« AnteriorContinuar »
crois qu'elle durera bien, car la soie en est très-bonne. 5. Croyez-vous
LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.–VIII. que notre ami réussisse à gagner sa vie ? 6. Je crois qu'il y réussira, ar il est très-diligent. 7. Pensez-vous que le tanneur s'enrichisse à ATMOSPHERIC, ORGANIC, AND CHEMICAL AGENCIES. mes dépens ? 8. Je pense qu'il s'enrichit aux dépens d'autrui, .9: Le THE direct action which the atmosphere exercises in the alteramarchand s'enrichit-il aux dépens de mon père ? 10. Il s'enrichit à vos dépens. 11. Quelle sorte de maison vous faut-il ? 12. Il me faut une
tion of the earth's crust is through the agency of wind. The naison qui ait dix chambres. 13. J'ai une bonne maison qui a douze atmosphere also acts widely and continually upon rocks, attackchambres. 14. Quelle sorte de carafe cherchez-vous ? 15. J'en cherche ing them chemically; but this action must be reserved for its are qui contiende trois litres. 16. J'en ai une qui contient deux litres, proper place. The power of wind can only be felt by movable je vous la prêterai. 17. Quel habit m'enverrez-vous ?
18. Je vous particles-that is, by sand. As the winds sweep over the entertai le meilleur que j'aie, prenez garde de le tacher. 19. Pensez- deserts, they urge before them clouds of fine sand, which drift vous que l'étudiant apprenne tout cela par cœur? 20. Je ne crois pas here and there, continually altering the features of the land. qail l'apprenne. 21. Pensez-vous qu'il vienne ? viemira bientôt. 23. Pensez-vous que M. votre père compte sur moi? scape, and extending the desert domain by covering the fertile 24. Je sais qu'il compte sur vous. 25. Ce monsieur ne compte-t-il pas tracts which border on the sandy waste. But the changes which xar mci? 28. Je peuse qu'il compte sur votre frère. 27. Le portier occur in such regions are of little or no moment, for the abrentrera-t-il bientôt ? 28. J'espère qu'il ne tardera pas long-temps. 29. sence alike of water and vegetation precludes the possibility of Ne voulez-vous pas me prêter votre parapluie ? 30. Je vous le prêterai these sand-hills ever becoming fixed. But this is not the case ITec plaisir. 31. Mon frère reste-t-il debout? 32. Il ne veut pas with that belt of sand which lines the coasts of many maritime rangedir. 33. Désirez-vous que je m'asseie ? 34. Je désire que vous countries. Here considerable and permanent changes are effected restiez debout. 35. Je désire qu'il vienne.
by the alteration of the sand dunes by the wind. The shores of EXERCISE 143 (Vol. II., page 366).
the Bay of Biscay are celebrated for these dunes; the wind blows
the particles of sand over the crest of the hill in constant 1. Would you wish me to buy a coat half worn out? Fan should buy a new one. 3. Did they wish that sick soldier to repair often advance sixty or seventy feet in a year, covering with irre
2. I wish that succession, and thus the hill is moved. The dunes of Biscay 13 his poet? 4. They wished that he might repair to his regiment. 5. Would it be necessary for me to dwell on the sea-shore? 6. It would sistible encroachments farms and villages, and are sometimes as be betessary, for the recovery of your health, that you should repair much as 300 feet high. In many parts of the world this process Switzerland. 7. Do you not think that this child resembles his is in action. When a covering of vegetation springs up on the bother? 8. I do not think he resembles her, 9. Whom does he surface of the hill, all further advancement is prohibited, and metable? 10. He resembles his eldest sister. 11. Would you con. the dune becomes permanently fixed. Such hills are distinsest to your daughter's marriage with that drunkard ? 12. Would guished by the name of sub-aërial or Æolian accumulations (so you have ns die with want? 13. I feared lest those ladies might die called from Æolus, the god of the winds, according to the old Tith the cold. 14. Will you not fire at that hare? 15. I would fire at Bat woodcock, if my gun were loaded. 16. How many shots would Greek and Roman mythology). you bare me fire ? 17. If you had powder, I would have you fire at
Frost is generally reckoned an atmospheric agent. Its power Est partridge. 18. Do you wish me to cast a glance upon that letter? is very great, and it would be difficult to limit the geological work
I would have you read it. 20. What would you have me do? 21. it effects. When water freezes, at the moment of its solidi. I rould have you pay attention to your studies. 92. Would it be fication it expands, with an almost irresistible force, one-tenth of ceasury for me to go out ? 23. It would be necessary for you to its volume—that is, ten measures of water, when frozen, would Fabain at home. 24. What would you that I should do to that horse ? become eleven measures of ice. The first frost of winter 5. I would have you strike it with the whip.
solidifies all the particles of water with which the rocks are EXERCISE 144 (Vol. II., page 366).
soaked, forcing the particles of rock from each other, and when 1. Que voudriez-vous que je fisse ? 2. Je voudrais que vous jetassiez the
thaw comes, much of its surface crumbles down. This action coup-d'oeil sur cette lettre. 3. Voudriez-vous que je donnasse des is not very visible, because the rain easily transports the fine drepe de bâton à ce chien ? 4. Je voudrais que vous donnassiez des particles thus separated from the mass. Yet when we consider rds fouet à ce cheval. 5. Exigeriez-vous que rous rerinssions à the vast surface which is annually exposed to a temperature below
beares? 6. J'exigerais que vous revinssiez de bonne heure. 7. freezing point, we shall have some idea of the great effect which ases-sous que votre frère ressemble à M. votre père ? 8. Je ne pense frost has in assisting the general degrading action which the
qu'il ressemble à mon père. 9. À qui pensez-vous qu'il ressemble ? surface of the earth is ever undergoing; and our estimate wili 2. Je crois qu'il ressemble à ma mère. 11. Combien de coups avez- be increased when we know the force which is exercised by the neres tirés? 12. J'ai tiré cinq coups sur cette bécasse. 13. Ne voudriez- solidifying ice. If a hole be bored in a cannon-ball
, then filled pue que je tirasse sur cette perdrix ? 14. Je voudrais que vous
with water and plugged with a fine-threaded screw, upon causing zesiet ver cette perdrix, si votre fusil était chargé, 15. Où faudraitpa je demeurasse ? 16. Il faudrait que vous demeurassiez au bord this water to freeze by immersing the ball in a freezing
ther. 17. Voudriez-vous que je mourusse de faim ? 18. Je ne mixture, the expansive force will be found sufficient to break medenis pas que vous mourussiez de faim. 19. Voudriez-vous que the ball. In the Canadian forests, often the stillness of the
frère mourât de froid ? 20. Je ne voudrais pas qu'il mourut de night is broken by a loud report, as some giant tree is rent by ble de misère.
21. Que voudriez-vous que fit M. votre fils ? 22. the united power of the watery particles expanding on their mooiruis qu'il apprit ses leçons. 23. Voudriez-vous qu'il apprit solidification, under the influence of the first frost of winter. aand? 24. Je voudrais qu'il apprit l'allemand et l'espagnol. 25. es Tous tiré sur ce lièvre ? 26. Je n'ai pas tiré sur ce lièvre. 27 and icebergs.
Frost also acts geologically by means of avalanches, glaciers, Addit-il que je sortisse ? 28. Il faudrait que vous sortissiez, 29. Sabait-1 que je restasse ici? 30. Il faudrait que vous allassiez à
An avalanche does not play a very prominent part, seeing the 31. Que désiriez-vous ? 32. Je voulais que vous m'écrivissiez. sphere of its action is very limited. When large masses of ice Foaliez-vous que j'achetasse un habit à demi-usé ? 34. Je voulais and snow collect on the inaccessible heights, and become either tous achetassiez un bon chapeau.
overbalanced by their own weight, or loosened by the warm EXERCISE 145 (Vol. II., page 386).
sun of the spring, the mass falls into the valley beneath, bearing
with it rocks, etc.; and the traveller, as he passes through the How many rooms do you intend to take? 2. We intend to rent mountain valleys in Switzerland, often finds piles of débris which mear on the ground floor and two closets in the third story. 3.
have been brought down by an avalanche from the heights yoa not prefer renting a bedroom on the second floor?
above. z Ering on the ground floor. 5. Can you not remain and dine
This the valley stream carries down into the lake or as to day? 6. I thank you, I prefer coming to-morrow. 7. Will river, and thus material from the summit of the chain mingles fiber come and breakfast with us tomorrow ? 8. He intends with the sediment which the stream erodes from the valley
to-Morrow early. 9. What do you wish to say to them? 10. through which it passes. It occasionally happens that an
to beg them to do me that favour. 11. Do you intend to do my avalanche in its fall dams up the channel of a stream; the pentLes that favour? 12. I hope so. 13. Do you prefer living up-stairs up waters gather in great volume, and at last burst their
-stairs ? 14. We prefer living down-stairs. 15. What do you barrier, ploughing the valleys in their course, thus doing great e doing with that young pheasant? 16. We think of sending geological work. Dype brother-in-law. 17. Can you not play on the violin ? 18. I 7:27 oa it. 19. Can your cousin play on the piano ? 20. She
Glaciers are some of the most interesting features of Alpine ca the piano and on the harp. 21. Can you not write ? scenery. They are, in fact, rivers of ice, not frozen rivers, We read, write, and cipher. 23. Can you play the guitar but vast quantities of ice, which is formed amid the eternal Wo manot play it. 25. We wish to find an apartment on the snows, and by a peculiar motion, known as that of a vign--
body, descends down the valleys until it reaches such a
that the temperature meits the ice. Thus glaciers are, in fact, be accounted for ? It is of little avail to assert that the overflow-channels, by which the accumulation of snow, which is cretaceous seas were overladen with chalk. They could only continually increasing above the snow-line, discharges itself. have been so by wearing down some already existing chalk cliffs, Were it not for the glaciers, the snows would increase without so that the difficulty is not solved, but only placed back in an any limit, and the summits of elevated mountain-chains would earlier period. The solution is offered by our observing the great be an anomaly in nature-continual recipients of condensed and accumulation of chalky material which composes the coral reefs. frozen aqueous vapour, without any means of giving it off again. The coral zoophyte has, in common with all shell-fish, the power Many of the Swiss glaciers are thirty or forty miles long, of separating from the sea-water its carbonate of lime, with in somo places as much as three miles wide, and often 600 feet which it builds its domain. It is in vain to attempt to conthick. The cause of their motion was for many years a subject ceive the number of these little animals on one reef ; and yet of debate. Many theories were broached only to be refuted. there are reefs on the Australian coast 1,000 miles long, and The discovery of what is believed to be the true explanation of the from ten to ninety broad! The “bottom " around these reefs motion is due to Principal J. D. Forbes. He carefully measured was found to be covered sometimes with broken shells, but in the progress of the different points of the glacier, and found other places with fine mud, which proved, on microscopic ex. that its flow corresponded very closely to that of a river. The amination, to be minute foraminifera. Several similar accumu. motion was greater in the centre than at the sides, and at lations have been discovered to be in progress in many other the surface than at the bottom. It did not vary day or night, parts of the world. From these facts, and from an examination and therefore whatever might be the cause of its motion, that of the chalk itself, which reveals under the microscope many cause resided in itself, and did not depend on any external cir- thousand perfect shells in a cubic inch, the conclusion is drawn cumstances. All theories had hitherto looked for some motive that the limestone rocks have been built up by the agency of power either in gravitation, or the expansion of the ice, conse- living creatures. quent on the heat of the sun, and its clinging to the sides of the Professor Ehrenberg, of Berlin, was the first to turn the valley prevented a return to its former position, and so it crept attention of the geological world to the accumulation of matter down to the lower regions. However, Forbes showed that by minute organisms. He examined the tripoli, or polishing ice is a viscous or plastic body, capable of yielding to great slate, which occurs near Bilin, in Bohemia, in beds many fathoms pressure, so that the mass of ice on the incline of the mountain thick and many miles in extent, and found it to be wholly comslope flowed downwards. But although ice in one sense is posed of the siliceous coverings of organic beings. They are not viscous--that is, it cannot bear a strain, and will not allow so minute that, in a single grain of the tripoli, there are no itself to be pulled out into threads-yet it possesses another fewer than 187 millions of individuals! It is still a disputed remarkable property which compensates for this. When two point whether these are animal or vegetable organisms. Those pieces of ice are pressed together, they freeze to each other. who place them in the animal kingdom term them Infusoria, They will eren do this in warm water; so that when the glacier because they are generated in any infusion which is left un. comes to a narrow part in the valley, it does not refuse to disturbed for some time. Those naturalists who believe in pass the projecting point, but the enormous pressure behind their vegetable origin call them Diatomaceæ. From the Berlin forces it through, the ice breaking to accommodate itself to its Professor we learn that, in the harbour of Wismar in the Baltic, constrained position, and then joining anew. After the narrow no less than 17,946 cubic feet of these siliceous organisms place is passed, the glacier spreads out again just as a river are produced annually, though it takes 100 millions of them would do, and again occupies the whole of the valley. Most to weigh a single grain! However, their extreme minute. glaciers progress at the rate of 400 or 500 feet a year. The ness is in some measure compensated by their extraordinary termination always occupies much the same position, though power of production. " A single one of these animalcules can in winter the glacier.comes down further into the valley. Yet in increase to such an extent during one month, that its entire summer it is melted off. As the ice-river flows down from the descendants can form a bed of silica twenty-five square miles in heights, it brings rocks and débris which fell upon it as it extent and a foot and three-quarters thick!” The mountaintore the flanks of the valley. These lines of rocks are termed meal of the Swedes and the edible clay of the North-American in Switzerland moraines. When two valleys meet each other, Indians are accumulations of this kind. From these remarks, their glaciers unite; one of the lateral moraines of each joining probably, the reader will gather some idea of the geological together become the medial moraine of the main glacier. By organic agent. this means boulders are brought down from the inaccessible
THE CHEMICAL AGENCY. heights, and piled up in huge heaps at the termination of the
The chemical agent is not great in accumulating, but it would glacier. The rocks of the valley over which the ice passes be impossible to over-estimate the work which this power does are all smoothened and scratched, thus indicating the direction in altering the earth's surface. in which the glacier flowed. We shall find many rocks exhibit First, the gases in the atmosphere--that is, the oxygen and this grooving, thus telling of the existence of a glacier many the carbonic acid-are constantly employed in weathering rocks ages after the last vestige of the ice had melted.
--that is, in attacking the exposed surface, and so affecting it as Icebergs.
When there are glaciers in the Arctic regions, it is to render it capable of being acted on by the rain and gradually evident that they can never melt, the snow-line being at the worn away. sea-level. Therefore the flow continues until the sea is reached, or long-exposed rock will show this.
The most casual examination of any old
building and then as the glacier proceeds over the coast cliffs, enormous blocks of ice fall into the sea and are borne away; but these chemical result. In all volcanic countries this species of depo
Deposits from mineral springs may fairly be considered a bergs carry on them part of the glacier moraine, and by this sition is carried on to some extent. In Italy the well-known means the fragments of the rocks of the Northern regions building stone, travatine, or Tiber stone, is of this kind of are dropped in warmer seas, where the berg melts. Of this deposit. This is the stone of which the Coliseum is built
. The operation we shall find many illustrations in the Pleistocene Carlstab springs, it is calculated, produce 200,000 cubic feet epoch.
of calcareous matter every twenty-four hours. THE ORGANIC AGENCY.
Stalactites and stalagmites are formed on much the same It is difficult to realise the prominent part which life has principle
. The water is charged with carbonate of lime, which played in the formation of rocks. We do not allude only to the is held in solation by the presence of free carbonic acid gas. beds of coal which represent the forest growth of vast lapses When this water drops from the roof of a cavern, the gas of time, but to the limestone rocks and many of the siliceous escapes, and the water being no longer capable of supporting deposits. The reader may be aware that chalk or carbonate of the carbonate of lime, deposits it, forming a stalagmite, an lime is not soluble in water, but it becomes so if carbonic icicle-like pendant from the roof, acid gas be present. Now Bischof states that there is so much All saline deposits are to be ascribed to chemical agency, of this gas in sea-water, that five times more chalk could be such as the beds of sulphate of lime, the layers of common contained in it than it at present holds in solution. Hence it is salt, the deposits of nitrate of soda and potash. evident that no chalk could ever
be precipitated from the sea head also some geologists would class all such exudations as in the ordinary manner. How, then-presuming the present petroleum or rock-oil. We shall treat of these various matestate of the sea to have existed with but slight alteration in rials more particularly when we speak of the formations in past ages-can the deposition of the chalk and limestone rocks I which they severally occur.
LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-XVII.
form the roof, as well as to tie or bind the walls in their proper
position. The apex of the roof, formed by the meeting of the RAILWAY ARCHITECTURE.—III.
rafters, is supported by vertical rods of iron called king-posts, HAVING described the chief features of a railway line, with its which are securely fastened to the tie-beams below. To give viaducts, etc., we come now to its stations and terminal points. additional support to the roof, and to relieve the sides of the Here we find endless variety in construction, according to the building from too great pressure, other rods, termed struts, are wants of the traffic and the means available for the work. Common fixed diagonally between the
bottom of each king-post and the
roof railway stations of brick or of wood differ so little from ordinary above, as seen in the illustration. Thus the weight of the roof buildings as to require no particular
is divided between the pillars at the sides comment; but the use of iron has given
and the tie-beams which run across, and rise to some distinctive features in rail.
the different members of the truss or way architecture, quite as striking in
framework mutually support each other. their way as the bridges before described.
The meeting-points of all the rods are proCommencing with the simplest forms
vided with plates and sockets, which are of construction in which iron is the ma
fastened with bolts and nuts. terial employed, we give in the annexed
A similar method is adopted in the conengraving an illustration of the frame
struction of all roofs of the ridged form, work of an ordinary station available for
whether the material be wood or iron, the stoppage of trains. The walls of the
and the chief portions of the truss always building consist of iron pillars more or
bear the names here mentioned. More less ornamental, and either entirely open
complicated arrangements are frequently at the sides, or with the spaces between
seen, double rafters and additional struts the pillars filled in with brickwork, etc. FRAMEWORK OF AN ORDINARY IBON RAILWAY STATION. or braces being employed; but in ridged It is in the formation of the roof that
roofs of larger dimensions the general the skill and knowledge of the architect are displayed, it being principles of construction are in all cases the same. necessary to combine durability with lightness, and the greatest In some of the more important stations, and especially for tho possible saving of material with perfect strength in the structure. termini of our principal lines,
the arched form of roof is freIn the ridged roof before us, rods of wrought iron, called the quently employed, and in some instances, as in the termini of tie-beams, are placed horizontally from the pillars on one side to the Great Northern and Midland Railways at King's Cross, those on the other, and serve as a support for the rafters which these roofs are of great span and proportions. One of the two
which form the terminus of the Great Northern Railway is de- J'ai laissé tomber mon couteau, I have let my knife fall (dropped). picted in our first illustration. This roof is supported by large J'ai entendu dire cela,
I have heard that said. semi-circular girders, formed of battens of wood jointed by iron
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. bolts, and crossed transversely by horizontal iron rods, which Je connais des personnes dormant I know persons sleeping (who sleep) complete the framework for the covering. As an example of
d'un sommeil si profond, que le 80 profoundly that the noise of the use of wood in this form, this station is very remarkable;
bruit de la foudre ne lus réveil thunder would not awake them. but in later constructions of the same kind, iron has quite super lerait pas, seded the other material, and the roof before us is now in Les eaux dormantes sont meil. Sleeping (still) waters are better for progress of reconstruction in wrought iron. Massive plates, leures pour les chevaux que les horses than running waters. formed in segments of a circle, are bolted together, and thus eaux vives. are formed roofs of the largest span and the most durable Nous avons trouvé cette femme We found that woman dying. character. It is a fundamental principle in the construction
mourante. of all roofs, that their weight should be so disposed as to Cette feinme, mourant dans la That woman, dying in the fear of
crainte de Dieu, ne craignait exert only a vertical pressure upon the walls, and not in any
God, did not fear death.
point la mort. degree a force that would tend to thrust them outwards. In On est heureux en se contentant One is happy in contenting one's seis the case of the circular-span roofs, this object is secured by
with little. distributing the weight and pressure of the girders over a con- Avez-vous laissé passer ce voleur? Have you let that thief paxs ? siderable portion of the wall in a vertical direction. It will be Je l'ai lai sé passer.
I let him pass. seen by reference to the engraving that the semi-circular girders Pourquoi avez-vous fait faire un Why have you had a coat made ? rest on strong supports, placed at a considerable distance below
I have had no coat made. diagonally to the upper surface of each girder, receiving a portion Lui avez-vous entendu dire cela ? the top of the wall , while, from the top, supporting beams spring Je n'ai pas fait faire d'habit.
J'ai laissé tomber quelque chose. I let something fall. of its weight, and carrying the pressure downward. Thus the Je le lui ai entendu dire.
Have you heard him say that?
I heard him say it. pressure falls, not upon any one portion of the wall, but perpen- Je l'ai entendu dire.
I heard it said. dicularly upon the whole of the upper half of it. The span of the Je l'ai entendu dire à ma seur. I heard my sister say it. roof of the Great Northern Railway terminus is 105 feet, and its height from the floor 76 feet, but those dimensions are far
VOCABULARY. exceeded in the terminus of the Midland Railway.
Appliqu-er (s”), 1, ref., Essay-er, 1, to try. Prévenant, -e, obliging. Besides the principal area, which is covered by a roof of this to apply.
Hât-er (se), 1, ref., to Préven-ir, 2, ir., to an description, a terminal station usually consists of a great number Besoin, m., want.
Répét-er, 1, to repeat. of buildings devoted to different purposes connected with the Changement, m.,altera- Lecture, £., reading. traffic. In the proper arrangement of these buildings, so that Emouss-er, 1, to blunt. Plai-re, 4, ir., to please. Suiv-re, 4, ir., to follow.
Obligeant, -e, obliging. Suivant, -e, folloring. all the business of the line may be carried on in the readiest Empêch-er, i, to pre. Pleuv-oir, 3. ir., to rain. Voyant,
-e, bright, possible way, the skill of the architect is shown quite as much
Pointe, f., point.
shorcy. as in the more imposing features which strike the public atten
EXERCISE 187. tion. Among the subjects to be considered and provided for in a railway terminus, or chief station, are the board-rooms for the
1. Ma cousine est-elle aussi obligeante que la vôtre ? 2. Elle directors, the apartments for the station-master and his assistants, est aussi obligeante, et bien plus charmante que la mienne. 3. the ticket-ofices, waiting and refreshment rooms, platforms, Vos enfants sont-ils prévenants ? 4. Mes enfants, prévenant signal-boxes; goods departments, engine-houses and carriage tous mes besoins, ne me laissent rien à désirer. 5. Lisez bien shods, foundries, workshops, and store-rooms, with the apparatus attentivement les pages suivantes. 6. Ces demoiselles, suivant necessary for renewing the supply of fuel and water to the loco l'exemple de leur mère, s'appliquent à la lecture. 7. Les conleurs motives. The entire range of these works frequently covers voyantes ne me plaisent point. 8. Mes spurs voyant qu'il allait many acres of ground, and to place them so that each is ready plouvoir, se hâtèrent de revenir. 9. Qu'avez-vous laissé tomber of access, and the whole occupy as little space as possible, con 10. J'ai laissé tomber ma plume ; la pointe en est émoussée. sistently with efficiency and convenience, is a problem which 11. Les avez-vous fait parler? 12. Je les ai fait parler, mais avec does not always receive sufficient attention. On the Continent, difficulté. 13. Avez-vous fait faire des changements dans votre although railway engineering generally is not in advance of our
maison ? 14. J'y en ai fait faire. 15. À quoi en avez-vous own, greater skill is frequently shown in making the best use of fait faire ? 16. J'en ai fait faire à la salle à manger et au salon, space at the smallest outlay.
17. Avez-vous laissé passer cet homme ? 18. Je n'ai pas essayé de l'en empêcher. 19. À qui (whom) avez-vous entendu dire
cela? 20. Je l'ai entendu dire à mon père. 21. Je le Ini ai LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XLVIII.
entendu répéter. 22. Il vous l'a entendu dire. 23. Il vous &
vu faire cela. 24. Il vous l'a vu faire. 25. Je l'ai vu passer. SECTION XCVI.-THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE-THE VERBAL ADJECTIVE
EXERCISE 188. 1. The present participle is invariable, and ends always in
1. Are still waters good for horses ? 2. Buffon says that they ant. It expresses action, not situation. It cannot be rendered are better for horses than running waters. 3. Are your sisters into English by an adjective, but is rendered by the participle cautious ? 4. They are not very cautious. 5. My sisters, fore present, or by the present of the indicative preceded by a rela- seeing that it was going to rain, brought their umbrellas. 6. tive pronoun. The present participle has often, or may have, a What have you let fall? 7. I have let my knife and book fall. regimen ($ 641.
8. Do very bright colours please your brother? 9. Very bright Ces hommes, prévoyant le danger, Those men, foreseeing the danger, colours do not please him. 10. Have you read the following s'enfuirent,
pages ? 11. Have you seen the dying woman? 12. Your sister, 2. The part of the verb used after the preposition en is always dying in the fear of God, was very happy. 13. Your sister, folthe present participle :
lowing your example, applies herself to study. 14. Have you En écrivant, en lisant,
made them read ? 15. I have made them read and write. 16. In writing, in reading.
I made my brother write. 17. I have had a book bound (relier). 3. When the wording ending in ant is used to express the 18. Has your father had alterations made in his house ? 19. He qualities, properties, or moral or physical situation of a noun, has had some made in it. 20. In which room has he had some it is a verbal adjective, and assumes in its termination the made ? 21. He has had some made in my brother's room. 22 gender and number of the noun which it qualifies. It must in whom have you heard say that: 23. I heard my sister say it
. this case be rendered into English by an adjective.
24. Have you heard him say that? 25. I have not heard him Ces hommes sont prévoyants, Thore men are cautious, prorident. say it. 26. Have you seen my father pass? 27. I have not seen
4. The verbs entendre, to hear; faire, to muss, to maka; him pass. 28. I have heard him speak. 29. Make him speak. laisser, to let, etc., followed by another verb completing teir 30. Let it fall. 31. Do not let it fall. 32. What has your meaning, are not in Freneh separated from that verb. In the brother dropped ? 33. He has dropped nothing. 34. Whom corresponding sentences in English the two verbs are usually have yon heard say that? 35. I heard your brother say it. 36. separated by other words.
I have heard you repeat it. 37. We have seen you do that.
SECTION XCVII.-PRACTICAL RÉSUME OF THE RULES ON
1. Cette demoiselle ne se trouve-t-elle pas bien fatiguée? 2. The participle past is VARIABLE under any of the following Elle est fatiguée et découragée. 3. Votre sour est-elle allée à conditions :
l'église suivant sa coutume? 4. Ma mère et ma sœur y sont 1. When employed as an adjective; in which case it agrees in alléas. 5. Votre seur est-elle revenue plus tôt que de coutume ? gender and number with the noun which it qualifies.
6. Elle est revenue plus tard qu'à l'ordinaire. 7. Cette pauvre Des livres imprimés,
malade est-elle tombée ? 8. Elle est tombée dans la boue. 9. Ces femmes paraissent bien abattues, Those women appear very dejected. Ma mère est-elle parvenue à déchiffrer ma lettre ? 10. Elle n'y
2. When used in the formation of the tenses of passive verbs; est pas parvenue. 11. Quelles fleurs avez-vous cueillies? 12. when it always agrees with the subject of the proposition. Les fleurs que j'ai trouvées sont plus belles que celles que vous Elles sont bien reçues de tout le They aro well received by everybody. m'avez envoyées. 13. Votre cousine ne s'est-elle pas bien portée ? monde,
14. Elle s'est portée à merveille. 15. De quel livre vous êtes3. When employed in forming the compound tenses of neuter vous servie, Mademoiselle? 16. Je me suis servie du vôtre. verbs having être as an auxiliary; in which place, as in the pre- 17. Nous nous sommes servies des nôtres. 18. Quelles fautes ceding case, it agrees with the subject or nominative.
votre fils s'est-il reprochées ? 19. Les fautes qu'il s'est rePotre seur est partie ce matin, Your sister went away this morning. prochées ne sont pas sérieuses. 20. Les avez-vous vus rire ? 4. When employed in forming the tenses of active verbs 21. Je les ai vas sourire. 22. Les avez-vous vus voler des fruits ?
23. Je les ai vus voler des pommes, 24. Les avez-vous avertis having avoir as an auxiliary; in which connection it agrees, not de leurs fautes ? 25. Je les en ai avertis. 26. Je ne les en ai with the subject, but with the direct object or regimen, provided
pas avertis. that object precedes it.
EXERCISE 190. Les maisons que nous avons achetées, The louses which we have bought.
1. Are your books well bound ? 2. They are well bound and 5. When used along with étre in the formation of the com- well printed. 3. Did not your little girl find herself discouraged? pound tenses of reflective verbs, wherein the reflective pronoun 4. She found herself tired, but not discouraged. 5. Have your is the direct object; in which position it agrees with that pro- sisters come to an understanding ? 6. They have not come to noun or direct object.
an understanding. 7. My brothers have come to an understandCes dames se sont flattées, Those ladies have flattered themselves. ing. 8. Who came to you? 9. Your friends came to us. 10.
6. When used along with être (as in Rule 5) in the formation Is not your sister gone to church? 11. My sister is gone to of the compound tenses of those reflective verbs, in which the church as usual. 12. Did your sister return sooner than usual? reflective pronoun is not the direct, but the indirect object of 13. My sister returned later than usual. 14. Are the fields the proposition; in which event it agrees with the direct object, which you have ploughed large? 15. The fields which I have provided (as in Rule 4) that object precedes it.
bought are very large. 16. Where are the gentlemen whom you Les histoires qu'elles se sont racon. The stories which they related to each saw pass ? 17. The ladies whom I heard sing are in their room. tées, other.
18. Did your poor sister fall? 19. Did that poor sick woman 7. When forming part of a compound tense of a verb govern- fall in the mud? 20. Did your sister succeed in reading that ing a succeeding infinitive, it is at the same time preceded by book ?. 21. She succeeded in reading it. 22. Have you warned a direct object which is represented as performing the action your sisters of their danger ? 23. I have warned them of it. denoted by the infinitive ; in which condition it agrees with that 24. I have not warned them of it. 25. What pen has your direct object.
mother used ? 26. She has used mine. 27. Have not those Les dames que j'ai entendues The ladies whom I heard sing (sing. Has your mother been well? 30. She has been perfectly well,
young ladies used my book ? 28. They have not used it. 29. chanter, ing).
31. Has she remembered her promise ? 32. She has remembered 8. When in a sentence containing the pronoun en, the par- it. 33. Have you seen those boys laugh? 34. I have seen ticiple is preceded by another object or regimen which is direct; them smile. 35. Have you seen them play? 36. I have heard in which case it agrees with that direct object.
them play. Je les en ai avertis,
I have warned them of it.
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXXIV.
AFRICA, unlike the other great continents on the world's surCes terres sont bien labourées. Those lands are well ploughed.
face, is not divided into great independent states and empires, Mes voisines sont tonbées d'ac- My neighbours have come to an un
or territorial districts of considerable size, which are dependcord. derstanding,
encies of European powers. It is true that the French have Elles sont venues nous trouver. They came to us.
obtained a footing in the north, and have established there the la vietoire que nous avons rem. The victory which we have gained. colony of Algeria ; that the Portuguese hold portions of the east
and west coasts, and profess to have a claim, by right of priority les champs que vous avez labourés. The fields which you have ploughed.
of discovery, over immense tracts in the interior; and that the Vous vous étes repentis de votre You hare repented (you) of your British, after dispossessing the Dutch, have acquired the flourishfante.
fault. Elle s'est souvenue de sa promesse. She remembered her promise,
ing colonies of the Cape of Good Hope and Natal at the southern Les soldats que j'ai vus passer. The soldiers whom I saw passing.
extremity of Africa. But while the three nations already named Les musiciennes que j'ai entendues The musical ladies whom I heard have planted themselves on the coast at these and other points, jouer. playing,
the fierce and savage races of the country have prevented free 'indiscrétion que nous nous som- The indiscretion with which we re-ingress into the interior by force of overwhelming numbers, mes reprochée. proached one another.
nature aiding the native owners of the soil in the defence of Les événements qu'elles se sont The events which they related to one their territories, by the desert wastes that stretch for miles in racontés. another,
the north and south, and the dense forests that line the tropical Les fruits que j'en ai reçus. The fruits which I received from it. Les nouvelles que j'en ai apportées. The neus which I brought from it.
coasts on the east and west, which act as barriers to hiader
ready intercommunication between the inland regions and those VOCABULARY.
on the coast-to say nothing of the fevers and diseases that are À l'ordinire, as usual.! Fleur, f., flower, Reproch-er (se), 1, ref., engendered by the miasma of the swamps and marshes at the Avert-ir, 2, to warn. Malade, siek person. to reproach one's self. mouths of the navigable rivers, for ever lurking, like an invisible Boue, 1., mud.
Merveille (à), wonder-Ri-re, 4, ir., to laugh. foe, to strike down the white pioneer of civilisation, before he Coutume (de), turally, fully, perfectly, Sérieux, -se, serious.
can reach the healthier countries of the interior through the sal.
Parven-ir, 2, ir., to suc. Souri-re, 4, ir., to smile. sickly belt that lies between them and the coast. Cueill-ir, 2, to gather. ceed.
Suivant, according to. Péchiffr-er, 1, to deci. Porter (sel, 1, to lc, Tomber, 1, lo fall.
The civilisation of Africa by conquest, as in the case of North pher. to do. Tronv-er, 1, to find.
America, has been prevented by the causes already mentioned, Décourag-er, 1, to d 8.' Plus tôt, sooner, car. Vol-er, 1, to steal. and its inhabitants--that is to say, the barbarous black races of courage. lier.
the interior and south-have never, like the European, and the