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even in words ending in io and ia, and presenting no ambiguity,
the acute sign is not unfrequently placed merely to indicate two, too
that the letter i does not make the two terminating vowels o he
and a in conjunction with the i diphthongs, but that they are who
separate syllables. It is a characteristic of the acute sign that it can never be used in final letters, as the grave accent is need.
But the use of this accent is, generally speaking, not regulated ah ah!
by invariable rules, and is frequently left to the discretion of
the writer. I need not say that the acute sign, which I have when
adopted in these grammatical instructions, exactly answers the
purpose for which it has been introduced by Italian writers, eh eh? aye (e, ever) wi
with this difference only, that I shall use it throughout the ४ of
whole course of the grammar, while they place it merely on
some words to avoid ambiguity, woo would
I shall only give a list of words where it is more generally
used, some of which I have already quoted in the preceding all yo beyond
pronouncing tables :-Natio (nah-teé-o), natía (nah-teé-ah), natal,
native; restío (rai-steé-o), restive, stubborn ; stantio (stahnyou
teé-o), old, stale, fruitless ; leggio (led-jeé-o), reading-desk, s й but i
painter's easel; ubbía (oob-beé-ah), bad presage ; malía (mahI
leé-ah), sorcery, enchantment; bastla (ba-steé-ah), bastion; o, oh! owe ay ay (broad ai, yes)
strofinio (stro-fee-née-o), scouring, rubbing ; mormorío (morr
mo-rée-o), buzzing, murmur ; rovinio (ro-vee-née-o), great noise ; to
fiócine (feeô-tchee-nai), skin of raisin-stones; zúfolo (tsóo-fo-lo),
a whistle ; margine (máhrr-jee-nai), scar, edge, margin. 138. S may be added to a logogram to mark the plural number or the possessive case of a noun, or the third person singular of a verb; as With the Acute Sign.
Without the Acute Sign. good, - goods, / Lord, Lord's, —
Balía (bah-leé-ah), power.
Balia (báh-lee-ah), nurse,
Già (jah), already, indeed. 139. In general, the positions of the grammalogues, ABOVE, ON, Néi (nê-ee), moles, patches. Nei (núi-ee), in the (pl.). and THROUGH the line, are determined by their vowels; and in the Áncora (ábu-ko-rah), anchor. Ancora (ahn-kó-rah), again, case of a word of more than one syllable, by its accented vowel. Stropiccio (stro-pit-tchée-o), fric- Stropiccio, (stro-pít-tcho), I rub. The positions of words, as determined by their vowels, are :- For tion, rubbing. perpendicular and sloping strokes, 1st position, ah, aw, i, oi, wi,
3. THE CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT. ABOVE tbe line; 2nd position, à, Ò, on the line ; 3rd position,
The circumflex accent is of more recent use, particularly ē, 00, ow, t, THROUGH the line. The three positions for horizontals among poets, to distinguish words of the same form, but of are respectively above, upon, and under the line.
different signification; as, for example :140. Vowel logograms have but two positions: 1, ah, aw, i, oi, wi, ABOVE the line : 2, ā, , , 00, ow, ú, on the line. A third position, Tárre (tôr-rai), to take, seize (for Torre (tór-rai), tower.
With the Circumflex Sign.
Without the Circumflex Sign. UNDER the line, for ē, 00, ou, , would not be distinguishable from
togliere). the second when writing on unruled paper.
Córre (kôr-rai), to gather (for Corre (kór-rai), he runs. 141. All grammalogues are written IN POSITION in accordance
cogliere). with the above rules, and are thus easily remembered, except- Amaro (ah-máh-ro), they loved (for Amaro (ah-máb-ro), bitter.
IRREGULAR GRAMMALOGUES.-Class 1.-Words of frequent oc- amarono). currence are written ON THE LINE for the sake of convenience. Those Féro (fái-ro), they did.
Fero (f8-ro), fierce, wild. of the Corresponding Style are:-are, be, been, dear, do, equal, for,
ôra (ô-rah), breeze, zephyr. Ora (ó-rah), now. from, give, good, have, him, himself, if, improve-d-ment, 'it, Lord, Allør (ahl-lör), laurel (for alloro or Allora (ahl-ló-rah), then.
allori). mere, Mr, near, Phonography, shall, thing, think, upon, was, we, which, will, your.
Udír (00-deór), they heard (for Udire (00-deé-rai), to hear.
udirono). Class 2.-Words which in their proper position would clash with some other grammalogue, namely, the one which is placed imme- above examples has the open sound; and thus this marking of
The reader will have remarked that the circumflex 6 in the diately under it, in the alternate lines given below. They are
those words on the part of modern Italian authors agrees with advantage', any', English", gol (and ago), in', me', more?, numbers, the sign that I have uniformly adopted to mark the open or joy (in reporting,) no, thing, come, no, him, mere, member, second sound of o. O', over?, owno, particuları, read", this", those”, though', truth", with. I cannot begin my exposition of the grammar of the language he, ever,
no, opportunity, word, these, this, they, true, when. without first offering some remarks or the use of the apostrophe 142. Phonography may be written on plain paper, or on paper present my lessons on pronunciation. Some supplementary and
in Italian, which, with the general table, will conclude for the ruled with either single or donble lines. Our own practice is to employ either plain or single-line paper : we find the double lines per- important pronouncing tables will be given at the end of the plexing. The three positions for logograms on double-line paper are
VIII.-THE APOSTROPHE. distinguished thus:-1, If down or up strokes, through the top line ; but if horizontal or half-length sloping, under it; 2, on the bottom The apostrophe is essentially different from accent, and line; 3, if down or up strokes, through the bottom line, and if hori. indicates that the word on which it is placed has been deprived zontal or half-length, under it.
of a vowel or of a syllable. Where, therefore, for the sake of harmony, at the beginning or end of a word, a vowel is omitted
because the preceding word terminates with a vowel or the LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-IX.
subsequent word begins with one, the apostrophe must be placed. VII.—THE ACCENTS (continued).
It can never be used in the middle, and all omissions and con.
tractions in the middle of words must be written without this 2. THE ACUTE ACCENT.
sign. For example : l' amore (pronounced lah-mó-rai), love (for The acute accent has been adopted by modern authors as the lo amore); dell'anima (del-láh-nee-mah), of the soul (for della mark to show the difference of meaning in some words of the anima); dall' uomo (dahl-lood-mo), from man (for dallo uomo); same spelling, though differently pronounced, which words, capo d'opera (káh-po dô-pai-rah), a masterpiece, an odd man without the acute sign, might occasion confusion and ambiguity, (for capo di opera); s' io posso (sée-o-pôs-s0), if I can (for sa io particularly in the case where words of more than one syllable posso); pensio (pen-sée-o), I think (for penso io); sopra 'l ketto terminate in the diphthongs ia, ie, and io, and from the use of (só-prahllêt-to), upon the bed (for sopra il letto); sotto il cielo the acute sign over the , and the necessary stress laid on the (sót-toltchê-lo), under the sky (for sotto il cielo); e ’n questo, e 'n syllable thus accented, acquire a different signification. But quello (on qwai-sto, en quél-lo), as well in the latter as the former
Schi, skee. (for e in questo, e in quello); tra 'l si e'l no (trahl see el no),
Schis, skeeni or skeee. between yes and no, that is, hesitating (for tra il si è il no).
Soie, shini or shé.
Sohio, skeeo or skeeó. I may here remark, that the use of the apostrophe at the
Scio, sho or sỏ.
Schiu, skeeoo. beginning of a word is more frequently found in poetry than in
Scént, shoo. prose.
It is necessary to bear in mind the distinction between the In my next lesson I shall enter on the grammar proper of the apostrophe as a sign of elision, and the abbreviation of words Italian language. In fulfilment of my promise to follow the where letters are omitted without the use of this sign. I con- natural method to teach, as it were, the language as it is formed sider it necessary to state some elementary rules with respect to in the mind, I shall first speak of nouns, and other kinds of the abbreviation of words.
words allied to nouns, and then proceed to explain the verbs 1. The final vowel of any Italian word may be, and always and their various inflections. Two methods are open to choice, without the use of the apostrophe, omitted, if it is immediately each of which has its zealous advocates in tuition. Some would preceded by one of these four consonants, l, m, n, and r, the so- confine themselves strictly to theory in grammatical teaching ; called liquid consonants or liquids, and if, at the same time, the others as exclusively to practice in the earlier stages of the subsequent word should commence with a consonant, except the instruction. If we adhere strictly to the theoretical exposition, s impure, as the Italians call it; that is, s followed by another the progress of the pupil is sure, but slow; if we are merely consonant; as, spirito, spirit; scettro, sceptre. For example : il practical, the pace may be rapid, but the attainments are supercamneral passato (il kahrr-nai-váhl pahs-sáh-to), the last carnival ficial. I shall endeavour to blend the two, and while I, as con(for il camevale passato); a man destra (ah mahn dê-strah), on cisely as I can, explain all the principles and rules of the the right hand (for a mano destra); ogni uom tacea (ón-nyee language, I shall constantly strive to impress them on the 000m tah-tehái-ah), every man was silent (for ogni uomo tacea); minds of my pupil-readers by practical exercises on each rule as puol jar questo (vooôl fahr kwái-sto), he wants to do this (for it occurs. I shall, in this part of my labour, endeavour to imvuole fare questo).
prove on a modern invention of Germany, the country, perhaps, 3. In words ending with llo, and having the accent of tone most distinguished for scientific method in education. It should on the syllable preceding lo, it is customary to omit the whole be the aim of every educator so to teach, that his pupils may of the syllable lo, if the subsequent word begins with a' con regard the instruction as relating to a living language to be sonant which is not the s impure. For example: bel for bello, acquired by the tongue, and not merely as dead writing to be beantiful ; quel for quello, that, the former ; val for valle, valley; comprehended only by the head. From the very outset of these caral for cavallo, horse ; uccel for uccello, bird; fratêl for fratello, grammatical lessons my pupils will learn to form sentences, so brother ; tranquil for tranquillo, tranquil; cervel for cervello, that as the head acquires knowledge of its principles, the tonguo brains ; ruscel for ruscello, brook, etc.
will grow familiar in the practice of the language. In thus 3. The abbreviations or omissions of the final vowels men- uniting practice with theory, I shall, of course, be obliged in tioned in the two preceding rules can never take place in that one class of the exercises to anticipate the systematic exposition part of a sentence which requires a pause, that is, before a of principles, but I shall only do so with strict regard to the comma, colon, or period. It is, therefore, not allowable to say progressive knowledge of the student, and I shall specially Ella ha una bella man, she has a fine hand, but mano; not chi adapt the exercises to that end, and perhaps thereby succeed in è quel Simor? who is that gentleman ? but Signore, etc.
more firmly impressing even the rules anticipated on the inind. Other important rules with respect to abbreviation I shall The pupil must bear in mind that he is now about to learn to state and comment upon as examples occur in the course of the speak as well as to read the language of Italy. grammar, and I shall now content myself with this concluding With regard to the selection of exercises, I shall not scruple, remark, that all abbreviations in the Italian language, whether in addition to my own, to make a free use of examples which made with or without the apostrophe, are made merely for the have passed the test of years of experience in the best schools sake of harmony and to avoid hiatus, that is, a prolonged open- of Italy and Germany. I am more anxious to serve the interests ing of the mouth by the recurrence of vowels. But as per of my pupils than gratify a literary vanity; and even were I to spicuity is of greater importance than harmony, this general make an effort at originality, by the preparation of exclusively rule may be safely laid down, that abbreviations should not be new exercises, one man could hardly hope to excel the united used without absolute necessity, and that those should be labours of many grammarians in this direction. specially avoided which would tend to ambiguity.
The exercises ought to be read over frequently, and always I will here give a general and concluding pronouncing table, aloud ; and if committed to memory, so much the better for the showing the most complicated combinations of vowels with con- knowledge of the student. sonants of the whole of the Italian language :
As I have so very fully explained the elementary principles of Italian, Pronounced. Italian, Pronounced.
pronunciation, even at a length which may have damped the kah. Glo, glo or glo.
ardour of more impatient readers, it will not henceforth be ko or ko. Glu, gloo.
necessary to give the pronunciation of each Italian word used. koo.
Should any doubt occur, the student can always refer to the
pronouncing lessons or to the general table which precedes these Ci, tchee.
remarks. As it is, however, most desirable that the reader kai or ke.
Gliu, llyoo. Chi,
should have as much assistance as possible, I shall aid him by a kee.
nnyah. Cia, tchah.
new, and, I believe, a most effective method, namely, by divid-
ing each Italian word used into syllables, for the most part, as Сіо, , tcho or tchó. Gno, nnyo or nnyô.
the words are divided in Italian spelling and writing. I shall tchoo.
not omit to mark the accent of tone with the acute sign or with Chia, keeah.
the circumflex sign over the e and o; signs, be it remembered,
not used in Italian writing or printing, with the exception of the Chio, keeo or keeô.
words commented on in my remarks on the use of the accent. keeoo.
gwo or gwe.
The grave accent will, henceforth, always be placed where the gah.
ynh. go or gô.
yai or yê.
usage of writing requires it, and in such cases it will serve, like. yo or yô.
wise, to denote the accent of tone. I am induced, by three jai or je.
reasons, to adopt this method of dividing words into syllables :jee.
First, to correct the great fault of Englishmen in pronouncing Ghe, ghai or ghê.
Italian by slurring over rds, the component sounds of which ghee.
are unfamiliar to the ear. By this means, the learner will be in jah.
some measure compelled to do justice to each syllable.
Secondly, it will be a practical aid to the memory. This jo or jð.
sko or skô. Girl,
dwelling on the ingredients of the word will impress the word joo.
skoo. Gla, glah.
itself better on the memory. Sce,
shai or she.
Thirdly, it will be useful in the case of compound words, in
indicating at once the elementary constitution of the words.
ca, Co, CH, Ce,
Chiu, Ga, Go, Gu, Ge, Gi,
Ghi, Gia, Gie,
that they should be well washed, and the more frequently the
water is changed the better will this be done. A vessel is CUP OF TANTALUS-INTERMITTENT SPRINGS-SABBATIC RIVER therefore made with a small depression at the bottom separated -BAROMETER-WHEEL BAROMETER.
from it by a grating. From this a syphon rises about threeAn ingenious scientific toy, known as the Cup of Tantalus, has fourths of the height of the vessel, and then passes through the been constructed, and acts on the same plan as the common side. The water is allowed to enter in a constant stream by a syphon. It is, in fact, an intermittent syphon, and is useful as pipe about half the size of the syphon, and so placed that the serving to explain the action of intermittent springs. A syphon water enters in such a direction as to keep the contents in a is inserted in a cup so that its longer limb may pass through an constant state of motion. As soon as the vessel is filled to the aperture at the bottom, and the highest point of the bend may level of the bend, the syphon commenoes to work, and in a be rather lower than the brim. If water be now allowed to run short time empties the vessel, the false bottom causing the into the vessel, it will fill as usual until the water reaches the photographs to be left quite dry, a thing of great importance, level of the bend. The syphon will then begin
as, thereby, the last traces of the chemicals emto act, and if its size be the same as that of the
ployed are more easily removed. The vessel supply-pipe, the water will remain at that level ;
then fills again, to be once more emptied in the if, however, the syphon carry it off more rapidly,
same way. the vessel will be emptied ; the syphon will then
We have now noticed several important results. cease to flow, and the vessel will again be filled.
of the pressure of the air, and the construction An intermittent flow will thus be produced.
of machines which act by means of it; but we Various modifications may be made in the con
have not yet seen the mode of determining how struction of this vessel. Sometimes the handle
great this pressure really is. We have, however, is made hollow, and thus serves as a syphon, and,
stated it to amount to about 149lbs. per square when thus made, the reason of the cup emptying
inch, and must now show a proof of the fact. is not so easily seen. Sometimes, too, an open
We might take a surface of known area, and tube is inserted in the vessel, and another, closed
having, by means of an air-pump, removed the at the upper end, is inverted over it: all, how.
air from under it, ascertain the pressure by & ever, act on the same principle.
spring balance. This plan would, however, be We shall now be able to understand better the action of very difficult and uncertain, as it is impossible perfectly to reintermittent springs, many of which exist in different parts of move the air, and it would be very difficult to ascertain the the world. In England there is one known as Weeding Well, in pressure exerted on the balance. There is, however, another the Peak of Derbyshire ; others exist at Giggleswick, in York- mode of ascertaining this, which depends on the fact that a liquid shire, and near Torbay ; but the most noted of all are found in transmits pressure equally in all directions. If we take a glass Palestine.
tube about a yard long, sealed at one end, and, having filled it Josephus speaks of a stream called the Sabbatic river, which with mercury, place the thumb over the open end, and invert it flows one day, and then is dry for the next six days. Pliny into a cup of mercury, we shall find that a small part of the refers to the same; but he makes it flow for six days, and rest Auid will run out, but that the tube will remain filled to a height on the seventh. The existence of such a river was long of about 30 inches above the level of the mercury in the cup. doubted; but modern travellers say that they have discovered a This experiment was first performed about the middle of the small stream which seems to be that referred to. Now, however, seventeenth century by Torricelli, after whom the empty space it is dry for two days, and flows on a portion of the third ; left at the top of the tube is known as the Torricellian vacuum. but this alteration may be easily accounted for. The annexed Now, if we consider the forces at work, we shall see that the diagram will serve to explain the action of the spring. A large air presses on the surface of the mercury in the cup, and its reservoir is supposed to exist in the
pressure is transmitted through this hill from which the stream issues.
to the mercury in the tube. The This is supplied by the rain, which
upper part of the column is, however, percolates through the sides of the
shielded from this pressure by the mountain and, by various inlets, finds
closed tube, and, since the whole is in its way into the cavity.
equilibrium, the pressure produced by A syphon-shaped channel is also
the air must be exactly equal to that supposed to exist, of such a capacity
produced by the weight of a column that it can carry off the water more
of mercury 30 inches high. Let us rapidly than it enters by the different
suppose the tube to have an area of feeders. Now it is clear that the
one square inch: the pressure then on water will go on accumulating, but
this area, and accordingly on every none will flow till the cavity is filled
equal area, will be equal to the weight to the level of the bend in the chan.
of 30 cubic inches of mercury. Now nel. As soon, however, as it attains
a cubic inch of water weighs 252-5 this level, the syphon will begin to
grains, and the specifie gravity of act, and the stream will flow until the
mercury is 13.59; a cubic inch of it reservoir is empty, when air will enter
weighs, therefore, about 3441 grains, the syphon, and it will cease to act until the cistern shall again and 30 cubic inches weigh about 14şlbs. This, therefore, is the be filled, when the same effects will be repeated.
pressure exerted by the air on every square inch of surface when The smaller the cistern, the more frequently will the water the mercury stands at a height of 30 inches. In this climate flow. Hence it is quite possible that the statement of Josephus the mean height is rather under this, being about 29.9, and the about the Sabbatic river may have been true, but that the pressure, therefore, is a little over 144lbs. cistern has been gradually filling up, so that now it flows once This simple instrument is one of the most important in the in three days instead of once in seven. An enlargement of the science of Pneumatics; we must, therefore, give a little atten. channel by which the water issues, or an increase in the supply tion to its mode of construction and action. It is called the brought by the feeders, would produce the same change.
Barometer or Weight-measurer," though, in reality, it is the The Pool of Siloam is another instance of a spring of this pressure and not the weight of the air which it records. kind. Dr. Robinson states that, when he was there, he observed That it is the pressure of the air which supports the column the water rise nearly a foot in five minutes, and that he was of mercury is easily seen, by the fact that if we make an open. informed that such rises occurred frequently, sometimes two or ing so as to allow the air to press on the surface of the mercury three times in the course of a single day, but at other periods in the tube, it will immediately fall to the level of that outside. only two or three times a week.
A moro conclusive experiment as to this point was devised by An ingenious application has been made of this principle in Pascal. He said that if it was the weight of the air which supan apparatus constructed for the purpose of washing photo- ported the column, then, if the barometer were taken to any graphs. In order to ensure permanency in prints it is requisite clevation so as to leave a part of the atmosphere below it, the
mercury ought to stand at a less height. The experiment was Now in many barometers this is altogether neglected, and accordingly made. The instrument was conveyed up a moun their readings are inaccurate on that account. In some the tain, and the height noted at intervals, when it was found, as scale is graduated to allow for this, an inch, according to the he had predicted, to diminish gradually as the elevation in marks on it, being only liths of an inch. Sometimes, too, the creased. This experiment was rightly deemed conclusive. scale is made movable, the lower end being adjusted by means
The barometer is of very great use in all meteorological of a rack and pinion, so that it just touches the surface of the observations, and therefore great precautions have to be taken mercury in the cistern. A better plan, however, is that repreto ensure its accurate action. In the first place, the mercury sented in the figure. A second bottom is fixed in the cistern, used in its construction must be absolutely pure, for if, as is which can be raised or lowered by a screw s. A pointer, i, is usually the case, zinc or some other metal be present in the fixed to the side of the cistern at such a height that the graduamercury, they will render it lighter, and the column will there- tions are measured from its lowest point. By means of the fore stand at too great a height.
screw the level is then adjusted till this point appears exactly Then, too, mercury often absorbs a small quantity of air, to meet its own reflection in the mercury, which is then said to small bubbles also creep up along the side of the tube, and these be at its neutral point. Whenever, then, a reading has to be depress the column and cause the reading to be less than it taken, this adjustment is first made, and then the true height is should be. The utmost care is therefore required, in instruments shown. For ordinary purposes, however, if the area of the intended for very accurate observation, to guard against these cistern is very large as compared with that of the tube, this causes of error.
correction need not be made. The usual way of filling the tube of the best barometers is to It may at first be thought that if the tube were made pour in a small quantity of the mercury so as to fill the tube for smaller, or if the upper part were of a smaller bore than the a few inches, and then boil it to drive
lower part, the mercury would rise to a off the air; after it has cooled, a second
greater height, and thus moro accurate portion is introduced and boiled, and
readings could be taken. This, how. 80 on till the whole is filled. The main
ever, is not the case, for, as we saw in objection to this mode is, that the heat
our lessons on Hydrostatics, the pres. sometimes renders the glass much moro
sure depends solely upon the depth of liable to crack. A plan was accord
the liquid, and is quite independent of ingly devised, and is used at tho Kew
the shape or size of the vessel. Observatory, which seems superior and
If a lighter liquid be used, the column avoids this risk. Tho tube is drawn
will be longer, and the variations more out to a small diameter at each end;
easily and quickly seen. Various liquids these ends are turned up, and one of
have, therefore, been tried, and water them sealed. The air is then removed
was one of the first. Now, as mercury by a very good air-pump, the tube being
is 13 times heavier than water, a meanwhile heated by a spirit-lamp to
column of the latter, to produce the prevent the air adhering to the glass.
same pressure, must be 131 times as When exhausted, this end is sealed, and
high. The tube in the water barometer the other end broken under the sur
must, therefore, be about 35 feet long, face of boiled mercury. The pressure
and is, on this account, very unwieldy. at once forces it up the tube, which is
Several such have been constructed; held in an inclined position, and the
but they are found to get out of repair small amount of air left in it is driven
in a very short time. Water dissolves into a bulb blown in the fine part of it.
a considerable amount of air, and thus, The tube is then sealed by a spirit
even though the water has been boiled lamp at a point a little below this, and
to remove it, some will enter, and, passall air is thus excluded. The other end
ing up the tube, cause the level to fall. is then bent slightly upwards, so that
Water also evaporates to a small de. the air would have to travel down the
gree at ordinary temperatures, especi. bend before it could pass up the tube
ally in a vacuum, and hence vapour to impair the vacuum. A contrivance,
accumulates at the top of the tube and known as an air-trap, is also placed in
produces a similar effect. some barometers for the same purpose
Many very skilful arrangements (Fig. 9). The part A of the tube is
have been made to guard against drawn out so as to leave only a small
these errors ; and a barometer was aperture, and is inserted into an en
constructed some time since by a genJarged portion blown on the other part, as shown
in the figurer serface of the water in the reservoir was covered with oil In this way a cavity is formed, in which any air that may enter the tube will accumulate, and it can be removed when neces- to the depth of an inch or two, so as completely to exsary. The total absence of air is easily told by the ringing clude the air; the upper part of the tube was prolonged into sound which is caused when the tube is inclined so as to cause a spiral coil, which could be cooled so as to condense the the mercury to strike against the top.
vapour; the utmost care was also taken in filling the It will be well now to note the modes in which this barometric tube. It was then found to be very much more sensitive than tube is arranged so as to show the variations in the pressure. the common mercurial barometer. During a storm, while the It is frequently made to dip into a vessel of mercury, v (Fig. latter only showed a slight variation, this showed extensive 10), and a scale, C D, graduated accurately, is engraved on oscillations rapidly succeeding each other. It was found, too, the tube itself or else on the case containing it. These gradua- that changes in the air were shown by this a full hour sooner tions usually extend from 27 or 28 inches to 31, the variations than by the ordinary instruments ; but, despite these facts, the in the height being always, in this country, confined within common barometer is the more to be depended on, in the long these limits. When it is required for ascertaining the height of run, as the mercury only evaporates in a very slight degree, and mountains, as will presently be seen, the graduations extend is easily obtained perfectly pure. By means, too, of a sliding nearly the whole length of the tube. The readings by this scale scale called a vernier (Fig. 11), the height can with ease bo will not
, however, be accurate, for when the mercury in the read to within too of an inch, and this is sufficient for most tube has fallen one inch, the level of it in the cistern, if that purposes. The vernier consists of a pointer attached to a scale, have ten times the area of the tube, will be raised th of an which can be moved up and down so as to adjust it exactly to inch by the additional quantity of mercury now contained in it. the level of the mercury. The ordinary scale is divided into The total effect, therefore, will be that the mercury has fallen inches and tenths
of an inch; the vernier, however, is exactly 2.3th inch, that is, it stands 13 inches less above the surface of 14 inches long, and is divided into ten equal parts. Each that in the cistern than it did.
division is therefore th of an inch. If any division of this be
made to correspond with one on the ordinary scale, the adjacent | Bell's article on the voice in the “ Philosophical Transactions” divisions on each will be do of an inch apart, the next lås, and for the year 1832; and Dr. Rush's great work (American) on the
The divisions on it are marked downward, 1 being at the * Philosophy of the Human Voice." top. Now we will suppose the mercury to stand as shown in The CHIEF INSTRUMENT of voice is the larynx, which we may the figure; the pointer is adjusted to tho level, and we imme- feel with the hand outside, as a little lump, in the upper part diately see that the height is somewhere between 29.8 ard 29.9. of our throats, moving with almost every utterance of voice. It We now run our eye down the vernier till we find the division is a small box placed at the top of the trachea or windpipe. Its which is most nearly even with one in the other scale; this is walls are of cartilage or gristle. Its upper opening is protected the one marked 6. The level is therefore tá above 29.8, or by a little valve, called he epiglottis, which falls back upon it 29.86.
in every act of swallowing. At the lower opening are two elastic In a barometer the mercury always clings, to a certain extent, membranes, one depending from each side, which can be stretched to the side of the tube, and thus seldom presents an even sur- to any degree of tension required, and can be made to meet each face; the readings ought, therefore, to be taken from the height other (closing the lower opening) through their whole length, or of the centre of the column. There is one great advantage through any part of it. Various muscles, attached to the walls derived from this, viz., that we can see at a glance whether it of the larnyx, in obedience to nervous action and the mind's is rising or falling. If it is rising, the surface is convex, or will, regulate these movements. higher in the middle, that at the sides being kept back by its These elastic membranes, sometimes called the vocal chords, adhesion to the tube; while if it is falling, the surface is are the source of voice. During ordinary breathing they rest, concave.
relaxed, against the walls of the larynx, but in the production The cistern barometer which we have been considering is the of voice they are brought into such a position as to vibrate more common form of the instrument. The wheel barometer is, freely in the air, as it ascends from the lungs (much like the however, often used, and we must therefore give a description of tongue of any reed-instrument), and this vibration makes the it (Fig. 12). It consists of a large dial-plate fixed near the lower breath vocal. end of an oblong case, and round it are graduations from 28 to The voice of one individual differs from that of others in 31 inches, and also the words Stormy, Much Rain, Rain, Change, PITCH, in quality of TIMBRE, as the French call it, and in Fine, Set-fair, and Very Dry. A hand, turning on an axle, power or STRENGTH. points to different parts of the face, and thus gives the read- The Pitch of a sound depends on the degree of tension given ings. If we open the case behind, we shall see that the main to the vocal membranes, and on the length of the parts which difference is that the end, instead of opening into a cistern, is are left free to vibrate-just as in the harp, violin, and guitar. turned up to a height of 6 or 7 inches, and a float o rests upon In females and boys, whose voices are naturally higher than the surface of the mercury in this limb. This float is attached those of men, the larynx is placed higher in the throat, and is to a cord, which passes over the wheel , and has a small also smaller, so as to make the vibrating membranes shorter. counterpoise, w, fastened to the other end. The hand seen on When a boy's voice" breaks,” the larynx gradually takes a lower the dial-plate is attached to this wheel. When the mercury falls place in the throat, and also enlarges in size, so that the voice in the limb AB, it rises in the shorter limb Bc to an equal extent; necessarily becomes about an octave deeper. Müller states that the float is therefore raised, and the weight w turns the hand, the vocal membrane in the male is half as long again as in the which thus shows the height. On the mercury falling again, female—as three to two. To produce a given note (say D below the weight of a more than balances w, and brings the hand the staff), the male voice, especially if a bass, wonld require back again. In this form of barometer the surface of the mer. strong tension of the vocal membranes, but the female voice cury cannot be seen so as to tell whether it is rising or falling ; would produce the same note with very little tension, because its an additional hand, worked by a small handle below, is, however, vocal membranes are shorter. placed on the dial, and registers the position at any time, and The TIMBRE, or quality of a note (which is so different in difthus shows at once whether it has risen or fallen since it was ferent individuals), is much affected by the form of the airlast set.
passages above the larynx. Thus we are sometimes able to The upturned end of the barometer is sometimes enlarged, imitate the voice of others, not only in reference to its peculiariand a stop-cock inserted just under the enlargement, so that by ties of pitch and inflection by movements of the larynx, but inclining the tube it becomes filled up to the top; the tap may even in its “timbre” by certain conformations of the month. It then be closed, and the superfluous mercury poured away. In is this difference of shape in the resonating tube which makes this way it may be carried about with safety, as the tube the difference between well-known bass instruments of the same is completely filled, and all vibration thus prevented. On length, and yielding sounds of the same pitch, as between the turning the tap, and placing the tube in a vertical position, the thick euphonium and the thin baritone, and between the thiek pressure will at once be shown. Care must, however, be sax-horn and the thin trumpet. The discoveries of Professor taken that the tube is vertical, as otherwise the mercury Helmholtz have thrown much light on this subject of timbre or will appear to stand at a greater height than it really does. quality of tone. By altering the shape of the month you can The mode in which the barometer is used as a means of fore- produce the sombre and clear resonances of which Garcia telling the weather we must defer to our next lesson.
speaks. A brief allusion has been made to the “ water barometer," The general STRENGTH of a voice appears to depend upon the by which the variations of the weather may be more readily vibrating power of the vocal membranes, the size of the organ, detected, but which is inconvenient on account of its great and the capacity of the chest. We know how easily a slight inlength, and consequent unwieldiness. Among curious construc- flammation, or other affection of the mucous membrane lining tions on this principle may be mentioned the "water barometer” | the larynx, weakens the voice. The voices of old persons are of Otto Guericke, which was attached to a wall with a toy in the made tremulous by the loss of nervous and muscular power. form of a man floating on the water. The entire tube was hidden The special FORCE or loudness given to an accented note may behind some wainscoting, so that the little figure was only seen, be occasioned, Müller thinks, by relaxing the tension of the appearing and disappearing, as the weather was fine or the vocal membranes while we increase the force of the air-current.
Sir Charles Bell speaks of the back of the mouth and the Feil of the palate (the soft palate) as playing a most important part in
giving the delicate impulses of accent. LESSONS IN MUSIC.-XXI.
Correct tune requires a mental effort.
“Man,” says Müller, ORGANS OF THE HUMAN VOICE-PITCH-QUALITY
“ like the singing bird, learns unconsciously the different internal
changes in the state of the larynx, and the different muscular STRENGTH-FORCE, ETC.
actions necessary for each note. Sounds accidentally uttered, We propose to collect together in this lesson a large amonnt of and the muscular actions which accompany them, booome assoinformation on the subjects of the different kinds of voices, ciated in the sensorium, and afterwards readily excite each other singing in "parts," and good enunciation. We must refer our when a melody is to be imitated.” Correct tane, therefore, readers for fuller information on these topics to Müller's " Phy. depends upon the skill with which the sound is perceived and siology,” Book IV., Section 3; the articles " Larynx,” “Voice,” its idea" retained, and apon the accuracy with which the mind and "Stammering,” in the "Penny Cyclopædia ;" Sir Charles can command and combine the various muscular movements