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ration for the time bestowed. The finest ornaments for a lady, class in existence to which investigators could refer ; and consisting of necklace, ear-rings, and brooch, cost forty pounds. hence, if the Irish antiquary had been only a few years back For a picture of Paestum, eight feet long, and twenty inches asked the question whether the Irish ever had the use of sig, broad, on which four men were occupied for three years, £1,000 nets commonly among them, he would have been constrained sterling was asked.

to confess his inability to give an answer.

Such a question, I shall now notice the mosaic work of Florence. It differs however, can be replied to now in a more satisfactory manentirely from Roman mosaic, being composed of stones in- ner. It is ascertained that not only the Irish kings and petty serted in comparatively large masses ; it is called work in pi- princes, from the period of the Anglo-Norman conquest, etra dura. The stones used are all more or less of a rare used signets, but also that they were common among persons and precious nature. In old specimens the most beautiful of inferior rank. It can be also shown that such signets closely works are those in which the designs are of an arabesque cha- resembled in style and device those of the Anglo-Normans of racter. The most remarkable specimen of this description of similar ranks. Still, however, from the imperfection consequent pietra dura is an octagonal table in the Gubinetto di Baroc- on the recent formation of our collections of antiquities, the cio, in the Florence Gallery. It is valued at £20,000 ster- era at which seals began to be used in Ireland remains undeciling, and was commenced in 1623 by Jacopo Detelli

, from de- ded; for although we have no seals of an earlier age than the signs hy Ligozzi. Twenty-two artists worked upon it with thirteenth century, it would be as yet premature to conclude out interruption till it was terminated in the year 1649. At- that none such ever existed. Till a recent period it was the tempts at landscapes, and the imitation of natural objects, opinion of the English antiquaries generally that the use of were usually failures in former times, mere works of labour, signets was unknown to the Saxons, and was introduced into which did not attain their object; but of late works have England by the Normans; and this opinion was grounded on been produced in this art, in which are represented groups of the fact that no Saxon seals had ever been discovered. But flowers and fruit, vases, musical instruments, and other com- of late years there have been found seals, unquestionably of patible objects, with a truth and beauty which excite the ut- the Saxon times; and no doubt can now be reasonably enter. most admiration and surprise. These pictures in stone are, tained of their general use among that people ; and hence, however, enormously expensive, and can only be seen in the although no seals of cotemporaneous with the Saxon times have palaces of the great. Two tables in the Pilazzo Pitti are as yet been met with in Ireland, the similarity that prevailed valued at £7,000, and this price is by no means excessive. between the two countries in customs, and in knowledge of the These are of modern design, on a ground of porphyry, and arts, would very strongly warrant the conclusion that the use ten men were employed for four years on one of them, and a of signets could not have been unknown or perhaps uncommon spot is pointed out, not more than three inches square, on in Ireland. which a man had worked for ten months. But Florentine To these prefatory remarks I have only to add, that though mosaic, like that of Rome, is not merely used for cabinets, the use of signets was common not only among the Greeks tables, or other ornamental articles ; the walls of the spacious and Romans, but also among the earlier civilized nations of chapel which is used as the burial-place of the reigning family the East, we have no evidence that such a use had ever been at Florence are lined with pietra dura, realising the gem-en introduced into Ireland by its original colonists. crusted halls of the Arabian tales. Roman mosaic, as we With these few general introductory observations I shall have seen, is of great value as an ally to art; but Florentine now proceed to exhibit to the Academy the seals which it apmosaic can have no such pretensions, and time and money peared to me desirable to bring under their notice. might be better bestowed. The effect is far from pleasing in the chapel I have alluded to, and I think that the art might be advantageously confined to the production of small ornaments, for which it is eminently adapted.—The Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal.

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An Essay read at a Meeting of the Royal Irish Academy,

by George Petrie, R.H.A., M.R.I.A. HAVING a few months since succeeded in deciphering an ancient and somewhat difficult inscription on the seal of a distinguished Irish chief, which the Dean of St Patrick's had but just previously added to his magnificent collection of our na- The first, unfortunately, I can only exhibit in a drawing, as tional antiquities, it occurred to me that a notice of this seal, the original is not now known to exist. It is the seal of Felim and of a few others of the same class, preserved in that col- O'Conor, who was allowed by the English government to bear lection and in my own, might be somewhat interesting to the the hereditary title of king of Connaught in the thirteenth Academy, and at the same time prove useful in showing the century, and the legend is S. Fedlimid Regis Conactie. importance of forming collections of this kind. In an assem- The impression of this seal has been published in Ware's bly so enlightened as that which I have the honour to address, Antiquities, where it is adduced as an evidence that some it would be impertinent to offer any remarks on the value of of the Irish chiefs retained the title of king subsequently ancient seals, not only as evidences of the truth of history, to the Anglo-Norman conquest. The following is the passage both local and national, but also as illustrations of the state in which the statement occurs :and progress of the arts in times past. As has been justly “ Thus far the kings of Ireland, who lived before the arrival remarked, it is from the great seals of England that we have of the English under King Henry II, but even after that been supplied with the surest criteria for estimating the pro- period, some, though subjects, enjoyed the regal title, and gressive advancements made in architectural taste, and the were styled kings even by the kings of England. For Hovevarious successive phases which it has from time to time ex- den cites the following passage under the year 1175. Hic est hibited in the country ; and if all other historical evidences Finis et Concordia, &c. This is the final end and concord, were lost, this alone would perhaps be sufficient to compen- which was made at Windsor on the octaves of St Michael in sate for the want. The importance of this branch of archæolo- the year of grace 1175, between our Lord Henry king of gy has indeed been felt and acknowledged in every other coun- England, son of the Empress Maude, and Roderick king of try of Europe, in proportion to the progress which it has made Connaught, by Catholicus, Archbishop of Tuam, and Cantord, in civilization and refinement ; and we should perhaps feel Abbot of St Brendan, and Master Laurence, chancellor of some mortification at being necessitated to confess that in the king of Conaught, viz., that the king of England grants Ireland alone it has hitherto received scarcely any attention. to the said Roderick, his liege man, king of Conaught, that I shall not say that this neglect on the part of our antiqua- as long as he shall faithfully serve him, he shall be king under ries has arisen from a distaste for investigations which, as him, ready to do him service as liege man, &c.” The letters they require merely a little learning and common sense, allow patent of king Henry II., by which he committed the mano indulgence for the mind to soar into the dim and distant nagement of his Irish affairs to William Fitz-Adelm, his upper regions of romance and fanciful conjecture, where such sewer, shew us the rank in which these nominal kings were at qualities would be found but weighty and earthly incumbran- that time placed. They begin thus: “ Henricus, &c. Henry ces. A sufficient reason may be found in the fact, that until by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke very recently there were no collections of antiquities of this I of Normandy and Aquitain, and earl of Anjou, to the arch.

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bishops, bishops, KINGS, earls, barons, and to all his faithful subjects of Ireland, greeting.' It appears also out of the close roll An. 6th of king John in the Tower of London, that the successor of Roderick was in like manner called king of Conaught. So in the close roll of the 5th of Henry III, some of the king's letters patent were directed, among others to K. king of Conaught, and to 0. king of Kinel-ean; and in the following year the same king granted to the king of Tosmond the land of Tosmond. For thus it is in the charter roll of the 6th of Henry III, Membr. 2, * Rex, &c. The king to the king of Tosmond, greeting. We grant unto you the land of Tosmond, (i. e. Thumond) which you formerly held at the farm of 130 marks, to be held of us until we come of The next seal that I have the honour to exhibit is from the age.' Concerning the suit exhibited at London by Fedlimid collection of the Dean of St Patrick's, and is that to which I O'Conor before Ř. Henry III. and his court, see Matthew made allusion at the commencement of this paper. It was Paris under the year 1140, where that writer calls him discovered by that zealous collector among some old silver in

Petty King of that part of Ireland, which is called Cunnoch, a jeweller's shop. In its general features it is similar to the 1. e. Conaught;" and that Fedlimid himself took upon him the seals already noticed, but the character of the letters in the name of king of Connaught, appears from his seal, the impres- legend indicate a still later age ; and this circumstance, unsion of which is exhibited to the reader, plate 1, No 3.-[It important as it may appear, is of consequence, as it enables us appears by the Lord Stafford's letters (c.) that the seal here with certainty to determine its owner, which would otherwise mentioned was presented to King Charles I. in the year 1636.]” have been with difficulty ascertained, as there were two chiefs

From the letter here alluded to, which was addressed to of the name in the legend in the family to which it belongs. Lord Strafford by Secretary Cooke in 1636, it appears that The inscription on this seal reads thus :-Si. Mac Con, this seal was presented by Sir Beverley Newcomen to the king ducis de ui Cassin. The territory called Hy-Caissin comin person, by whom, as the letter states, the seal was much es. prehended a considerable tract of the ancient Thomond in teemed, and well accepted. As this seal is not known to exist the county of Clare, of which the Macnamaras were heredi, at present, it may be supposed that it was lost in the civil wars tary lords"; and the Mac Con whose name appears on this seal which followed so soon afterwards.

is found in ali the pedigrees of that illustrious family, as the As the life of Felim O'Conor constitutes a portion of the 28th in descent from Oilioll Olum, the common ancestor of the general history of Ireland, it is unnecessary for me to advert Mac Carthys, O'Briens, and other princely families of Munmore in detail to it, than to mention that he was elected to the ster. According to the Annals of Innisfallen, which are the throne of Connaught by the English of that province in 1230, best authority for the history of Munster, the first Mac Con was deposed by them in 1232, was restored again soon after- Mara was elected to be chief head of the tribe of O'Coilean wards, died in 1265, and was interred in the abbey of Roscom- in 1313; and again, at the year 1315, it is stated that mon, where a magnificent tomb was raised over his remains, Macnamara, and Mahon the son of Cumea, went to the which is still to be seen. His death is thus recorded in the An- tower of De Clare to compel him to enter into an agreenals of the Four Masters :-“1265. Felim, the son of Charles ment, which De Clare acceded to, to give Mac Con and his the red-handed O'Conor, defender and supporter of his own heirs the canthred of Va Caissin, the charters whereof had province and of his friends on every side; expeller and plun- been given to De Clare. The second Mac Con, to whom as I derer of his enemies; a man full of hospitality, valour, and re-conceive this seal should be assigned, and who was grandson nown; patron of the orders of the clergy and of men of science; to the former, became chief of Hy-Caissin about the year worthy heir to the throne of Ireland for his nobility, justice 1340, and died about ten years afterwards. and valour, wisdom, personal shape, and love of truth; died [The remainder of this article shall be given in an early after extreme unction and penance, in the monastery of the

number.] Dominican Friars at Roscommon, which he himself had granted to God and that order.” It will be observed that the style and device of this seal are

THE GIRLS OF THE WEST. very similar to those of the Norman and Anglo-Norman seals

Air--" Teddy ye gander." of the same age; and it can scarcely admit of doubt that its type was derived from that source. As to its general form,

You may talk, if you please, we have no description left ; but a nearly cotemporary seal of a

of the brown Portuguese, king of Desmond, which I have now the honour to exbibit

But, wherever you roam, wherever you roam, will probably enable the Academy to form an accurate idea of it.

You nothing will meet,

Half so lovely or sweet,
As the girls at home, the girls at home.

Their eyes are not sloes,

Nor so long is their nose,
But, between me and you, between me and you.
They are just as alarming,

And ten times more charming,

With hazel and blue, with hazel and blue. This seal, which is from my own cabinet, is, as the inscrip

They don't oglc a man, tion shows, the seal of Donald Og, the son of Donald Roe

O'er the top of their fan, Mac Carthy, who, as appears from the notices in the Irish and

Till his heart's in a flame, his heart's in a fame, English authorities, became king or lord of Desmond by the

But though bashful and shy, murder of his father, Donald Roe, in 1306, or, as some ac

They ve a look in their eye, counts state, in 1302, and was himself killed in 1309. The legend runs thus:-S. Dovenaldi : Og: Fili: D: Roth Ma

That just comes to the same, just comes to the same Curthy. The name of this prince appears in the pedigree

No mantillas they sport, of the Mac Carthy family as fifteenth in ascent from the Last Earl of Clancarty and the thirtieth in descent from their

But a petticoat short, great ancestor Oilioil Olum. It will be seen that its device

Shows an ancle the best, an ancle the best, is very similar to that of the king of Connaught, but the form

And a leg ; but, o murther! of the letters in the inscription indicates a somewhat later

I dare not go further, age. This scal was found about twenty years ago in the county of Cork, and was purchased originally by a watch

So here's to the West, so here's to the West. maker in that city.

- From " Charles O'Malley."

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playing off the landlord and his adversaries against one

other--now rebelling against his weak claims-now affording PEOPLE may talk about the idleness and indolence of Irish- him protection against the advances of the law, throwing their men, but in my mind they merely betray their ignorance in so weight into whatever scale promises the most fun and the most doing. Positively there is no other country on the face of the advantage_half-a-dozen bailiffs are maimed or murderedearth, the inhabitants of which have wrought out for them- half-a-dozen examples are made to the offended dignity of jusselves so many different professions, occupations, and ingenious tice. Affairs come to their crisis at last in spite of all opposiexpedients, to make the time pass agreeably: let any change tion. The attorneys get their costs—the creditors get the in the constitution of society require the exercise of any par- surplus--the unfortunate debtor gets the turn-out--and so ends ticular faculty for good or for evil, and straightway the vacancy an old song and an old family. is filled up with an expedition and efficiency truly wonderful. This terrible ultimatum of the law did not, however, in all Astounding as the proposition may sound to the wise men and cases put an end to the hopes and energies of the discomfited women of the empire, the fact is, that Irishmen hate idleness; litigant. Another card still remained to be played, by any it is an intolerable load to them ; they are ever on the look-out one reckless and desperate enough to avail himself of it: this for something to do; and as all parties concede to them the was no less than to rise in open opposition to all law, set the possession of almost infallible ingenuity, it would be strange sheriff and his subalterns at defiance, and hold possession indeed, if, in a spot of land so fertile in adventure, any one of with a strong hand after the manner of the ancients. Before them should be long at fault in such a pursuit.

matters came to this, the tenantry were usually, from the That the occupations upon which they occasionally fix, in causes I have mentioned, sufficiently demoralized for any purtheir amiable detestation of idleness, are not always the best pose ; and whatever might have been their previous conduct, calculated to promote the well-being or comforts of the rest those sympathies which seldom fail a ruined master, were of of the community, I am quite free to confess; but this is all course 'roused to their highest pitch; in addition to which matter of taste, and does not at all interfere with the validity of stimulant, it was manifestly their advantage that the reign of 'my argument, which merely seeks to assert that an Irishman will misrule should continue, so that, when a man was thus turned do anything sooner than be doing nothing. To be sure they at bay, there was no saying how the matter might end. I behave their propensities, among the most favourite of which are lieve it very often happened, during the weak and uncertain fighting, farming, and love-making; but should any untoward administration of justice in the past century, that a pertinaobstacle prevent their indulgence in any of these tastes, they by cious adherence to this desperate line of policy has tired out no means sink into an apathetic despondency like many of their the persecution of all adversaries, and been crowned with final neighbours : they have too many resources for that, upon some success. Any money, therefore, for a partizan able and willone of which they immediately fall back with as much zeal and ing to undertake the support of such a desperate cause; one energy as if it had been the original occupation of their choice. who, while his principal kept in the background, had no fear Nor are they fastidious : in the generality of cases it is quite or shame to prevent him from putting himself forward-drillimmaterial to them whether they are practising gunnery upon ing the tenants-collecting adherents and information—cona denounced landlord, or figuring in a procession: they are centrating all the lawlessness of the district against the operaready for anything, good, bad, or indifferent—anything but tions of the law-holding his own life at nought, and the lives idleness. It was said of old that were you to put an Irishman of all others at a lower standard, if possible. on the spit, you would not long be at a loss for another to turn In those days society required Dare-devils, and if old stories it. Whoever he was that first propounded that maxim, certes be true, Dare-devils galore arose to supply the want. But he knew our nation well; nay, I would venture to say that what were they all to Mick Connell of Thurles? The despein ninety-nine cases an Irishman would roast his mother, if rado whose name is still remembered with terror and admiradriven to that melancholy alternative, sooner than remain tion through the district which was the scene of his turbulent either idle or inactive. Joking apart, I wish those who career fifty years ago, was, as my informant described him to grumble most about Ireland would give us something to do, me, a man of the most indomitable resolution, endowed with and find for us some rational occupation which might obviate a strength of body truly formidable, though of small stature the daily occurrence of those little extravagances of conduct and mean appearance, and withal one of the most mortal oppowhich render our people a puzzle and a wonder to better regu- nents of the king's writ that ever figured, even in Tipperary, lated communities.

This fellow was not slow to perceive that a more pleasing and Such a state of society as this, and such restless activity profitable occupation could be found for the exercise of the daralone, could give birth to the extraordinary character whose ing qualities which he possessed, than was afforded in the occaturbulent career I am about inditing ; but ere I proceed, it sional outbreak at fair or pattern, to which he had hitherto would perhaps be well to allude to the circumstances and in his simplicity restricted himself. A gentleman in the neigh. emergencies which, on the principles I have laid down, threw bourhood got into difficulties, and, poor man, had not a soul such an individual to the surface. Little more than allusion belonging to him who could direct the laudable exertions his will be necessary; for in these days, when so much has been tenants and followers were willing to make in his behalf, or show said and sung about Ireland—while Carleton in his soul- them how even to dispose of a bailiff. Common humanityinduced searching tales anatomises the very inmost heart of our coun- | Mick to come forward, and never was an act of humanity more trymen, and Mrs Hall skims the surface of all that is good richly rewarded. The most brilliant and unexpected success and beautiful amongst us-while attorneys make fortunes, | crowned his labours. Under his guidance the tenants became and lawyers found families, who can be ignorant of the la- a phalanx, able to bother the twelve judges themselves, or tire mentable mismanagement of property which has beggared so the patienceeven of a Chancery suit. Writs were sent out, but many of our oldest families?' The history of one will almost had no return, and now and then the same might be said tell the fate of them all. Incumbrances accumulating for per- of the bailiffs who ventured to bear them. Everything was haps half-a-dozen generations, some probably long before dis- reduced to the most perfect system; and the attorneys, discharged, but still allowed to remain on record as if unpaid, mayed and discomfited, declared themselves conquered by a through mere neglect and carelessness, until the fact of their line of tactics hitherto unknown, the discoverer of which deever having been paid falls into oblivion, or becomes incapable served to be immortalized. The result was, that the party who of proof; others permitted to continue, in the hope that some had been so fortunate as to awaken for his service the slumlucky accident would some time or other, and somehow or bering energies of this determined partizan, was allowed an other, transfer them by inheritance to the heir, or else enable honourable capitulation, while the discovery of these happy him to liquidate them more conveniently than at the present. | improvements in the'noble art of self-defence gained for Connell At last, in the changes of mortal affairs, they fall into the hands himself the character of public benefactor of all distressed of strangers or persons who must have their own. A settle-country gentlemen. ment is demanded--the inheritor finds himself fifty per cent His fame increased, and business came thick upon him. worse than nothing-redemption is out of the question—he Many a man who was half inclined to die soft before, without plunges into tenfold dissipation and extravagance, knowing one effort to save himself, took courage now, and hastened to that he wastes nothing which it is in his power to retain or avail himself of the prowess and protection of this new and retrieve. A short life and a merry one, is his maxim ; to unhoped-for auxiliary ; until, at length, in all desperate cases protract it, he litigates every claim right and left-seeks to the first step taken was to secure his services. In process of baffle every process of the law-calls his tenantry to his as- time bis sons grew to manhood, fitted in every respect to co. sistance—while they, taking advantage of his distresses, and operate with such a father; and of course the extent and the confusion of all rights, assume an independent position, l boldness of his operations increased along with his family.

The local authorities connived at him; many of them probably ries on an average, and his strong injunction to Connell to having received the benefit of his assistance already, while the hold out against them all-an injunction he was by no means rest of them knew not what day would fling them upon his inclined to disobey; for, now that he had undertaken the job, protection. Touch Connell !--they would as soon touch the he was as eager to see out the fun as if he had himself origiapples of their own eyes; they might as well yield themselves nally concocted it, not to speak of the snug homesteads which at once to the hated touch of the bailiffs. Gratitude for past he and his gang possessed on the sole tenure of their resis, services, and a prudent view to those which he might ere long tance to all intruders. Accordingly, no sooner had he disposed be called to render, procured him an immunity from the ha- of the mortal remains of his defunct employer, than he berassing regulations which were made for the control of gentle took himself with almost religious zeal to obey his behests, by men of his kidney; and, accordingly, under this reciprocal pa- strengthening himself against the storm which he foresaw tronage he grew and flourished, and waxed famous. Gradually would soon burst upon him. The mansion-house was a strong he became enabled to form a gang, and, that point gained, he substantial building, and there, with a judgment that would became irresistible. The beauty and simplicity of his system have been creditable to the most eminent general who ever caused it to triumph every where. Debts were at a discount conquered on a field of battle, he removed his head-quarters,

- judgments were condemned-incumbrances ceased to be a and proceeded to lay in such stores of food, arms, and amburden-and, alas for the mutability of mortal greatness, the munition as would enable him to meet the danger in a man. sheriff, the very sheriff, was so lightly regarded that not a soul ner worthy of the stake he was playing for. It is needin the place would be bothered bribing him!

less to paint the dismay which these bold arrangements scatRespectable and remunerative as his line of business had tered through the camps of the various claimants, who thus, become, it was not long until a wider field was opened to his at the very moment when each congratulated himself upon the increased powers, and the experience he had accumulated. immediate prospect of snatching the prize which the operation The representative of an old and considerable family was of nature, anticipating that of law, had thrown into his hands, threatened with an ejectment by some of his relatives, who found this unexpected and formidable opponent start up in possessed a clearer claim to the property than he did ; while, in their path, with his audacious pretensions, so audaciously, but addition to the doubtfulness of his cause, he had to bemoan at the same time so seriously supported. Had there been that the improvident manner in which he lived had deprived anything like confidence among them, their co-operation might him of the means necessary to defend it. Nor were his trou- probably have effected his expulsion ; but it was not without bles confined to one law-suit. Other parties, conceiving their reason that the cunning freebooter reckoned upon their murights were as feasible as those of his original adversary, de- tual distrust precluding the possibility of such a coalition. termined on a similar assertion of them, and on one day the Each of course sought to make terms with him ; and with luckless wight was served with, I believe, no less than four each, of course, he coquetted as naturally as if he had been ejectments. I suppose every body is aware of the indiscre- bred, born, and reared in the best society. But in vain each tions, irregularities, and extravagances which in that facetious importuned him to give up the possession to all such demands process are alleged against the person whom it seeks to dis- he returned the same modest answer, “ Truly it would not beturb. I need not, therefore, say with what amazement the come an ignorant simple man like him to pretend to settle a poor man perused the weighty charges of assault and battery question which puzzled the judges themselves. As soon as the so circumstantially laid against him, or how deeply he puzzled rightful owner was declared, he would be ready to quit in his his memory in ransacking it to discover when he could, by any favour ; but until then, it was his duty to keep all out with perpossibility, have committed all these outrages. And who the fect impartiality.". deuce was John Thrustout, that seemed mixed up so much in One of the parties whose demands were thus evaded, hapthe transaction ?-he was a civil fellow, anyhow, for he warned pened to be a wrongheaded, positive sort of customer of the him fairly of his danger, and advised him to make the best old school, who viewed the power and decisions of the wigged fight he could. “And, by the powers, so I will,” he ejacula- brotherhood with almost as much contempt as Connell himself ted; " since they say we wallopped them, I may as well have could regard them, and being too impatient to await the slow the gains as the name—let them do their best. If Mike Con and sinuous progress of the law, undertook the desperate renell helps me, I'll take the hint, and maybe they won't have solution of forcing that redoubted personage to evacuate, even truth on their side the next time they complain of me. by force of arms. It never was a hard matter in Tipperary,

It usually happens that where a great many people are en- when a rookawn was on foot, to gather auxiliaries; and at deavouring each to get a blow at one unfortunate, he against the time of which I write, the facilities were perhaps more whom this

united ill will is directed comes off pretty safe in the numerous than ever ; not even the formidable character of the scramble. In Ireland, at all events, the luxury of thrashing garrison and its commander could deter numbers of the adone's neighbour is so highly prized, that one can bear no in- venturous spirits of that famed region from the enterprize. terference when enjoying it, and thus a well-meaning auxi- They entered into the spirit of the thing with heart and soul ; liary in the grateful occupation is likely to fall in for worse and, accordingly, one fine morning, with a goodly band at his treatment than was originally intended for the first victim. heels, and prepared with all the needful appliances, this oldSo it was in the present instance. The discordant interests fashioned vindicator of his rights set out to storm the strong. of the different claimants bred such confusion and disturbance hold. It is unnecessary to say that an awful riot ensued—barin the several suits instituted, that for a long time the poor ricades were broken down, outposts driven in, houses wrecked, wretch whom all sought to disinherit was left in comparative and numbers of his then majesty's subjects wofully maltreated ; quiet, and leisure was afforded him to overcome the scruples until at length, in spite of all opposition, they reached the house, which Connell raised when it was first proposed to him to un- than which even valour's self could no farther go. Scalingdertake the piece of unheard-of atrocity required of him, no less, ladders and battering-rams were in requisition; the fun began in fact, than to place himself in direct and open outlawry, by to thicken, and the result to grow doubtful. Saragossa was seizing possession of the property in dispute, and holding it by not more nobly defended, nor Badajos more gallantly assailed. force of arms against all comers. But the bribe was too large, It is possible, however, to push a joke too far, even on the best and the adventure altogether too tempting, notwithstanding its tempered people ; and Connell, feeling that this was the case, concomitant perils, for Connell's virtue or prudence to persist determined to give a gentle intimation of it to his assailants, in refusing ; so, casting aside all minor matters as unworthy A large window had been burst in and ladders placed against of the bright prospects now opening before him, he gathered the breach—a rush was made to ascend them in defiance of his troop of brigands, strengthened it with some new hands, the threats which he denounced against whoever should atcleared it of all doubtful characters, and, to use a transatlantic tempt it, and which he executed by pouring a discharge of term, squatted in full force on the disputed teritory, dividing its fire-arms into the very thickest of the mass. But it was richest farms between himself and his followers, as the price too late to intimidate ; the enraged mob rushed over the of his and their services.

bodies of the fallen--a simultaneous attack was made upon Weary on these law-suits !-terminate as they may, they in- | all points-and, alas for the brave, the post was won. In variably end by sucking away the very life-blood of the fools themelée that ensued, all escaped but the leader ; and before who rush into them. In the case to which I allude, the unfor the relatives of the slain, or the general mass of the victotunate defendant had not the poor satisfaction of living to see rious party, were aware of his capture, he was judiciously hurthe discomfiture which he had prepared for his assailants. ried out of their reach, and handed over to the civil power on The daily watch for ruin, still deferred, was to him as sicken- a charge of murder. There is no part of the world, however, ing as ever was the watch for hope under like circumstances; in which the distinction between killing and murder was so and he died ere it came, leaving his curse among his adversa- I well understood as in Ireland in those days; and in point of

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fact, I believe the man was free from the legal charge--at Ghosts EveryWHERE.—Could anything be more miraculeast so it appeared to the jury who tried him, for he was ac- Jous than an actual authentic ghost? The English Johnson quitted. Short-lived, indeed, was the triumph of his adversa- longed, all his life, to see one, but could not, though he went ries, and immediately on his liberation they began to tremble to Cock-lane, and thence to the church-vaults, and tapped on for the security of their tenure. He had sworn that though coffins. Foolish doctor ! Did he never, with the mind's eye, as it should cost him his life, he would endeavour to recover the pre- well as with the body's, look round him into that full tide of mises of which he had been dispossessed, and they knew him too human life he so loved ? did he never so much as look into himwell to doubt him : a council of war was held, and the question self? The good doctor was a ghost, as actual and authentic as proposed, should the place be defended or evacuated? Thelat- heart could wish; well nigh a million of ghosts were travel. ter alternative was adopted, not without good reason; but it ling the streets by his side. Sweep away the illusion of time; was likewise determined that it should never again afford compress the three-score years into three minutes : what else such protection to Connell as it had, or present an obstacle to was he—what else are we? Are we not spirits, shaped into the entry of the legitimate claimant, when fortune should so a body, into an appearance, and that fade away again into far favour him; and in pursuance of this policy the stately air and invisibility? This is no metaphor ; it is a simple sci. mansion was levelled to the ground_house and offices, even to entific fact : we start out of nothingness, take figure, and are the walled enclosures, every spot that could again harbour a apparitions ; round us, as round the veriest spectre, is eterfreebooter.

nity; and to eternity minutes are as years and æons. Where But it was not so easy to base that indefatigable customer : now is Alexander of Macedon ?-does the steel host that half of bis resources were not yet expended ; his followers, re- yelled in fierce battle-shouts at Issus and Arbela remain beanimated by his escape, gathered round him again ; and before hind him; or have they all vanished utterly, even as perturbed his dismayed antagonists recovered from their disappointment, i goblins must ? Napoleon too, and his Moscow retreats and he was strongly and securely entrenched in an earthen fort | Austerlitz campaigns-was it all other than the veriest specof his own construction, in which he displayed as much science tre-hunt, which has now, with its howling tumult that made and foresight as would have done credit to Carnôt. This night hideous, flitted away? Ghosts !-- there are nigh a was the period of his highest triumph ; his insolence became thousand millions walking the earth openly at noontide ; some unbounded; and he used, I am informed, to stalk through the half-hundred have vanished from it, some half-hundred have streets of Thurles, on the most public occasions, armed to the arisen in it, ere thy watch ticks once. Generation after geteeth, and defying the best man in the town “ to lay a wet neration takes to itself the form of a body, and, forth issuing finger on him.” It is not to be supposed that these extraor- from Cimmerian night on heaven's mission, APPEARS. What dinary proceedings could fail of reaching the ears of the high force and fire is in each he expends : one grinding in the functionaries who were called upon to decide upon the rights mill of industry; one, hunter-like, climbing the giddy Alpine of the rival claimants, and who, not regarding Connell as the heights of science; one madly dashed in pieces on the rocks very fittest person to undertake the care of the litigated pro- of strife, in war with his fellow; and then the heaven-sent is periy, ordered him to be instantaneously dispossessed, and recalled; his earthly vesture falls away, and soon even to forwarded writs to that purport to the sheriff. That officer, sense becomes a vanished shadow. Thus, like some wild. no way astray as to the dangers and difficulties he should en- Alaming, wild-thundering train of heaven's artillery, does this counter in any attempt to dislodge such a desperado, collec- mysterious mankind thunder and flame, in long-drawn, quickted as much of the civil and military force of the district as succeeding grandeur, through the unknown deep. Thus, like was available, and proceeded to execute his perilous behest. a God-created, fire-breathing spirit-host, we emerge from Of course he was resisted, and it was soon found that the the Inane, haste stormfully across the astonished earth, then most violent measures should be resorted to. An order was ! plunge again into the Inane. But whence? Oh, heaven, given to storm the fort, and the attempt was answered by a whither? Sense knows not; faith knows not, only that it is volley from within, that tumbled a couple of the assailants, through mystery to mystery, from God and to God.—Car. and drove back the remainder. The conflict became deadly, lyle's Essays. but so securely were the banditti posted, that all the efforts THE METROPOLIS.—London in length is nearly 8 miles, of the besiegers made scarce any impression upon them: can- its breadth 3, and its circumference 26. It contains above non alone could be effectual, and a dispatch was sent for it. 8,000 streets, lanes, alleys, and courts, and more than 65 difIn the meantime a general assault was given, with partial | ferent squares. It has 246 churches and chapels, 207 meetsuccess, which seemed to dishearten Connell so far as that he ing houses for Dissenters, 43 chapels for foreigners, and 6 attempted a sortie for the purpose of escaping. Two of his synagogues for Jews--making 502 places of public worship. sons fell in the melee, but all the rest of the party succeeded The number of inhabitants during the sitting of Parliament in getting off, leaving some half dozen of the assailants half is estimated at 1.250,000. In this vast city there are upwards dead or dying. He was now, undoubtedly, within the reach of 4,000 seminaries for education, 10 institutions for promoof the law, and warrants were issued for his apprehension; ting the arts and sciences, 122 asylums for the indigent, 17 but for a long time no one dared to attempt executing them, for the sick and lame, 13 dispensaries, 704 charitable institunotwithstanding that very large rewards were offered. At tions, 58 courts of justice, 7,040 professional men connected length, a bailiff who had some private pique against him, to with the various departments of the law. There are 13,300 act as an additional stimulant, undertook the dangerous en- vessels trading to the river Thames in the course of a year, terprize-succeeded in dogging him to his retreat, and on his and 40,000 waggons going and returning to the metropolis in attempting to snatch a pistol to defend himself, shot him the same period, including their repeated voyages. The through the head, and put an end to the career of a real Irish amount of exports and imports to and from the Thames is esDare-Devil.

A. M'C. timated at £66,811,922 sterling annually, and the property

floating in this vast city every year is £170,000,000 sterling.

These circumstances may be sufficient to convince us of the PERVERSE CONDUCT OF MAN.-Among the many properties amazing extent and importance of the capital of the British of human nature which almost exceed comprehension, comes empire. the parsimony of the rich and the extravagance of the poor.

No person can be happy without friends. The heart is Some rich men spare to-day, as if they feared starving to- formed for love, and cannot be satisfied without the opportumorrow, and the indigent often consume in an hour what they nity of giving and receiving affection. If we love others, they may feel the want of for a week. These properties are the will love us ; and in order to have friends, we must show our more unaccountable, because parsimony is chiefly found to selves friendly. Hence it is every one's duty to cultivate a predominate in aged people, who may expect death every day, cheerful and obliging disposition. It is impossible to be and extravagance chiefly in the young, who may reasonably happy without it. hope to live many years ; as if old people hoard money be- He who would do justly to all men, must begin from knowcause they cannot want it, and young ones throw it away ing to be not unjust to himself. because it is necessary to their subsistence. FRIENDS AND ENEMIES.—While we value the praise of our

Printed and published every Saturday by Gunn and CAMERON, at the Office

of the General Advertiser, No. 6, Church Lane, College Green, Dublin.friends, we should not despise the censures of our enemies ; Agents :-R. GROOMBRIDGE, Panyer Alley, Paternoster Row, London: as from the malice of the latter we frequently learn our faults, Simms and Dinkam, Exchange Street, Manchester ; C. Davies, North which the partiality of the former led them to overlook or

John Street, Liverpool ; SloCombe and Simms, Leeds; J. Menzies, conceal.

Prince's Street, Edinburgh; and David ROBERTSON, Trongate, Glas


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