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The arm in the
position pointing
downwards

represents a
PENNANT,

SEMAPHORES.

A system of Signals consisting of a vertical post with three moveable projecting arms, is extensively used at Signal Stations on the French Coast, and is known as the "Semaphore." The moveable arm of the Semaphore is equivalent to the ball of the distant Signal when horizontal, to the pennant when oblique and pointing downwards, and to the square flag when the end is pointing upwards; thus:

The arm in the horizontal position represents a BALL.

The arm in the position pointing upwards represents a FLAG.

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MDG. "Leave the Buoy or Beacon to Port."

сос

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The Symbols to be employed are

I.

2.

3.

BOAT SIGNALS.

By means of the above Symbols, all the Signals of the Distant Signal Code may be made as shown below. Handkerchiefs, Hats, Buckets, or Baskets, may be used in making these Signals; and if no mast, pole, or spar is handy, these Signals can be made by holding the hat, bundle, or other symbol at arm's length. The Signals will be made from right to left, and be read from left to right.

EXAMPLES.

Two square flags or pieces of cloth, of any colour.

Two wefts or

of cloth.

Two balls, bundles, or hats.

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"Stop" or Finish after each complete Signal.

NOTE. It is necessary, however, in using the proper means to attract attention, to avoid those which may occasion confusion.

Q. How is the Commercial Code applied in making Boat Signals? A. The Distant Signals are used. The symbols of Square Flags, Pennants, and Balls, can be made with handkerchiefs and hats. These signals are made from right to left, and read from left to right. (See page 378).

Q. What means are there for reporting ships passing along the English Coast.

A.-Signal stations have been established at many of the salient points of the coast,* and on ships passing and making their names known by Commercial Code Signals, the officers in charge of the stations forward reports to the "Shipping Gazette" for publication.

Q. How are Signal Letters for the purpose of making a ship's name at sea to be obtained for British Registered ships?

A. By applying to a Registrar of Shipping at one of the Custom Houses, or to the Registrar General of Seamen in London.

* The Signal Stations already established are as follows:-Broadstairs, Deal, Dover, Dungeness, Yarmouth (Isle of Wight), Prawle Point (near the Start), Caldy Island (Tenby), Great Yarmouth, Flambro' Head, and Bridlington.

At these Signal Stations the Commercial Code is the only Code recognised, and vessels of any nation which make their names known in passing these stations by means of the Commercial Code will be reported in the "Shipping Gazette."

At present the duties of the officers at the Signal Stations will be limited to forwarding reports, of vessels passing, for publication in the "Shipping Gazette," but at some future time, when the telegraph system is extended, these Signal Stations may be made still more useful to the mercantile marine of this country by being the means of forwarding urgent messages from the owners to their ships or vice versa

1.

2.

7.

598 6. 20600 II. 5030040 12. 16. 349004065 17. 305040008 22.

21.

ANSWERS.

NUMERATION, pages 17-18.

י351977 .16

1783

90092

7700006

3. 6086

10010010

14.

8. 204641
13.
18. 842248484 19.
700700700 23. 202202200 24.

100010001

4. 89063 5. 603240
9. 800800 IO. 3006004
70704032 15. 45387025
909009099 20. 222000040
900000900

1. One hundred and twenty-three. 2. Four hundred and seven. 3. Seven hundred and eighty-three. 4. Two thousand seven hundred and sixty. 5. Five thousand and sixty. 6. Seven thousand and thirty-six. 7. Thirty-seven thousand six hundred and fifty-four. 8. Eighty-seven thousand and fifty-four. 9. Six hundred and ninety thousand and six. IO. Eight million forty-seven thousand three hundred and twenty-eight. 11. Eight million five hundred and forty thousand three hundred and twenty-six. 12. Five million two hundred and ten thousand and seven. 13. Six million thirty thousand four hundred and five. 14. Five hundred and sixty thousand and seventy-five. 15. Three million and six. 16. One million three hundred and ninety-seven thousand four hundred and seventy-five. 17. Twenty million eightyfour thousand two hundred and sixteen. 18. Twelve million eight hundred and seventy thousand and forty-five. 19. Fifty-five million seven hundred thousand and five. 20. Seventy-six million fourteen thousand and fifty-nine. 21. Six million six thousand six hundred and six. 22. Fifty-six million seven hundred thousand five hundred and five. 23. One hundred and twenty million fifteen thousand and fifteen. 24. Two hundred and two million two hundred and two thousand and two hundred. 25. Two hundred and seventy-five million eight thousand and five. 26. Twenty million eighty-four thousand two hundred and sixteen. 27. Seventy-nine million thirty thousand one hundred and eighty-four. 28. Four hundred and eight million seventy-six thousand and thirty two. 29. Four hundred and one million four hundred thousand and fifty-six. 30. Nine hundred and eight million five hundred thousand and sixty.

I. 1274170 2. 1634607 3. 1659291 6. 1536206 7. 1648127 8. 2067687 11. 4483647 12. 4105670 13. 3312667 17. 9185198 18. 7485613 21. 9560155 22. 5621434 23. 6524956

SIMPLE ADDITION, pages 18-19.

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SIMPLE SUBTRACTION, page 19.

2. 539540 6. 554999

1. 621511
5. 67600r
9. 681179
13. 107500
17. 8261243256
21. 6009085424

10. 507871
14. 222419
18. 2358235814

15. 157406

19. 2006289547

22. 9957614250 23. 78098951912 24. 7501213600 25. 91089009099 26. 238036793034 27. 9088910990901 28. 353532599691

3. I
7. 480895
II. 376999

4. 9 8. 590998 12. 174386 16. 58024 20. 763595488

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