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RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. formed into a loop below the line.

Das Schreiben und Lesen ziehe ich I prefer writing and reading to The above description of the method of making the capital

allen andern Beschafftigungen vor.

all other employmenta. letters will prove of considerable assistance to the self-teacher Anstatt' tes Beines trinkt er Wasser. Instead of wine, he drinks in tracing out their varied forms, although we might reasonably

water. suppose that he could not err in beginning each letter and Anstatt zu schreiber, liest er. Instead of writing, he reads. ending it in the right place, after the experience that he has Gr spricht, ohne zu tenten. He speaks without thinking. gathered in following carefully and sedulously the instructions given in our lessons on the formation of the small letters of the zwischen Sagen und Thun ist ein Between saying and doing there

groger Un'terschied.

is a great difference. writing alphabet. The mode of shaping out each letter is the chief thing that each learner should aim at learning, and this 3wisden tem Hin'gehen und Wie's Between departing and return.

derkommen verfloß' cine Stunde. ing an hour elapsed. he can do only by repeated practice. Our Copy-slips are Während seiner Krankheit habe ich During his sickress I took the arranged alphabetically, so as to give the student a sample of

rie Stelle eines Wächters vertre'. place of a watcher. cach letter in the alphabet.

Seine Weise zu handeln gefällt mir His mode of dealing does not nicht.


Schweigen ist vernünfftiger, als un'. To be silent is more reasonable vernünftig reden.

than unreasonable speaking SECTION XLI.-PECULIAR IDIOMS-(continued).

(to speak unreasonably). SOMETIMES, as in English, a clause or sentence is made to

EXERCISE 78. supply the place of an adjective, as:- -Die nie zu vergessende Schlacht bei Leipzig, the never-to-be-forgotten battle by (at) Leipsic. Der 1. Anstatt mit einem Stođe vertheidigte er sich mit einem Regensdirme. immer zu bewundernde Muth Luther’d, the ever-to-be-admired courage 2. Anstatt mit Freunden zu gehen, war er immer in Gesellschaft frenter of Luther (S 150).

Leute. 3. In der Stube hatte man, anstatt des Bettes, eine große Kiste. 4. 1. Anftatt, like the corresponding English word “instead," is In Deutschland ist man gegen Fremde sehr höflict. 5. Die Wurzeln tes compounded of.a preposition and a noun, which components may Waltes waren seine einzige Nahrung. 6. Das Wasser hat bei dieser Gelegen, be separated, as :- —Anstatt seines Baters, instead of his father; J heit die Stelle des Weincs vertreten. 7. Gin Schüler hat die Stelle te or, an seines Vaters Statt, in his father's stead.

Lehrers vertreten. 8. Anstatt der Federn benüßt man Bleistifte. 9. Das 2. The infinitive preceded by anstatt is, in German, used where Reisen macht mir sehr viel Vergnügen. 10. Meine Kinder haben das we use the present participle preceded by " instead of,” as :- Spreiben und Besen von mir gelernt. 11. Wir wollen gehen ; ties lange Er spielt, anstatt zu arbeiten, he plays " instead of” working. When Warten ist mir unangenehm. 12. Man zieht gewöhnlich das Sigen tem preceded by the preposition obne, it is to be rendered by a par. Steben vor. 13. Er hat das Arbeiten in seiner Jugend gelernt. 14. Wir ticiple governed by the corresponding preposition "without,” haben zusammen das Schreiben gelernt. 15. Ich hasse das Scrciben, tage. as :-Er ist tranf, ohne es zu wissen, he is sick, without knowing it. gen liebe ich desto mehr des Malen. 16. Er versteht das Zeichnen besser, als Er ist hier gewesen, ohne und zu besuchen, he has been here with das Malen. 17. Wir hörten das Stürmen der Gloden und das Donnen out visiting us. The infinitive is also often used where we em- der Kanonen. 18. Das Heulen des Sturmes und das wilde Toben ter ploy the present participle preceded by from, as :-&r verhindert Wellen erhöhte noch ben Muth reš tapfern Kapitäns und seiner Mannschaft, mich, zu schlafen, he prevents me from sleeping.

anstatt ihn zu beugen. 19. Gott mehr gütig als gerecht benfen, ist eben jo 3. The infinitive is also used substantively [without zu: § 146. viel, als Gott entchren (Gellert). 20. Dies nicht zu entschultigende Betr.z. (1) a), as :-Befehlen ist leicht, Gehorchen schwer, to command is easy; gen des Schülers fränkte den Lehrer. to obey, difficult. It is often preceded by the article, as :-Ich

EXERCISE 79. liebe das Schreiben, aber nicht das Zeichnen, I like writing, but not drawing.

1. The never-to-be-penetrated almightiness of God. 2. I am 4. After gehen, bleiben [$ 146. (1) e), etc., the infinitive often here instead of my brother. 3. The opposition of the Poles was answers to our present participle, as :- - Or blieb siten, he re- full of despair; terrific was the singing of their war-song: “Not mained sitting (literally, he continued to sit). Er bleibt stehen, yet is Poland lost.” 4. The reading of instructive books enhe remains standing. Er ist fischen gegangen, he has gone a fish. larges the understanding. 5. To assist the poor is a Christian ing. In a sentence which is employed as the subject of a verb, duty. 6. The changing of times and seasons and the removing the infinitive frequently rejects the preposition zu (ş 146.), as :

and setting up of kings belong to Providence alone. 7. He de Den Feind vertheidigen ist etel

, or, ten Feind zu vertheitigen ist edel, fends this man without knowing him. 8. The danger heightened to defend an (the) enemy is noble. Zu is generally omitted the courage of the soldiers, instead of depressing it. 9. The before such verbs as lebren, to teach ; lernen [§ 146. (1) c], to student learns drawing and painting from his brother. 10. This learn, etc., as :- Ich lehre ihn schreiben, I teach him to write. Gr mode of life does not agree with me. lernt sprechen, he learns to speak.

SECTION XLII.-SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 5. The past participle in German is sometimes used where we use the present, as :--Dort fommt ein Mann in voller Hast gelaufen The subjunctive mood is employed both in indirect assertions [$ 149. (3)], yonder comes a man running at full speed (in full and in indirect questions after verbs of speaking, thinking, wishhaste).

ing, hoping, etc., i.e., after all verbs of mental action, when the VOCABULARY.

actual words of him who spoke, thought, etc., are not quoted, Anstatt', instead of.

as :-Er sagte sein Freund rei frunf, he said his friend was ill (he Gütig, kind, good. Stelle, f. place. Venüp'en, to use,make Hassen, to hate. Un'angenehm,

actually said, my friend is ill). Er fragte mich, wer ich sei, he asked dis

me who I was (he asked, who are you?). Man sagt, daß er ein use of. Heulen, to howl.

agreeable. Bett, n. bed. Höflich, polite, cour. Vertheidigen, to de. großes Vermögen habe, it is said that he has a great fortune. For Beugen, to depress.

further information on the subjunctive, see $ 143; and for conteous.


jugation of haben and sein in the subjunctive, see § 72. 1. 2. Braw, brave, gallant. Stano'ne, f. cannon. Vertre'ten, to take the Dagegen, on the con. Kifte. f. chest.

place of.

The subjunctive in German is often translated by the English

indicative, as in the following examples :trary.

Malen, to paint. Verloon, lost.
Denten, to think. Mannschaft, f. crew, Verzweif'lungsroll, full | Man sagt, er sei reich.

They say he is very rich.
Desto. (Sect. XXX. forces.

of despair. Er meint, 18 sei besser, hier zu He thinks it is better to stay 6.) Nahrung, f. nourish- Verʻzichen, to prefer. bleiben.

here. Entch'ren, to

ment, food.

Welle, f. wave. Sie sagten mir, er wäre mein You told me he was my friend. honour.

Polen, n, Poland. Witerstehen, to resist, Freund. Erhöhen. to heighten. Schlachtlieb, n.


Ich meinte, es wäre ein Spaß. I thought it was a jest. Gele'genheit, f. occar song.

Wild, wild.

Man glaubte, er wäre auf dem It was thought he was on the sion, way. Schredlich, frightful, Wurzel, f. root.


mountain. Gerecht', just.

Zeidynen, to draw. Er sagt, der Kaiser habe ihn bes He says the emperor has par Blode, f. bell. Singen, to sing. Zusam'men, together. gnadigt.


doned him.

dis. 1




Man glaubt, er sei gefallen.

It is thonght he has fallen. the frontier. 5. He asserted that it was better to stay at home Sie glaubten, ich sei frank gewesen. They thought I had been sick. than to go out. 6. I wish that he may be treated with more Man glaubte, ich wäre nie da ges It was thought I had never been kindness. 7. He tells every one that you are a very rich man ; wejen. there.

but if you were, you would not be so penurious. 8. Have you Or glaubt, er werde nie wieder glüd. He believes he shall never be heard, too, that your friend has fallen from his horse ? 9. No, lich werten. happy again.

but I have heard that he has fallen out of the coach. 10. I hope Man sagt, sie werde bald die Ober. It is said she will soon have the that you will be with your parents in a fortnight. 11. I doubt hand haben, ascendancy.

that he can be so ungrateful. 12. This stranger says that he VOCABULARY.

has been twice to India, and was very sick on his last voyage. Allgemein', universal, Fallen, to fall.

Rufen, to call. universally. Geschich'te, f. history. Tod, m. death.

Barba'ris. barbar. Grenze, f. frontier. Uebersdreiften, to cross,
Herbei'führen, to pro-

As the next lesson will put the learner in possession of the last

pass over. Bebaup'ten, to assert, duce, bring on.

of the problems that we intend to give on the construction of

Ingarn, n. Hungary: figures contained by threo and four straight lines--namely, the allege. Langsam, slow, slowly. / Berjahren, to act,


triangle, the square, Dreißigjährig, ofthirty Melten, to announce,

the rectangle, and the parallelogram-we

would recommend him to go carefully over the whole of the preyears.


Verstellung, f. dissi. Gin'gebenf, mindful. Ner'venfieber, n. ner.

sent series of problems from the commencement, constructing as

mulation. Gro'bern, to conquer.

vous fever.
Verwandt', related.

many figures as he possibly can, to meet the requirements of the

data in each case. Grzählen, to tell, nar. Ober, upper. Zwar, indeed, it is

And in doing this we advise him to try to rate. Num, n. Rome.


construct figures different in form to those which we have given

in these pages, as, if he can do this, he may be sure that he has RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

gained a thorough knowledge of the various methods of conGt behaup'tet, daß es war sei. He asserts that it is true. struction set forth in the different problems. Id will, daß Du spar'jamer seieft. I will that thou be more frugal. The problem in practical geometry that was brought before the Gs scheint mir, daß er traurig ist. It appears to me that he is notice of the student in the last lesson, showing him how to


construct a square that shall be equal in superficial area to the Man glaubt, daß wir reich seien. It is supposed that we are rich. sum of two squares described on two given straight lines, has Dégleich' ihr Fremde seid, jo seid ihr Although you are strangers you given him the key to the construction of squares, rectangles, toch willfom'men.

are nevertheless welcome. and parallelograms, equal in superficial area to the sum Go imeint mir, das sie Amerika'ner It appears to me that they are difference of any two or more squares, rectangles, or parallelo


grams, as the case may be; and it has also shown him that the Es fieht aus, als ob er nicht gesund' He appears as though he were main principle on which their construction depends, is the relation wäre.

not healthy.

between the triangle, the figure contained by the least possible Ich glaube, taß er frank gewe'ien ist. I think that he has been sick. number of straight lines (since two straight lines cannot encloso Ran sagt, daß er schon hier gewe'sen They say that he has already a space, although one curved line can, as in the case of the circle), jei.

been here.

and all regular figures contained by straight lines-namely, the 34 hoffe, bas du glüdlich getoe'sen I hope that you will have been square, the rectangle, and the parallelogram. It may be as well jein wirft. fortunate.

to repeat that this principle is, that when a square, rectangle, Er sagte mir, tab tu das Buch des He told me you had the or parallelogram is upon the same base and between the same Lehrers habest. teacher's book.

parallels, the area of the square, rectangle, or parallelogram Id bezpcific, daß der Jäger die Flinte I doubt that the hunter has the (as the case may be), is double the area of the triangle. gun.

Now supposing we have a square, rectangle, or parallelogram Man vermuthet, daß ihr viel Geld It is supposed that you have before us, and we wish to construct a triangle equal in area to babt. much money.

either of these figures, what have we to do? Manifestly nothing Man weiß daß fie Freude an dieser It is known that they have more than to draw one of the diagonals of the figure in question, Sache haben.

pleasure in this affair, produce the base indefinitely in the necessary direction, and, Ich börte, daß er ein großes Ver. I heard that he had a large after setting off on it a straight line equal in length to the side moʻgen hätte. fortune.

of the square, rectangle, or parallelogram, that serves as its Der Onkel erzählte, daß er eine an'. The uncle said (narrated) he base, to join the extremity of the line thus set off with the genehme Reise gehabt' habe. had had a pleasant journey. upper end of the diagonal. This will be evident on an inspection EXERCISE 80.

of Fig. 42, where, in the square (rectangle or parallelogram)

A B C D, the diagonal A c is drawn; the base cd, on which the 1. Haben Sie auch gehört, ich sei vom Pferte gefallen? 2. Nein, ich square (rectangle or parallelogram) A B C D stands, is produced börte

, Sie seien aus dem Wagen gefallen. 3. Die Geldichte meltet, tal indefinitely in the direction of F; a straight line, D E, set off Tilly, welcher Magreburg im vreißigjährigen Kriege eroberte, sehr barbarisch along it from the point d, equal to Dc; and the straight line verfahren sei. 4. Mein Bruder sagte, Sic seien sehr gelobt worten. 5.

E A drawn, joining the points E and A, and completing the triangle Die Franzosen behaupten, sie seien die Webildetsten in der Welt. 6. Ihre AEC, which is equal in superficial area to the square (rectangle Schwester glaubte, Sie wären in der Start gewesen. 7. Die Englanter

or parallelogram) A B C D. find der Meinung, sie seien die Herren des Meeres. 8. Dieser Reisende er,

And, conversely, when we wish to draw a rectangle or parallelojählte

, er sei zweimal in Rom gewesen. 9. &r hofft, er werte in acht Tagen gram equal to a given triangle, all we have to do is to bisect in Dresden sein. 10. Sie fürchten, Sie seien zu langsam im Hanteln gewesen. the base of the triangle, and on either half of the base construct 11. Wir glaubten, Sie wären auf dem Lande. 12. Ich glaube, wir waren

the required rectangle or parallelogram, after drawing through gestern zu Gud gekommen, wenn das Wetter (chiner gewesen wäre. 13. In the apex of the triangle a straight line parallel to the base. In glaubte, er wäre der warnenten Stimme seiner Eltern cingcdent gewesen. the case of the rectangle, after bisecting the base of the triangle14. Er sagte zwar, er sei franf, aber Vicle behaupten, es sei Verstellung as, for example, in Fig. 43, where the base of the triangle a BC von ihm gewesen.

15. Seine Verwandten sagen, sein Glück habe sein is bisected in D and drawing a straight line, P Q, of indefinite Unglüd herbeigeführt. 16. Ich hörte mit Berauern, Sie hätten bas length, through the apex a of the triangle A B C parallel to its Nereenfieber gehabt. 17. Da ich in dem obern Zimmer war, hörte ich Sic base BC, a rectangle equal in superficial area to the triangle nicht rufen. 18. Man erzählt, ter Ungar habe bis in den Tod sein Vater.

ABC is formed by drawing the straight lines C E, D F through land treu vertheitigt. 19. Ich hörte, ticier junge Franzose werde ein großes the extremities c and D of CD, one-half of the base B C, perpenBermögen erben. 20. Ich glaube, daß viele Menschen hier auf Erten ihr dicular to bc, and meeting poin E and F; or by drawing the Gutes gehabt haben werten.

perpendiculars D F, B G, through the extremities D and B of BD, EXERCISE 81.

the other half of the base meeting P Q in F and G. 1. People say these gentlemen have been tipsy, but they are In the case of the parallelogram, if it be required to make two mistaken. 2. They say that residence in Paris is more agree of its opposite sides equal to a given straight line, as the straight able than in London. 3. We could not believe that this was line x in Fig. 43, or two of its opposite angles equal to a given true. 4. It is universally believed that the enemy has crossed angle, as the angle y, we must from the extremity of one-half





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of the base of the triangle-say, for example, the extremity D of and on the straight line D E set off D F equal to the side the half CD of the base—with a radius equal to x, describe an D A, or B c of the rectangle A B C D. Bisect c r in G, and arc cutting P Q in H; join D I, and through c draw C K parallel from G as centre with the radius G C or G F describe the semito D H, and meeting P Q in K, thus completing the parallelogram circle cu F. Produce D A until it meets the arc CHF in K. HDC K; or, at the point c in the straight line DC we must Then along the straight line D C set off D L equal to D K, and

through the points K, L, draw the straight lines K M, LY parallel to C F, D K respectively, and meeting in the point ». The figure DLM K is a square, and it is equal in area to the given rectangle A B C D. If F NOL had been the given rectangle, the same process would have been followed. FL

would have been produced in the direction of L, and L C set off Fig. 42.

on it equal to the side L o of the rectangle LONF; C F bisected

in g; the semicircle c H F described as before, and L o produced make the angle D C K equal to the given anglo y, and through to meet the circumference c H F in P. The square drawn on LP D draw D parallel to ck in order to complete the parallelogram is equal in area to the rectangle F L o N. as before.

If it be required to draw This process will only be found practicable for the construction & square equal in area to a of a square equal in area to a triangle when the triangle is a given parallelogram, we have right-angled isosceles triangle ; but for any other description of only to construct a rectangle triangle it will be found necessary first to construct a rectangle equal to the given paralleloequal in superficial area to the given triangle, and then to draw gram, and proceed as above. a square equal to the rectangle thus obtained. How to do this This will be seen from Fig. will be shown presently in Problem XXXI.

45, in which the rectangle By Problem XXX. we are enabled to construct a square equal in A B C D is equal to the

Fig. 45. area to any number of given squares. Thus, suppose we wish to parallelogram D C Q R. construct a square equal in superficial extent to the five squares PROBLEM XXXII.--To draw a rectangle that shall be equal of which the length of the sides of each is represented by the to a given square, and have one of its sides equal to a given straight lines A, B, C, D, E respectively (Fig. 44). Draw any straight line. straight line, F G, equal to A, and at its extremity, g, draw G H Let A B C D (Fig. 46) be the given square, and x the given side at right angles to it equal to B. Join F 4: the square described of the required rectangle, and in this case let x represent the

on Fh is by Pro- shorter of the two pairs of sides by which the rectangle is enclosed. blem XXX. equal to First produce c d indefinitely both ways towards E and F, and the squares de along C E sot off co equal to x, and also along C B set off C I scribed on FQ and equal to x. Join B G, bisect it in K, and through x draw K L per

Next draw pendicular to B G, meeting E F in L. Then from the point L 45 A K equal in longth centre, with the radius L Q, describe the semicircle G B M. to the given line c, Through the point m draw m n parallel to A D or C B, and

at right angles to through I draw N parallel to A B or E F, and let the lines Fig. 43.

HF. Join KF. The HN, M N moet in n. The rectangle Cun M is equal in area

square described on to the square A B C D. f K is equal to the squares described on K H, H F, or to the When the longer of the two pairs of sides that enclose the squares described on K H, H G, G F, since the square described rectangle is given, as Y in Fig. 46, produce c d indefinitely on H F is equal to the squares described on A G, G F. By con- both ways as before, and set off c m along C F equal to y. tinuing this process we at last obtain the straight line M F. The Join B M, bisect bm in o, and through the point o draw o L at square described on this line is equal to the sum of the squares right angles to BM, meeting E F in L. Then from L as centre, described on the given straight A, B, C, D, E. Now let us with the distance L M, describe the semicircle M BG. Set off see how far this is of practical value to the artisan. Let us along C B the straight line ch equal to CG, and complete the suppose that a cabinet-maker has a number of small squares of rectangle chn M by drawing I n, un through the points 1 and veneering of several kinds of choice wood, each square being M parallel to C M and c A respectively. of a different size, and he wishes to uso up this wood in veneer- The learner must remember that the side of a square is a ing a table or the panel of a cabinet without wasting a single mean proportional bescrap of it. By following the process just described it is manifest tween the sides of any that he possessos the means of readily ascertaining the exact rectangle that is equal to area of the square that these pieces will cover, and after find. it in superficial area; and, ing this, he can, if it be desirable, by Problem XXXI. draw a therefore, that to find the rectangle equal in area to the square if he prefer this form for length of the side of a using up his squares of veneering, and then arrange his pattern square equal to a given

in such a manner that his squares rectangle, we must set off
may be worked up without waste. on the same straight line,
It is also a process that is useful but in opposite directions,
to the maker of floors in parque- two lines equal in length

Fig. 46.
try, or to a stonemason who wishes to the sides of the given
to know how large a square he rectangle, bisect the line thus obtained, describe a semicircle on
can pave with a number of smaller it, and find the mean proportional to the two lines of which it is
squares of stone or slate of dif. composed, by drawing a perpendicular from their point of junc-

ferent sizes. Of course in such tion to meet the semicircle, as in Problem XIII. (page 192); Fig. 44.

cases the operator would work to while, to find the lengths of the sides of a rectangle that shall be

a given scale, and the process equal to a given square, we must draw a straight line at right might be used as a test of the correctness of the result of the angles to a line equal in length to the side of the square, and operation by which the whole content of the squares may be from a point in this line on either side of the line that reprefound arithmetically, or as one which far more certain and sents the side of the given square, draw a semicircle with a involves far less trouble than the arithmetical operation, which radius equal to the straight line joining the point that is used would be a long and tedious one.

as the centre of the semicircle and the more remote extremity PROBLEM XXXI.—To draw a square that shall be equal in of the line that represents the length of the side of the given superficial area to a given rectangle.

square. The lines intercepted between the other extremity of Let A B C D (Fig. 45) be the given rectangle; it is required this line and the extremities of the arc of the semicircle will to draw a square equal in superficial area to the rectangle be equal in length to the sides of a rectangle, having a super

Produce c d indefinitely in the direction of E, | ficial area equal to that of the given square.



A B C D.

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It was crefore has to be illustration in Lesson XI. (page 353) to understand the structure 竞争中, 12mm; the R***** furigu, and there and relation of each hair to the skin in which it is developed and

in the treesome or noxious. fixed. The hair is essentially a tubular projection of the cuticle,

32 * animals that are firmer and denser in its composition, being made up of closely Painting of their life, in the pressed. elongated, spindle-shaped cells, instead of scale-like,

*rs food to them—to all easily-detached ones. It is not, however, produced from the 9 at tsatological, whose life level of the surface of the body, but from a bag or follicle, which

is always narrow, and more or less deep as the hair is long or

This horny tube dilates at the bottom of its bag to la 14" **** ee whose means of defence short.

salinze wens stau in defensive armour, the enclose a vascular papilla, similar in every respect to those road ever the surface of the skin, as in papillæ which lie immediately under the surface of the super

The hair itself, like the rest of the cuticle, is Frezy se mar be compared to an island. The ficial cuticle. blev viss bir is the owst-line. Along the whole of this without sensation, as indeed it must be for the comfort of the are pa si varius interra's places of out-look, just as our animal; but the papilla has not only blood-vessels but nerves, omnis Niile idzi has been surrounded with Martello and is very sensitive, so that the hair cannot be pulled or mored

These stations are few and far between where the in any direction without affecting the sensitive part. Though a down coace is rockv, abrupt

, and inaccessible, but nearer together furred animal cannot precisely tell the exact point at which it is at these parts where a descent could be easily made, and touched, on account of the length and flexibility of its individual crowiled to other at the outlets of ports, creeks, and river- hairs, yet the sensation of touch is as truly conveyed to the true mouths, through which an active commerce is carried on. The skin, as it is when the pressed ridges of the forefinger of man comparison of the extremities of the tactile nerves to Martello

cause feeling to be excited in the papillæ beneath them. In one towers is the more appropriate, because these have ceased to be respect hairs are even advantageous to the sense of touch, inasof any use in defence, and have become stations of out-look for much as they reach considerably beyond the surface, and thus the coast-guard. So the tactile nerves are, in themselves, no the range of the sense is extended. This advantage is so far protection, but rather, being delicate organs, they need protec. recognised by nature that certain hairs are specially developed tion; for they act as alarmists, awakening and calling up the active which have no other use than that of touch. These may fairly powers to tight in defence of the common country. These two be described as tactile organs. These hairs are usually, and functions of the skin-namely, that of passive defence and active almost exclusively, situated in the upper lip, projecting from the alarm--are complementary to one another: where one is very most prominent part of the muzzle. In quadrupeds the snoat etticient, the other is less needed. In the scaled and mailed is of course the most salient part of the body, and is most used fishes, and in such forms as the tortoise among reptiles, and the in investigation. These whiskers, as they are called (thongh armadillo among animals, the function of sensation is sacrificed they would be better named moustaches), are remarkable for to that of defence; but in the naked skinned animals the sense their length and stiffness, the depth to which their large bulbs of touch had need be very acute. In comparing man with the run into the skin, and even protrude in the internal surface, and Lower animals of that class to which he belongs, we find that also for the large nerves that enter the papillæ of the bulbs. his sease of touch is, perhaps, better developed than that of any Those coming from the whiskers of a seal as they run together other animal. The lower animals have to sacrifico a certain look like the strands of small cords as they become woven into amount of their surface sensibility to the paramount necessity a rope of tolerable thickness. The animals in which these of being shielded from the cold ; or, to put it more truthfully, whiskers are most developed are the carnivora and the rodentia, to the retention of their animal heat. Man has neither the This is not improbably associated with the fact that these are continuous thick coating of hair of the ox, tho thick skin of the for the most part nocturnal animals. Moreover, many of the rhinoceros, nor the dense accumulation of fat below it which is rodentia inhabit holes in the ground, trees, etc.; and many of found in the pig and in the whale. He is only cosmopolitan the smuller carnivora are always poking about in holes and because his superior intellect enables him to clothe and house crannies for prey. It certainly would be an advantage to a fos himself. His nearest relatives among beasts, though much on a dark night to be able to gange with his whiskers the size botter supplied with hair than himself, are confined to the of the aperture in a hen-roost before he tried to force his way tropios. Man makes himself at home everywhere, but only by through it; and thus it has been thought that there is a relabecoming a “clothes philosopher.” His triple investment of tion between the width of the body and the extreme extent of ordinary, nether, and over clothing, prove him to be an exotic the whiskers. spocies. He supplements by art the line of defence at those In birds the place of hairs is supplied by feathers. The strucpoints where nature has left him exposed. The main use of the ture of these is very wonderful and beautiful, but a description coating of hair is, no doubt, to defend the brute from the winter's of it would be out of place here, because they are certainly less cold, but that which will keep in the heat will keep it out, so efficient tactile organs than hairs. Birds' feathers are coarser that it may also be considered as a defence against the excessive than hairs ; they are less flexible; they are inserted only on cerheat of the sun also. Doubtless the universal presence of hair on tain parts of the body; and since there must be provision made the heads of both sexes of the human species indicates that in for moulting, they are more definitely cut off from the sensitive his native home man had more to fear from sun-stroke than skin below. For all these reasons they are not good organs for from the cold of winter. Besides this, the hair is sometimes a transmitting the sense of touch, although they are formed in real defence against the rough usage of the outer world. Thus the same manner as hairs. Probably on account of this inapthe manes of the lion and the buffalo are real shields both against titude to transmit impressions, they are sometimes replaced by trenchant blows and the worrying of the teeth of hostile animals. hairs in certain parts of the body; but as a rule the whole of the Even the matted hair of the negro is said to be able to resist a bird's body is encircled with feathers, which lie overlapping one tolerably forcible sabre cut. The principal use, however, is, another, and turned in one direction towards the tail of the bird. doubtless, to defend from cold; and it is remarkable how this in the same manner as tiles on a horse-roof. A bird's jaws, main object is arrived at without much prejudice to the function instead of being covered with soft, flexible and sensitive sips, of touch.

are covered with a hard, horny bill, and its legs, though often Few solid snbstances are lighter than hair, even when pressed devoid of feathers, have to be defended by scales or scutes, to close; and few substances are worse conductors of heat- :-so that prevent the long tendons of their leg muscles being severed. brutes retain their heat by the aid of a substance which costs Under these circumstances, a bird enjoys little advantage from them but little in the way of carriage. Beyond this, the springy, its sense of touch. Indeed, it is only in the padded under-surstiff, yet soft texture of hair, makes it always permeable to the face of the foot and toes, and sometimes in the beak and air; and air, when motionless, is a bad conductor of heat, and tongue-when the former is leathery, and the latter not capped adds, absolutely, to weight. Hence on the coldest day, when with horn-where there can be any provision for the esposure the thermometer stands below zero, the beast is still surrounded of a sensitive surface. It has sometimes been stated that the with a layer of warm air, almost equal in temperature to its body. heron, as he stands in shallow, muddy water, is guided by feeling So much to prove its efficiency for its main purpose. Now we the cels twisting in and out, or oven sucking his toes. This have to show how it leaves the sense of touch, if not unimpaired, statement seems rather suited for a fable of the biter bitten at least not obliterated. The reader must refer back to the than to be regarded as a scientific fact. That the sense is pre


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