they had in hope from the Promise of the Covenant of Works: And they fo fell, by his first Tranfgreffion, Rom. v. 18. 19.By the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation. By one man's disobedience many were made finners." His firft Tranfgreffion was his eating of the forbidden Fruit. His eating of that Fruit, is called his firft Tranfgreffion; because by it his Sin and Apoftafy begun in his Heart, was completed, Gen. iii. 6. forecited. Now, that Tranfgreffion caft him and them down from thefe States of Holiness and Happiness, inafmuch as by it the Covenant of Works was broken: Gen. ii. 17. Compared with Chap. iii. 10. 11. 12. forecited. The Reafon why they fell with him by that Tranfgreffion, was, that in it they finned in

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him: So that Sin, whereby the Covenant was broken, was our Sin, as well as his, Rom. v. 12. 19. By one man fin entered into the world, and death by fin; and fo death paffed upon all men, ' for that all have finned. For by one man's dif' obedience many were made finners.'

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It came to be our Sin, because he was our Covenant Head and Representative in the Covenant of Works; that is to fay, The Covenant was made with him, not only for himself, but for his, Pofterity: Cor. xv. 'And fo it is written, The 'first man Adam was made a living foul.' The Man Chrift was not included in that Reprefentation which Adam made as Head of the Covenant of Works, 1 Cor. xv. 22. 45. For as in Adam all die, even fo in Christ shall all be made alive." verf. 45. 'The first man Adam was made a living 6 foul, the laft Adam was made a quickening fpirit; and that because Chrift came, not in virtue of the Bleffing of Fruitfulness given while the Covenant of Works ftood entire, but in virtue of a special Promise made after it was broken: Gen. i. 28. And God blessed them, and God faid unto them, Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish "the earth, and fubdue it: and have dominion ، over the fish of the fea, and over the fowl of 'the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.' And Chap. iii. 15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy feed and her feed: it fhall bruife thy head, and thou fhalt bruife his heel.' Adam's Sin, then, could not be imputed to the Man Chrift, fince Adam did not represent him in the Covenant. But Adam reprefented all the rest - of Mankind in it: Rom. v. 12. forecited. It is true,

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true, we did not chufe him for our Reprefentative, but God chofe him for us: And he was the moft fit Choice for that End: Ecclef. iii. 14. 'I know that whatsoever God doth, it shall be for ever nothing can be put to it, nor any thing 'taken from it: and God doth it, that men fhould fear before him.' And this he was, in regard he was the natural Head of Mankind, endowed with fufficient Ability: Acts xvii. 26. God hath made ' of one blood, all nations of men, for to dwell on all the face of the earth, &c. Ecclef. vii. 29. 'God hath made man upright.'

Now, Man did not become free from the Covenant of Works, upon his breaking of it: For his breaking of it could never free him; and the Honour of the Law barred his Discharge, till the Breach of it should be made up: xlii. 21. The Lord is well pleafed for his righteoufnefs fake; 'he will magnify the law, and make it hónōtir'able.' Matth. v. 18. Till heaven and earth pass,

one jot or one tittle fhall in no wife pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.' And Man himself was utterly unable to make up that Breach: Rom. v. 6. For when we were yet without ftrength, in due time Chrift died for the ungodly. All Men then by Nature are under the broken Covenant of Works: Rom. iii. 19. Now we know that what things foever the law faith, it faith to 'them who are under the law; that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.',

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Queft. 17. Into what Eftate did the Fall bring Mankind?

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An. The Fall brought Mankind into an Estate of Sin and Misery.

EXPLICATION.

The natural State of Mankind now, under the Covenant of Works, is a State of Sin and Mifery? And we were brought into it by the Fall: Rom. v.

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'By one man fin entered into the world, and death by fin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have finned.' We were all born or conceived in that State: Pfal. li. 5. Behold, I was < fhapen in iniquity and in fin did my mother ❝ conceive me.' Eph. ii. 3. "We were by nature ❝ the children of wrath, even as others.' There is no true Holiness attainable in that our natural State; for it is a State of Sin. There is no Salvation from Wrath attainable in it; for it is a State of Mifery. The State we must be brought into, out of our natural State under the Covenant of Works, if we would be faved, is the State of Grace in the Covenant of Grace: Rom. vi. 14. For fin shall

not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace.' Those that are brought out of their natural State, from under the Covenant of Works, into the State of Grace, are all that are in Chrift, converted Perfons: Rom. viii. 1.There is no condemnation to them which are in Chrift Jefus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. Those that are ftill in their natural State, under the Covenant of Works, are all that are out of Chrift, unconverted: Eph. ii. 12. At that time ye were without Chrift, being aliens from the commonwealth of Ifrael, and ftrangers from the covenants of pro

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