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by making cuts on the ripe capsules, and allowing the juice to rose or a strawberry flower in this manner, we shall soon find it esnde. After exposure for a while to the sun, the juice, at first impossible to remove the sepals of which the calyx is composed milky, soon thickens into a dark waxy-looking mass. This is without at the same time removing all the stamens. This disopiam, the active principles of which are numerous, but that tinctive characteristic was known to Linnæus, and embodied by termed morphia is the chief.
him in the distinction between his Icosandria and Polyandria, Just as the characteristics of the Ranunculus tribe become as the reader will observe if he turns to page 305. veiled in the larkspur, anemone, clematis, and peony, so are the This peculiarity in the insertion of the stamens in flowers of Poppy characteristics obscured in certain plants belonging to the Rose tribe is shortly indicated in botanical language by the this natural order. For example, on some parts of the sea-coast term perigynous. We have already seen that the term hypogy. there grows & plant termed the "horned poppy," on account of nous means below the carpel; therefore the reader will now be prethe peculiar appearance of its fruit, which, instead of being pared to understand that perigynous means around the carpel ; round like the fruit of de
and this is expressive of the common red or white poppy,
mode of growth of stamens is shaped something like a
in the Rose tribe. Had we born. The form may be par.
not previously explained the tially explained as follows.
nature of the strawberry In the fruit of the ordinary
fruit, that point would have poppy numerous carpels are
to be explained now; but the anited together, and thus a
reader is already aware that globular body results, just
the real botanical fruits of as the orange presents a
the strawberry are those littie globalar aspect on account
seed - like things scattered of the assemblage of 80
over the surface of the part many easily divisible sec.
we eat. tions; but supposing many
Very nearly allied to the of these sections removed,
strawberry in their botanical then the orange would 20
aspect are the Cinquefoil or longer be globular, bat elon.
Potentilla plants. Their gated. It is thus with the
flowers are almost exactly horned poppy. Its fruit,
like those of the strawberry, like the ordinary poppy, is
but strawberries, noverthesyncarpous; that is to say,
less, do not result. The compounded of carpels united
torus, which becomes juicy together ; but their number
and delicious in the strawbeing fewer-only two-the
berry, remains hard in the resulting fruit is necessarily
potentilla. more elongated.
Raspberries and brambles The Celandine (Chelido.
are also members of the Rose nium majus) is another plant
tribe, with which they agree of the Poppy tribe, in which
in the easily-recognised esthe fruits are elongated. All
sential characteristic of perithese species of Papaveracea.
synous stamens. There is a are characterised by having
sort of general resemblance, a milky juice, by the pre
too, between the fruits of the sence of which, taken in con.
raspberry, blackberry, and nection with hypogynous
the edible portion of the Etamens
strawberry; yet the botafraits, the various members
nical distinction between of this tribe may always be
raspberries and blackberries discriminated. The milky
on the one hand, and strawjuice of the celandine will
berries on the other, is the excrescences
very clear. The very part called warts.
we eat in the strawberry is SECT. XXIII. ROSACEÆ,
the portion we throw away OR THE ROSE TRIBE.
in the raspberry and blackThis is a very extensive
berry. The fleshy and deli. natural order of plants, com
cious torus or receptacle of prehending not only the
the strawberry becomes in the 128. THE WILD ROSE OR DOG- ROSE. (1.) THE FLOWER-BUDS AND LEAVES. (2.) Poses proper, but almonds,
latter a white,insipid,spindlestrawberries, apples, pears, VERTICAL SECTION OF FLOWER. (3.) CARPEL. (4.) FRUIT. (5.) SECTION
shaped core, whilst the edible OF CARPEL, SHOWING SEED. and many other plants.
part is a real fruit, or rather Characteristics : Calyı monosepalons, usually in five divi- / an assemblage of real fruits, matured ovaries. How are we to sions ; sometimes adherent to the ovary; imbricated in æsti. know this ? the learner will ask. Simply thus :-Did he never Tation ; petals five, alternate with the sepals free, inserted on observe that each of these little berry-like elevations is surthe calgı, imbricated in æstivation, sometimes absent; sta- mounted or terminated by a sort of hair? Now these hairs are mens almost always indefinite, inserted like the petals ; pistil, nothing more than the styles of carpels, the lower portions or various ; ovale, reflected ; seeds, dicotyledonous ; leaves alter- ovaries of which have expanded in order to become fruit. Date, usually compound, with stipules. All these botanical In the illustration on this page the reader will find a good terms have already been explained.
representation of the wild rose or dog-rose, the Rosa canina of Perhaps the best specimen for affording the general charac. Linnæus, which is to be found in almost every hedge-row in the teristics of the Rose tribe is a strawberry flower. Supposing country, and which furnishes excellent stocks on which to engraft the reader to have provided himself with one of these, he will at the different varieties of garden roses by budding. The smaller first be struck with a general resemblance to a buttercup flower. cuts, immediately below the engraving of the rose itself, with In both the carpels and the stamens are numerous, but the fol. its hower buds and
glossy dark-green leaves, will help him in lowing leading distinction between them may at once be seen. distinguishing the component
parts of the flower when
dissecting In the buttercup the stamens do not grow from the calçı, so it, as No. 2 exhibits an accurate sketch of a vertical section of the that the latter may be altogether removed without in any
respect Hower, and Nos. 3, 5, and 4, the carpel, the seed within the carpel, disturbing the former, I, however, we attempt to dissect a and the
outer envelope in which the carpels are contained.
READING AND ELOCUTION.-XII.
Examples of Circumflex.
Tone of Mockery. I've caught you, then, at låst!
Irony.-Courageous chief !--the first in flight from pain!
Punning.--And though heavy to weigh, as a score of fat sheep, “INFLECTION” in elocution signifies an upward or downward
He was not, by any means, heavy to sleep. "slide" of voice, from the average, or level, of a sentence.' There are two simple “inflections" or "slides,"—the upward
Example of Monotone.-Awe and Horror. or “rising," and the downward or “falling." The former is
I could a tåle unföld whose lightest word usually marked by the acute accent [']; the latter, by the grave
Would hárrow ûp thy soul, freeze thy young blood, accent [^].
Make thy two Zyes, like stārs, stārt from their sphéres,
Thy knotted and combined locks to pārt, The union of these two inflections, on the same syllable, is
And each particular hair to stānd on end, called the “circumflex,” or wave. When the circumflex com
Like quills upon the frētful pòrcupine. mences with the falling inflection, and ends with the rising, it is called the “rising circumflex,” marked thus [!]; when
Rules on the Rising Inflection. it begins with the rising, and ends with the falling, it is called Rule 1.—The “intensive” or high rising inflection expresses the “falling circumflex," marked thus [^].
surprise and wonder, as :When the tone of the voice has no upward or downward
Há! laugh'st thou, Lochiel, my vision to scórn ? slide, but keeps comparatively level, it is called the “ monotone,” marked thus [-1.
Rule 2.—The “moderate" rising inflection takes place where Eramples.-Rising Inflection.
the sense is incomplete, and depends on something which
follows: Intensive," or high, upward slide, as in the tone of
As we cannot discern the shadow moving along the dial-plate, so we surprise :
cannot always trace our progress in knowledge. Há! Is it possible !
Note.--Words and phrases of address, as they are merely In the usual tone of a question, that may be answered by introductory expressions, take the "moderate rising inflection," Yes or No:Is it really so ?
Friends, I come not her3 to talk. “Moderate" rising infection, as at the end of a clause which Sir, I deny that the assertion is correct. leaves the sense dependent on what follows it:
Sóldiers, you fight for home and liberty ! If we are sincerely desirous of advancing in knowledge, we shall not Exception.-In emphatic and in lengthened phrases of address be sparing of exertion.
the falling inflection takes place, as :slight” rising inflection—marked thus [ - ], is used On! ye bràve, who rush to glory or the grave ! when the voice is suddenly and unexpectedly interrupted :
Söldiers ! if my standard falls, look for the plume upon your king's
helmet!* When the visitor entered the room
My friends, my followers, and my children! the field we have The last-mentioned inflection may, for distinction's sake, be entered, is one from which there is no retreat. marked as above, to indicate the absence of any positive up
Gentlemen and knights-commoners and soldiers, Edward the ward or downward slide, and, at the same time, to distinguish Fourth upon his throne will not profit by a victory more than you. it from the intentional and prolonged level of the "monotone." Rule 3.-The "suspensive," or slight rising inflection, occurs
when expression is suddenly broken off, as in the following Falling Inflection.
passage in dialoguo :" Intensive," or bold and low downward slide, as in the tone
Poet. The poisoning dame of anger and scorn :
Friend. You měanDowx, ruthless insulter !
P, I don't.
F. You do. The "full” falling inflection, as in the cadence at a period :
Note. This inflection, prolonged, is used in the appropriate All his efforts were in våin.
tone of reading verse, or of poetic prose, when not emphatic, The "moderate” falling inflection, as at the end of a clause instead of a distinct rising or falling inflection, which would which forms complete sense :
have the ordinary effect of prosaic utterance, or would divest Do not presume on wealth; it may be swept from you in a moment.
the expression of all its beauty. The horses were hårnessed; the carriages were driven up to the
Examples door; the party were sèated : and, in a few moments, the mansion was left to its former silence and solitude.
Here waters, woods, and winds in concert join. The “suspensive," or slight falling inflection, marked thus
And flocks, woods, streams around, repose and peace impart. [ - ], as in the members of a “series," or sequence of words
The wild brook babbling down the mountain's side; end clauses, in the same syntactical connection :
The lowing herd; the sheepfold's simple bell; The force, the size, the weight of the ship, bore the schooner down
The pipe of early shepherd, dim descried below the waves.
In the lone valley ; echoing far and wide, The irresistible force, the vast size, the prodigious weight of the
The clamorous horn, along the cliffs above; ship, rendered the destruction of the schooner inevitable.
The hollow murmur of the ocean tide ; The “suspensive” downward slide is marked as above, to
The hum of bees, the linnet's lay of lóve,t distinguish it from the deeper inflection at the end of a clause,
And the full choir that wakes the universal grore. or of a sentence.
White houses peep through the trees; cattle stand cooling in the TABLE OF CONTRASTED INFLECTIONS.
pool; the casement of the farm house is covered with jessamine and The Rising followed by the Falling.
honeysuckle ;t the stately greenhouse exhales the perfume of summer
climates. Will you gó, or stảy ? Will you ride, or walk ?
Rule 4.-A question which may be answered by Yes or No, Did he travel for health, or for pleasure ?
usually ends with the rising inflection, as :Does he pronounce correctly, or incorrectly ?
Do you see yon clóud ? Is it the rising, or the falling inflection ?
Exception.—Emphasis, as in the tone of impatience, of extreme The Falling followed by the Rising.
earnestness, or of remonstrance, may, in such cases as the above, I would rather gò than stáy.
take the falling inflection, as :I would rather walk than ríde. He travelled for health, not pleasure.
* Shouting tone. He pronounces correctly, not incorrectly.
+ The penultimate inflection of a sentence, or a stanza, usually rises, It is the falling, not the rising inflection.
so as to prepare for an easy cadence.
Can you be so infatuated as to pursue a course which you know will Exception 1.-Emphatic, abrupt, and disconnected series, end in your rùin ?
may have the “ moderato' or the “ bold” downward slide on Will you blindly rush on destruction ?
every member, according to the intensity of expression, as :Would you say so, if the case were your own!
His succèss, his fàme, his life, were all at stake. Pule 5.—The penultimate, or last inflection but one, is, in
The roaring of the wind, the rushing of the water, the darkness of most sentences, a rising slide, by which the voice prepares for the night, all conspired to overwhelm his guilty spirit with dread. an easy and natural descent at the cadence, as :
Eloquence is action, nòble, sublime, godlike action.
The shore, which, but a few moments before, lay so lovely in 'its The rocks crumble, the trees fàll, the leaves fáde, and the grass
calm serenity, gilded with the beams of the level sun, now resounded withers.
with the roar of cànnon, the shouts of battle, the clash of arms, the Exception.--Emphasis may sometimes make the penultimate
curses of hàtred, the shrieks of agony. inflection fall, instead of rising; as the abruptness of that slide gives a more forcible effect :
Exception 2.-Light and humorous description gives the
“ moderate" upward slide to all the members of a series, as :They have sushed through like a hùrricane ; like an army of locusts, they have devoured the earth; the war has fallen like a waterspout, Her bóoks, her músic, her pápers, her clothes, were all lying about and deluged the land with blood,
the room, in "most admired disorder." Rules on the Falling Inflection.
Exception 3.—The language of pathos (pity), tenderness, and Pule 1.—The “ intensive, downward slide," or "low,” falling beauty-whether in verse or prose-takes the “suspensive,” inflection, occurs in the emphasis of vehement emotion, as :
or slight rising inflection, except in the last member of the
"commencing” and the last but one of the “concluding Ox! 'ON to the just and the glorious strife!
series,” which have the usual “ moderate” rising inflection, Rule 2.—The “full” falling inflection usually takes place at as :the cadence, or close, of a sentence, as :
No mournful flowers, by weeping fondness laid, No life is pleasing to God, but that which is useful to mankind.
No pink, no rúse, drooped, on his breast displayed. Exception. When the meaning expressed at the close of one
There wrapt in gratitude, and joy, and lóve, sentence is modified by the sense of the next, the voice may
The man of God will pass in Sabbath noon. rise, instead of falling, as :
There (in the grave), vile insects consume the hand of the artist, We are not here to discuss this question. We are come to act the brain of the philosopher, the eye which sparkled with celestial
fire, and the lip from which flowed irresistible eloquence. Gentlemen may cry "peace, péace !" But there is no peace. Rule 3.—The “moderate" falling inflection occurs at the end numbers and repetition, they partake of the nature of “climax,"
Note 2.-All series, except the plaintive-as by their form of of a clause which forms complete sense, independently of what or increase of signification-should be read with a growing follows it, as :
intensity of voice, and a more prominent inflection on every Law and order are forgotten: violence and rapine are abroad: the member, as :golden cords of society are loosed.
The splendour of the firmament, the verdure of the earth, the Exception.—Plaintive expression, and poetic style, whether in varied colours of the flowers which fill the air with their fràgrance, the form of verse or of prose, take the "slight” rising inflection, and the music of those artless voices which mingle on every trze; all in its prolonged form :
conspire to captivate our hearts, and to swell them with the most
This remark applies, sometimes, even to the rising inflection,
but, with peculiar force, to cases in which the language is And timid, trembling, came he to my side.
obviously meant to swell progressively in effect, from word to
word, or from clause to clause, and which end with a downward The oaks of the mountains fall: the mountains themselves decay slide, on every member, as in the following instance:with years; the ocean shrinks and grows again; the moon herself is lost in heaven; but thou art for ever the same, rejoicing in the
I tell you, though you, though all the wƏRLD, though an angel brightness of thy course.
from H'EAVEN, should declare the truth of it, I could not believe it. Rule 4.-The “suspensive,” or slight falling inflection, takes
Rule 5.-All questions which cannot be answered by Yes or place in every member but one of the " series," or successive No end with the falling inflection, as :words and clauses, connected by the same conjunction, ex- When will you cease to trifle ? pressed or understood.
Where can his equal be found ? Note 1.-A succession of words is termed a simple series ;"
Who has the hardihood to maintain such an assertion ? a succession of clauses a “compound series." A succession of
Why come not on these victors proud ? words which leave sense incomplete is termed a “commencing
What was the object of his ambition ? series ;” that which leaves complete sense, a "concluding series.”
How can such a purpose be accomplished ? A “commencing series" is read with the "suspensive," or slight
Exception.—The tone of real or affected surprise throws such falling inflection, on every member but the last; a concluding questions, when repeated, into the form of the rising inflecseries, with the “suspensive” slide on every member, except tion, as :the penultimate, or last but one.
How can such a purpose be accomplished ! “ Simple commencing series :"
To the diligent all things are possible.
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XXII. Dellghted existence teems in tlie air, the earth, I and the water. I
MEASURES OF SURFACE OR SUPERFICIES. Compound commencing series :"
6. Definition.—A square is a four-sided figure, of which the sides The fuld expanse of the air, the surface of the solid earth, the liquid element of water, teem with delighted existence.
are equal, and the angles right angles.
Surfaces are measured by means of square inches, square feet, Compound concluding series :"
square yards, etc., i.e., by squares the sides of which are respecDelighted existence teems in the luid expanse of the air, the surface tively 1 inch, 1 foot, 1 yard in length, etc. of the solid earth, t and the liquid element of water. I
7. To find the magnitude of a Square, the length of its side
being given. Rising slide, for contrast to the following clause.
Raise the number expressing the number of linear units ***Penultimate” rising inflection, preparatory to the cadence, or (inches or feet, etc.) in the side to tho second power. This will closing fall of voice, at the end of a sentence.
give the number of square units of the same kind in the square. “Full” falling inflection, for the cadence of a sentence.
For instance, a square, of which the side is 4 inches, contains
16 square inches ; a square, of which the side is 5 feet, contains 10. To find the magnitude of a Cube, the iength of an edge 25 square feet. The truth of this will appear from the following being given. diagram
Raise the number expressing the number of linear units in the Draw a square, each of the sides of
edge to the third power. This will give the number of cubio which suppose to be 4 inches long; divide 1
units of the same kind in the given cube. the sides into lengths of 1 inch, and com.
For instance, a cube of which the edge is 4 inches long conplete the figure by drawing parallel lines,
tains 64 cubic inches ; a cube of which the edge is 5 feet long as in the margin. This divides the square
contains 125 cubic feet. into small squares, each of whose sides is
The truth of this will appear from the following diagram :an inch in length. Now, in any one row,
Take a cube, as in the diagram, such as we have indicated by the figures,
of which the edge is supposed to there are 4 such squares, and there are 4
be 4 inches long, and divide each
Fig. 1. rows. Hence, there are 16 square inches
edge into lengths of one inch. in the given square.
Then, by drawing parallel planes, Suppose that two opposite sides be lengthened to 6 inches, so
as indicated in the figure, we can that the figure is no longer a square, but a rectangle. Dividing
divide the cube into a number of the figure as before into square inches, we see that there are
cubes, each of which is a cuble necessarily six rows, each containing 4
inch. Now, any one slice such as square inches. Hence the number of square
that which is shaded clearly coninches in a rectangle, two of whose sides
tains 4 x 4, or 16 cubic inches, and there are 4 such slices. are 4 inches long, and the other two 6
Hence the cube contains 4 X 4 X 4, or 64 cubic inches. inches, is 6 X 4, or 24 square inches. The
11. Definitions.-A rectangular parallelepiped is a solid figun same method is evidently true for any
contained by six rectangular figures, of which every opposite other rectangle, so that, to obtain the
two are parallel. number of square units in any rectangle,
This differs from a cube in the fact that the length, breadth, we must multiply the number expressing
and thickness are not equal. the number of linear units in the length by
The volume of (i.e., the number of cubic units in) a parallele the number expressing the number of linear
piped is obtained by multiplying the numbers together which units in the breadth.
express the number of linear units in the length, breadth, and The same is true if the lengths of the
thickness respectively. sides be fractional parts of the unit of
This will perhaps be sufficiently apparent from the accomlength. For instance, to find the area of a rectangle of a foot panying diagram of a rectangular parallelepiped, of which the long and } a foot wide. Referring back to Fig. 1, suppose now length, breadth, and height are supposed to be 6, 5, 4 inches that it is a square, each side of which is 1 foot. Then, dividing, rospectively. as in the figure, each foot into 4 parts, the square contains 16 square parts, each of which, therefore, is ts of a square foot. Now the dotted line encloses a rectangle, one side of which is
and the other or of a foot, and this rectangle contains 6 of the 16 parts into which the square is divided; or the area of ll of a square foot, i.e., 1 x by of a square foot.
Obs.—It must be observed that, in multiplying together the numbers, fractional or otherwise, which express the number of units in the sides of a rectangle, only one denomination must be used. The fact is, that we cannot talk of multiplying two geometrical magnitudes together. We cannot, for example, talk
There will evidently be six such slices as that we have shaded, of multiplying 3 feet by an inch, or by 2 feet; but we can each containing 5 x 4, or 20 cubic inches. multiply two numbers together which indicate the lengths of the
The volume of the solid will therefore be 6 X 5 X 4, or 120 two lines, with reference to some one standard unit, and then cubic inches. deduce the geometrical result which corresponds to the numerical result thus obtained.
1728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot, written 1 c. ft. 8. The following table of Square Measure is by the above
27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard 1 c. yd. principle deduced from that of the Measures of Length. The
This measure is used in estimating the magnitude of timber, jearner is recommended to do this for himself.
stone, boxes of goods, the capacity of rooms, ships, the solid SQUARE MEASURE.
mass of earth in railway cuttings, etc. 144 square inches (sq. in.) = 1 square foot
written 1 sq. ft.
For example, 42 cubic feet are defined to be one ton of square feet = 1 square yard
1 sq. yd. shipping. 30 square yards, or } 1 square rod, perch,
For liquids and dry commodities other systems are adopted, 272 square feet or pole
which we will give after we have explained the measures of 40 square perches 1 rood
weight. 4 roods
1 sq. m. The acre contains, as will be found by calculation, 10 square
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXIV. chains, or 100,000 square links, or 4,840 square yards.
ALTHOUGH it is not possible to give a detailed scheme of Flooring, roofing, plastering, etc., are often calculated by a elementary forms of which the capital letters of the writing “square" of 100 square feet.
alphabet are composed, as was done with regard to the small A hide of land is 100 acres.
letters, it may be as well, for the benefit and instruction of the MEASURES OF SOLIDITY OR VOLUME.-CUBIC MEASURE. each of the capital letters.
self-teacher, to make a few remarks on the method of forming 9. Definitions. — A solid figure is that which has length, In the capital letters of the writing alphabet the letter I is breadth, and thickness. A cube is a solid contained by six the key, and forms the principal part of most of the letters; it squares, of which every opposite two are parallel. The sides of consists of a nicely tapering black stroke, commencing with a the squares are called the edges of the cube.
hair-stroke, and ending in a hair-stroke with a full point or a All solids, or spaces which could be filled by solids, are scroll. The head or top of this letter is variously made; a measured by means of the number of cubic inches, cubic feet, etc., common form is seen in the capital letters in page 357; somewhich they contain, i.e.
, by cubes, the edges of which are times the head is formed like that of the capital J, which is the respectively 1 inch, 1 foot, etc., in length.
same letter in writing, with the black-stroke and the bottom The magnitude of any solid figure is sometimes called its hair-stroke carried below the level and terminated in a loop to volume.
1 sq. P.
towards the right and looped, after which it is carried to the latter part of the curved and looped black-stroke is turned to the left again, deepened into a thick-stroke, and finally turned, as right with a scroll. the letter was commenced, in a scroll.
The letter S is the body of the letter I, with a hair-stroke The letter F is composed of the letter I with its head formed loop to the right, at the top. in & scroll and loop to the right at the top; it is also marked The letter T is like the letter I with a larger head, made with a hair-stroke across the middle of the black-stroke, and exactly like the head of the letter F. 1 terminating also in a small loop.
The letter U is a tapering black-stroke, commencing with a The letter G consists of a tapering black-stroke curved to the scroll, and ending in a hair-stroke, to which is attached the body left, beginning in a loop at top, and ending in a hair-stroke, to of the letter C, with or without the head. which is attached a black-stroke like the letter j among the The letter V is like the first part of the letter U, but the small letters.
hair-stroke terminates in a small loop at the top. The letter is composed of the letters I and C joined to- The letter W is like the letter M inverted; or rather, it gether by a hair-stroke in the middle.
consists of two tapering black-strokes, joined by a hair-stroke, The letters I and J have been described. The letter K is and commencing and ending with peculiarly curved hair-strokes. like the letter H, with this difference, that the black-stroke of Originally the letter W was just like two V's put together, the C part has a small loop in the middle to the left; the first and
frequently this letter is still made like the latter half of or I part is sometimes a mere black-stroke, tapering from top the letter W. to bottoza.
The letter X is formed very like the small x, only that it The letter L is commenced with a loop in hair-stroke. The begins and ends with a scroll. fine line with which the letter is commenced is turned to the The letter Y is like the letter U, with the second blackright, and brought downwards in a thick down-stroke. This stroke drawn below the line and terminated in a hair-stroke loop. down-stroke is again narrowed to a hair-stroke, which is looped The letter Z is like the same letter in the small alphabet, but