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« who mean well, who have neither time, nor a proper knowledge of Scripture, to enable them to examine a child on the subject of a sin. gle chapter; but, with the help of a guide of the nature of this now presented to the public, one child may instruct another, and the subordinate teachers in any school may prepare pupils for the inspection of the superiors; and in this manner a regular system of Biblical instruction
may be carried on with little fatigue to the masters and uni. versal benefit to the pupils.'
It can hardly be requisite to give any specimen of the present Part, but we will make room for a short extract.
• Chap. III. 1. With what does this chapter, commence?A. The law of the peace-offering.
• 2. Wherein did the peace-offering differ from other offerings ?A. The burnt offerings were wholly consumed on the altar, and the priests had part of the meat offering ; but the peace offering was divided between the altar, the priests, and the offerer, and formed a kind of feast, in which the Lord, the priests, and the people met together.
• 3. What was required respecting the animal which was to form the peace offering? i.
• 4. Of whom was this animal the emblem ?-A. Of him through whose death
is made between God and the sinner. • 5. Is there any verse in the New Testament which points out this interpretation ? Rum. v. 1, 2.
• 6. What part was the offerer to take in this sacrifice? 2. f. • 7. By whom was the blood to be sprinkled ? 2. l.
• 8. Of what doctrine is this sprinkling of the blood the emblem? -A. Of the washing of the sinner by the tlood of Christ.
• 9. What part of the animal was burnt on the altar? 3. l. 4.
• 10. What were Aaron's sons to do with these parts of the ani. mal ? 5.
"11. What do you learn from this observance ?-A. This observance may probably denote that our inward feelings and affections must be sanctified through the sacrifice of Christ, if we would be accepted by God.
• 12. If the animal which was to be for the sacrifice was of the flock instead of the herd, what was required of this animal? 6, 7.
• 13. Were the same ceremonies to be attended to respecting this last sacrifice as those before mentioned ? 8.
• 14. Which part of the animal was to be burnt ? 9, 10.
* 17. In this case what were the priests to do with the blood ? 13. l.
21. What was the use of this offering ?-A. It fed the sacred fire, and typified the satisfaction made for sin by the death of Christ, fat Vol. XXII. N. S.
pp. 8, 9.
being the emblem of fulness, and it being said of him, “ in him all ful ness dwells.”
• 22. How long was this command to be observed ? 17.'
If we have any fault to find with this Part, it is that the phraseology is hardly simple enough to be intelligible to a child, and that the Writer is occasionally tempted to spiritualize without any sufficient warrant from the Scriptures. Some objectionable instances occur at page 22. .
Art. IX. The Seats and Causes of Disease investigated by Anatomy,
containing a great Variety of Dissections, and accompanied with Remarks. By John Baptist Morgagni, Chief Professor of Anatomy, and President in the University of Padua. Abridged and elucidated with copious Notes, by William Cooke, Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, and one of the Secretaries of the Hunterian Society. 2 vols. 8vo. Price IL 10s.
London. 1823, NO
O science is less reducible to abstract rules than the
science of medicine. An immense range is presented before the student as it relates to objects of research, and after all, his practical success depends upon his own discernment and tact, more than upon any scholastic precepts, or axiomatic deductions from pathological or therapeutic principia. Every new case, it has been said, is a new study; and if this may be said with even an approach to truth, it is obvious that medicine taught merely as a science of semiology, must necessarily be much wanting in a very material part of its elementary organization.
Certain it is, that post mortem inspection often gives the direct lie to prior predication, and proves the impotence of nosology in its endeavours to fasten down disease to fixed and unalterable points. A considerable part, indeed, of the improvement which modern medicine lays claim to, consists in, or rather results from, the value it has learned to set upon a minute investigation of morbid structure, and its comparative disregard of abstract or systematic doctrine. To such an extent has this feeling been recently called into exercise, that we may question whether the re-action has not operated too strongly upon the present cultivation of the therapeutic art; whether it has not tended to induce an indisposition towards a just appreciation of those preceptive rules that are deduced from observation and experience. The knowledge of a mere anatomist would fall very far short of that which an efficient practitioner must possess; and when the Dissecting Room is shewn to the student as the only place for the cultivation of medical philosophy, he is led into a sort of medical materialism, erroneous in its principles, and mischievous in its results,
In the study of morbid anatomy, the necessity ought ever to be held in recollection, of combining reflection with observation,-comparative with abstract research,-in a word, doctrine with fact; and it is inasmuch as we see this combination successfully arrived at in the work before us, that we chiefly value it as a very important addition to English Medical literature.
The volumes of Morgagni have always been justly regarded as a medical classic; but the form in which they were published, was open to many objections. It has been a constant subject of complaint, that their first translator did not divest them of their exuberant matter, and become the editor of his author's work, instead of giving us a servile transcript. Not having effected this desirable task, he left the undertaking a desideratum, which, after an attentive and critical perusal of the volumes now under notice, we are happy in being able to assure our readess, has been well supplied by the present Editor.
Had Mr. Cooke, however, only selected and arranged the materials furnished him by Morgagni, he would still have left much to be accomplished. But he has done more :-he has corrected the numerous errors, and made up the many deficiencies of his author; he has added considerably from the stores of his own researches, and he has very ably interwoven the late improvements in pathology with the facts presented by the dissector's industry. In the general way, too, we have been pleased with Mr. Cooke's style; it is manly, forcible and scientific. Here and there, indeed, we have detected too much of what our neighbours term recherché, in words and phrases, giving to otherwise good writing an air of pedantry. But, upon the whole, we may say with truth, as we do with pleasure, that very few books are sent into the world, with so little to condemn, and so much to commend, as Mr. Cooke's edition of Morgagni's Morbid Anatomy.
Art. X. A Dictionary of all Religions and Religious Denominations,
ancient and modern, Jewish, Pagan, Mahometan, or Christian : Also, of Ecclesiastical History. To which are prefixed, 1. an Essay on Truth, &c. by the late Rev. Andrew Fuller; 2. On the State of the World at Christ's Appearance, hy Mrs. Hannah Adams, original Editor of the Work. And to which are appended, A Sketch of Missionary Geography; with practical ReAections on the whole. By T. Williams. The third London Edition, with the Improvements of the fourth American Edition, and many new Articles. 8vo. pp. xvi. 464. Price 10s. 6d.
London. 1824. THIS copious title does not promise more than the volume
in fact comprises, which is saying much. It will answer, indeed, almost every useful purpose of a theological dictionary; for, though it does not contain all the useless technical definitions of grace, faith, salvation, &c. which are found in such dictionaries, it comprises most of the historical information relating to sects, heresies, councils, and opinions for which they are chiefly valuable. It has evidently cost the Editor great pains and labour, and he has suffered scarcely a denomination or a name of a denomination to escape him. By the aid of Broughton's two volumes folio, and Bishop Grégoire's curious, learned, but strangely inaccurate history of religious sects, Mr. Williams has brought into his alphabetical catalogue, an array of specific varieties of religious opinion, that it might seem to require the skill of a Linnæus to classify. The number of articles, being nearly doubled since the last edition, now amounts to between 900 and 1000; and complete as we believe the collection to be in the main, others, no doubt, might be detected lurking in the by-places of history. For instance, the Motoualies and the Enzairies, two Syrian sects described by Volney, and referred to by Burckhardt and other travellers, have escaped the Editor's notice. Some of the mere mick-names might, we should have thought, have been omitted ; but the Editor has met a similar objection by the following remarks.
Some have suggested that all obsolete sects might be omitted, and there are works formed on this plan; but it was determined to make this work as complete and comprehensive as possible within the compass of a single volume, and especially to make it useful to readers of ecclesiastical history, ancient as well as modern, where sects are often slightly referred to, and the reader's curiosity excited only, without being gratified. There is also a moral view in which such articles may be of use, as exhibiting the multiplied aberrations of the human mind, -as shewing that, in the church, as well as in the world, there is 6 nothing new under the sun." The same erron may be new dressed for the taste of different ages ; but truth and error are in all ages the same, and human nature is equally weak and credulous.'
We are by no means of opinion that all the obsolete sects ought to have been omitted; it would materially have diminished the value of the work ; but the Editor has done well to reduce the black list of alleged ancient heresies. In order, however, to answer the
purpose mentioned in the above extract, that of shewing the identity of error under its successive modifications, something different from a mere alphabetical catalogue would be requisite. A dictionary is by far the most convenient form for reference; but a classification of sects and heresies would be requisite in order to illustrate the natural history of error. Such a work might be made both interesting and useful, if competently executed; but this would require no ordinary power of analysis and philosophical discrimination. One use which such a work as the present dictionary may serve for, is to shew, that neither the Bible nor the Reformation can be with the least truth or reason charged with having given birth to the variety in men's creeds and opinions. This would appear still more strikingly evident, were the points on which all Protestants are substantially agreed, compared with the pre-existing varieties of religious opinion in the Church of Rome. The fact is, that the subdivisions of the Protestant world chiefly relate to church government and discipline; (the Socinians are the most important exception;) whereas the Papists were agreed only on the subject of church government. A declaration of the faith common to Protestant orthodox churches, episcopal, presbyterian, and congregational, might have its use.
The outline of Missionary Geography has evidently been drawn up with considerable care, and forins an interesting feature of the work. The population of Brazil is, at p. 428, incorrectly stated at two millions, but the error is corrected in the summary. On the whole, we consider the publication in its present enlarged and corrected form, as entitled to our warm coinmendation.
Art. XI. The last Military Operations of General Riego; also, the
Manner in which he was betrayed and treated until imprisoned at
General Riego, Svo. pp. 102. London. 1624.
R. MATTHEWES attached himself in an evil hour to the falling cause of the Spanish constitutionalists. On