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fair degree of rapidity. It is however, a wearisome matter to particular sin, they become legal, and fall out of liberty ; or, be always copying the same copy-slips over and over again; charmed with the noble and heavenly liberty, they ran to and to prevent this we have prepared a series of cheap ruled negligence and irresponsible living. So the earnest become copy-books, based on the method which has been taught in violent, the fervent fanatical and censorious, the gentle waver, our lessons on Penmanship, and furnished with suitable head- the firm turn bigots, the liberal grow lax, the benevolent ostenlines, which will provide the reader with a variety of subjects tatious. Poor human infirmity can hold nothing steady." for copying, and save him the trouble of ruling his paper.
The more true we feel this to be, the more necessary will be In Cassell's Graduated Copy-Books” the learner will find seen to be the exercise of a spirit of temperance, and how diffieverything that can be required for practice. The series, the cult its application to the manifold aspects of human life and contents of which we append, comprises eighteen books, price duty. In no respect is mankind more in danger of becoming 24. each, and may be procured direct from the publishers of intemperate than in speech; for to lay an embargo upon the the POPULAR EDUCATOR, and from all booksellers.
tongue is among the most trying efforts of the spirit of temper.
It is difficult to deny ourselves what often gratifies our 1. Strokes and Straight Letters. 10. Elementary Small Hand. 2. Round Letters and Combina- 11. Capitals, Figures (Sums), and own pride, and, at the same time, damages the prestige of tions.
Double Small Hand.
another. From this propensity have sprung family feads, pro3. Words. Short Letters. 13. Double Small Hand.
longed law-suits, and party divisions innumerable. It would be 4. Long Letters and Words.
13. Advanced Double Small out of the province of this essay to specify all the evils which 5. Words (Text and Round) and
have resulted to society from intemperance in other province Figures.
14. Text, Round,
Small of character, but it must surely be admitted that no moral code 6. Capitals and Combinations.
can be perfect which does not inculcate temperance as well » 7. Text, Round, and Figures. 15. Advanced Small Hand (1).
justice. True, indeed, it is, that there is nothing high-sounding 8. Round Hand.
16. Advanced Small Hand (2). 9. Text, Round (Advanced), 17. Advanced Small Hand (3).
in it, and it is not likely to enlist in its advocacy those who are Figures (Sums). 18. Invoices, Receipts, &c.
nothing, if not extreme. But it had of old amidst its advoosta the wisest and most illustrious of the philosophers; and it
made more authoritative on us by its enforcement on the page ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-IV. of Inspiration. The pleasures of temperance are steady in their TEMPERANCE.
development, but they are very lasting and real. When nature The saccess of life and the happiness of life, as well as the is kept in proper equipoise of action, there is freedom from these usefulness of life, depend to a very large extent upon the and every kind. Instead of keen sensational pleasures, succeeded
nervous depressions which are incident to excitements of any cultivation of the spirit of temperance. Men of intemperate by times of leaden indifference and dulness, there is a quiet speech and judgment, of intemperate likes and dislikes, are apt to risk alike reputation and influence. The counsel to be glow of interest and energy in the exercises of the mind, which temperate does not, indeed, suit those whose passions predomi- experienced travellers prefer, after all, the temperate zone,
bring with them a cheerful sense of healthful recreation. As nate over their judgment, but all wise and thoughtful persons neither the frigid cold of the far North, nor the glaring light and will see at once that there is no virtue which has so much to do heat of the tropics—so the most experienced student of life will with the force and excellency of character as temperance. It is prefer the temperate zone of character as the one most coa word difficult strictly to define, but it is evidently a holding ducive to the health and longevity of the virtues. of the mean between extremes in lawful things. Temperance implies the right in the thing itself, as there are some things thus related to the other virtues in a vast variety of ways
Temperance keeps the body cool and the mind clear, and is which it would be wrong, under all circumstances, to be in any presenting to us that which is of inestimable value sare way connected with. To be temperate in swearing, stealing, or
mind in a sound body. There is an insanity which results pot lying, would be manifestly a caricature of the word; there can be no temperance in that which is essentially evil. Can it then, only from the excessive use of ardent spirits, but from the the reader may say, be possible to be temperate in right? is it intemperate exercises of pride and passion, and multitudes not counselling us to stop short in that course of duty which would have been preserved in health and reason if they hat
received and acted on the maxim, “Be temperate !” must get more right as we go on? Strange as it may seem at be seen that the exercise of this virtue is related to varieties
It musta first sight to the student, there is a temperateness needed even
and differences of temperament. Some are in little danger of in the virtues themselves, without which their very existence as
excess of anger ; others need fear no excess of pride. Solon's virtues must be endangered. Amiability is one of the most
celebrated maxim, Know thyself,” should be well pondered: beautiful excellences of character; and yet, if amiability is pushed to the extreme, there may be no righteous indignation for then, when the danger is clearly apprehended, the remedy at wrong, no earnest hatred of oppression, and no practical can be best applied, according to the specific difficulties of each effort to remove it. Contentment is another praiseworthy grace stood, it will be seen that, instead of temperance being the
separate constitution. As the subject becomes clearly andere of character ; but content may run into indifference and sloth, and the God-given powers of the mind may be suffered to lie them. The dangers incidental to human character do not como
mere negation of things, it is rather the right enjoyment or fallow, and even to rot.
These instances are only adduced as illustrations of a law in one direction only; and in the multitudinous aspects of life which applies to all the virtues ; push any one of them, how and duty it is as wise as it is right to be temperate in all things ever honourable in itself, to an extreme, and it becomes a vice. It will thus be seen what a careful nurseryman each
OUR HOLIDAY. man ought to be of the vineyard of his own nature ; and also
CRICKET.-II, what the Scriptures mean when they say, "Drunken, but not the following are the Laws of the game of Cricket, including th: with wine." It is easy to be intoxicated with pride and ambition : either of these two powers has, indeed, its
latest revisions by the Marylebone Club, which is the recognized proper
Besides forming the standard of sphere, and their elimination from human life cannot take authority on the subject. place without serious detriment to character. In all ages of appeal in disputed cases, they will be found by the learner : the world men have been found to love and advocate extremes ; throw light on points which were but briefly touched upon is some have been Epicureans, denying themselves no pleasure, and
our previous paper :some Stoics, denying themselves all; and, doubtless, the disciples
THE LAWS OF DOUBLE-WICKET. of extremes attract more notice, and are often credited with 1. The Ball must weigh not less than five onnces and a ball, že greater earnestness; whereas it should be remembered that, as more than five ounces and three quarters. It must measure not le it is more difficult to preserve the just balance, so is it more than nine inches, por more than nine inches and one quarter in et honourable and worthy of praise.
cumference. At the beginning of ench innings either party may cau One of the clearest American thinkers says, “Men undertake to be spiritual, and they become ascetio; or, endeavouring widest part. It must not be more than thirty-eight inches in length.
2. The Bat must not exceed fonr inches and one qnarter in t. to hold a liberal view of the comforts and pleasures of society,
3. The Stumps must be three in number, twenty-seven inches out of they are soon buried in the world and become slaves to its the ground; the bails eight inches in length; the stumps of equal and fashion ; or, holding a scrupulous watch to keep out every of sufficient thickness to prevent the ball from passing through.
for a new ball.
4. The Bowling Crease must be in a line with the stamps, six feet site party; and in case any person shall be allowed to run for another, eight inches in length; the stumps in the centre; with a return crease the striker shall be out if either he or his substitute be off the ground at each end, towards the bowler, at right angles.
in manner mentioned in laws 17 and 21, while the ball is in play. 5. The Popping Crease must be four feet from a wicket, and 32. In all cases where a substitute shall be allowed, the consent of parallel to it; unlimited in length, but not shorter than the bowling the opposite party shall also be obtained as to the person to act as crease.
substitute, and the place in the field which he shall take. 6. The Wickets must be pitched opposite to each other by the 33. If any fieldsman stop the ball with his hat, the ball shall be conumpires, at the distance of twenty-two yards.
sidered dead, and the opposite party shall add five runs to their score; 7. It shall not be lawful for either party during a match, without if any be run, they shall hara five in all. the consent of the other, to alter the ground by rolling, watering, 31. The ball having been hit, the striker may guard his wicket with covering, mowing, or beating, except at the commencement of each his bat, or with any part of his body except his hands; that the 23rd innings, when the ground shall be swept and rolled, unless the side law may not be disobeyed. Deit going in object to it. This rule is not meant to prevent the 35. The Wicket-Keeper shall not take the ball, for the purpose of striker from beating the ground with his bat near the spot where he stumping, until it have passed the wicket; he shall not move until the stands during the innings, nor to prevent the bowler from filling up ball be out of the bowler's hand; he shall not by any noise incommode boles with gawdust, etc., when the ground is wet.
the striker; and if any part of his person be over or before the wicket, 8. After min the wickets may be changed, by consent of both parties, although the ball hit it, the striker shall not be out. 9, The Bowler sball deliver the ball with one foot on the ground 36. The Umpires are the sole judges of fair or unfair play; and all behind the bowling crease, and within the return crease, and shall bowl disputes shall be determined by them, each at his own wicket; but in Obe over before he change wickets, which he shall be permitted to do case of a catch which the umpire at the wicket bowled from cannot twice in the same innings; and no bowler shall bowl more than two see sufficiently to decide upon, he may apply to the other umpire, opers in succession.
whose opinion shall be conclusive. 10. The ball must be bowled. If thrown or jerked, the umpire shall 37. The umpires in all matches shall pitch fair wickets, and the call "No ball."
parties shall toss up for choice of innings. The umpires shall change 11. He may require the striker at the wicket from which he is wickets after each party has had one innings. bowling to stand on that side of it which he may direct.
38. They shall allow two minutes for each striker to come in, and 2. If the bowler shall toss the ball over the striker's head, or bowl ten minutes between each innings. When the umpire shall call “ Play,” * so wide that, in the opinion of the umpire, it shall not be fairly the party refusing to play shall lose the match. Mithin the reach of the batsman, he shall adjudge one run to the party 39. They are not to grder a striker out unless appealed to by the rodering the innings, either with or without an appeal, which shall be adversaries; pation to the score of “wide balls.” Such ball shall not be reckoned 40. But if one of the bowler's feet be not on the ground behind the 422 052 of the four balls; but if the batsman shall by any meaus bring bowling crease, and within the return crease, when he shall deliver the hizi zithin reach of the ball, the run shall not be adjudged.
ball, the umpire at his wicket, unasked, must call "No ball." 13. If the bowler deliver a “no ball," or a "wide ball," the striker 41. If either of the strikers run a short run, the umpire must call shall be allowed as many runs as he can get, and he shall not be put out “One short." except by running out. In the event of no run being obtained by any 42, No umpire shall be allowed to bet. ether means, then one run shall be added to the score of “no balls” or 43. No umpire is to be changed during a match, unless with the "Fide balls," as the case may be. All runs obtained for “wide balls"
consent of both parties, except in case of violation of the 42nd law; to be scored to “ wide balls." The names of the bowlers who bowl then either party may dismiss the transgressor.
ride balls," or "no balls," in future to be placed on the score, to 44. After the delivery of four balls, the umpire must call "Over," sbow the parties by whom either score is made. If the ball shall first but not until the ball shall be finally settled in the wicket-keeper's or touch any part of the striker's dress or person (except his hands), the bowler's hand; the ball shall then be considered dead; nevertheless, umpire shall call “ Leg bye."
if an idea be entertained that either of the strikers is out, a question li. At the beginning of each innings the umpire shall call “Play." may be put previously to, but not after, the delivery of the next ball. From that time to the end of each innings no trial ball shall be allowed 45. The umpire must take especial care to call “No ball” instantly baoy bowler.
upon delivery ; “Wide ball," as soon as it shall pass the striker. 15. The Striker is Out if either of the bails be bowled off, or if a 46. The Players who go in second shall follow their innings if they stump be bowled out of the ground;
have obtained eighty runs less than their antagonists, except in all 1. Or if the ball, from the stroke of the bat, or hand, but not the matches limited to only one day's play, when the number shall be wrist, be held before it touch the ground, although it be hugged to the limited to sixty instead of eighty. kray of the catcher;
47. When one of the strikers shall have been put out, the use of the 17. Or if, in striking, or at any other time while the ball shall be in bat shall not be allowed to any person until the next striker shall plzy
, both his feet shall be over the popping crease, and his wicket put come in. down, except his bat be grounded within it ;
NOTE.-Complaints having been made that it is the practice of some 1. Or if, in striking at the ball, be hit down his wicket;
players when at the wicket to make holes in the ground for a footing, 19. Or if, under pretence of running, or otherwise, either of the the committee are of opinion that the umpires should be empowered Berkers prevent a ball from being caught, the striker of the ball is out; to prevent it. 3. Or if the ball be struck, and he wilfully strike it again ;
THE LAWS OF SINGLE WICKET. 2. Or if, in running, the wicket be struck down by a throw, or by fbe band or arm (with ball in hand), before his bat (in hand) or 1. When there shall be less than five players on a side, bounds Sobe part of his person be grounded over the popping crease.
But if shall be placed, twenty-two yards each, in a line from the off and both the bails be off, a stump must be struck out of the ground; leg stump.
2. Or if any part of the striker's dress knock down the wicket; 2. The ball must be hit before the bounds to entitle the striker to a 2. Or if the striker touch or take up the ball, while in play, unless run, which run cannot be obtained unless he touch the bowling stump u the request of the opposite party;
or crease in a line with his bat, or some part of his person, or go 9. Or if with any part of his person he stop the ball, which, in the beyond them, returning to the popping crease as at double wicket, pinion of the umpire at the bowler's wicket, shall have been pitched according to the 21st law.
a straight line from it to the striker's wicket, and would have hit it. 3. When the striker shall hit the ball, one of his feet must be on 2. If the players have crossed each other, he that runs for the the ground and behind the popping crease, otherwise the umpire shall Beket which is put down is out.
call “No hit." 3. A ball being caught, no runs shall be reckoned.
4. When there shall be less than five players on a side, neither byes 37. A striker being run out, that run which he and his partner were por over-throws shall be allowed, nor shall the striker be caught out attempting shall not be reckoned.
behind the wicket, nor stumped out. 3. If a “Lost ball " be called, the striker shall be allowed six runs ; 5. The fieldsman must return the ball so that it shall cross the play bet if more than six shall have been ran before "Lost Ball” shall have
between the wicket and the bowling stump, or between the bowling ben called, then the striker shall have all which have been run. stump and the bounds. The striker may run till the ball be so 2. After the ball shall have been finally settled in the wicket- returned. kneper's or bowler's hand, it shall be considered dead; but when the 6. After the striker shall have made one run, if he start again he buwler is about to deliver the ball, if the striker at his wicket go must touch the bowling stump and turn before the ball cross the play, maeside the popping crease before such actual delivery, the said bowler to entitle him to another. may put him ont, unlegg (with reference to the 21st law) his bat in 7. The striker shall be entitled to three runs for lost ball, and the band, or some part of his person, be within the popping crease, same number for ball stopped with hat, with reference to the 28th and 30. The striker shall not retire from his wicket and return to it to 33rd laws of double wicket. complete his innings after another has been in, without the consent of 8. When there shall be more than four players on a side, there shall
be no bounds. All hits, byes, and overthrows shall then be allowed. 12. No substitute shall in any case be allowed to stand ont or run 9. The bowler is subject to the same laws as at double wicket. between wickets
for another person without the consent of the oppo- 10. Not more than one minute shall be allowed between each ball.
the opposite party.
We come now to the practical part of the game, concern. otherwise the ball may reach your stumps before you can return ing which a few hints will be useful to the beginner. A to the wicket, and you will be "run out.” good cricketer can only be made by practice, but it will If practice is necessary to the batsman, it is still more essential assist the learner to have right principles before him at the to make an expert Bowler. The learner should practise bowling outset.
at a mark, either in a field or in an outhouse. He should acquire The Batsman, at starting, should stand in the position shown both the fast and the slow styles, for it is of the greatest service in Fig. 1-his right foot firmly planted on the ground, and his in actual play to be able to vary the character of the bowling
left in readiness to move freely to deliver a slow ball after a fast one, and vice versa. Nothing
If they appear to be coming straight tions. A few years ago very
blocked, or stopped, and the player round-arm style was seen in the
should not attempt to strike them. cricket field. The under-hand In blocking, the bat is lifted only a short distance from the fashion was regarded with some ground, and the ball is struck downward, so as to bring it to a degree of contempt. Now, how
with me!!! lead stop if possible. For this purpose the handle of the bat ever, it has come again into should be sloped well forward, by which means the front of the vogue, and may be seen pracbat is made to cover the ball, and prevent its rising from the tised almost, if not quite, as
Fig. 3.-THE BOWLER. ground. Otherwise, in blocking, the ball may receive just such a frequently as the more modern tip as will cause it to pass from the edge of the bat into the hands round-arm delivery. Fig. 3 represents the attitude of the of " point” or “cover-point," who will be on the look-out for it. bowler when about to deliver the ball in round-arm style.
The position known as “the draw,” which is engraved in our Next in importance to batsman and bowler, in the duties he second figure, is something between a block and a hit, partaking has to perform, comes the Wicket-keeper. His duty is to stop of the nature of both. It is the mode of meeting a ball when, the ball, if he can, immediately it passes the wicket, and, if the after being pitched, it rises from the ground and is apparently batsman be not sufficiently guarded, or within his bounds, to coming straight in towards the top of the wicket or the bails. knock the bails off before the striker can recover his proper The bat is held straight before the wicket (Fig. 2), but the position. He should also receive the ball after the fielders have surface of the bat, instead of meeting the ball full, is turned secured it, and it is his place to throw it at the stumps before
slightly to one side, so that the ball, the batsman can complete his intended run. Therefore, the fielder when it meets the bat, is turned off who may stop the ball, instead of throwing it at once to the at an angle, and a ran is frequently wicket, should deliver it as quickly as possible into the hands of the result.
the wicket-keeper; otherwise, if he miss his aim, and the ball If the ball, when delivered, ap. pass by the wicket, the batsman may run again, and make as pears to be coming somewhat wide many more towards the score as if the ball had been again hit. of the wicket, the batsman may The hands of the wicket-keeper should be protected by padded play it freely, either by a “hit," a gloves, especially if the bowling be of the fast order. The “cut," or a “drive.” But it is fre. watchful and ready attitude of quently difficult to tell what line the the wicket-keeper are depicted ball is really taking, for, if you are in Fig. 4. playing against an expert bowler, Balls which pass the wicket. you will probably find the balls come keeper should be secured by towards the wicket with a twist from Long-stop, who is stationed at the spot at which they were pitched, some distance behind him for and, instead of pursuing a straight that purpose, as indicated in the course, turning in to the stumps. diagram of the relative positions The great art of bowling, indeed, is of the players, given in our preto be able to give this twist to the vious paper. The other duties ball, as well as to direct it straight of long-stop and the rest of the at the wicket. Nothing but
prac. Fig. 2.-"THS Draw."
may be described in tice, and quickness both of eye and general terms. They must be on
hand, will teach the young bats- the vigilant look-out when the man to guard effectually against this danger.
ball is delivered, that they may In striking, hit the ball, if possible, between the line of the catch it or stop it as soon as fielders, or wherever you see the field most open and unprotected. possible, if it should chance to Fig. 4.-THE WICKET-KEEPER. Strike low, so that you may not afford the opportunity of a be struck that way. Quickness catch to one of your watchful opponents. Do not be too eager of eye, a firm hand for a catch, to make runs ; let your object rather be to protect your wicket and good legs, the power to throw a ball straight to the wicketas long as possible, waiting your opportunity for a good hit now keeper, and judgment not to over-throw it, are the essentials to and then at a ball delivered with less care than usual. Do nct a good fielder. Such a player is often able to render his side attempt a run after the ball is in the hands of one of the fielders, quite as good service as either the expert bowler or the batsman.
LESSONS IN BOTANY.—XIII.
Here, then, the calyx, not being adherent, the fruits or carpels,
although surrounding them, can readily be separated. But after SECTION XXIV.—ROSACEÆ, OR THE ROSE TRIBE (continued). the examples of botanical transformation which we have already Let us now examine a rose, not so much for the sake of learning seen, the reader will not be surprised at the information that, any new points respecting the flower, as for the sako of gradually in certain members of the rose order, the calyx nit only surmaking ourselves acquainted with the structure of such fruits rounds the carpels, but actually attaches itself to them; thus as apples and pears.
becoming, what we should term in ordinary language, a portion Perhaps we had better commence with the fruits, as a rose of the fruit. This is the case with apples and pears, which are flower has little to teach us. After the petals of a rose have all composed each of five carpels, recognisable by the five seedfallen away, there remains, as everybody knows, a flask-shaped vessels closely enveloped in a fleshy calyx. What we term the
120. BLOSSOM, BUDS, AND LEAF OF THE BLACKBERRY (RUDUS FRUTICOSUS). 130. PEAR BLOSSOM. 131. SWEET BRIAR OR EGLANTINE (ROSA
RUBIGINOSA). 132. APRICOT BLOSSOM (ARMENIACA VULGARIS). 133. BLOSSOM OF THE PEACH (PERSICA VULGARIS). 134, SCARLET BENNET, OR AVENS (GEUM COCCINEUM). 135. LADY'3 MANTLE (ALCHEMILLA).
body, which contains little hairy prominences termed seeds | eye of an apple is nothing but the remains of the free part of in ordinary language. In reality, these are fruits, each contain the calyx enclosing withered stamens. ing a seed, and the external envelope in which they are con. A precisely similar structure is observable in the pear tained is nothing more than the calyx. This peculiar confor- (Fig. 130), the quince, and the mountain ash; the fruit of the mation will be readily demonstrated by considering the various last-named, Indeed, resembles common apples in every respect parts of a rose flower, and the changes which these parts except size and colour. The hawthorn is also a rosaceous plant, undergo. If we open a rose flower, we see numerous stamens belonging to the sub-order Pomeæ ; hence the structure of the bat no pistils. On looking still more attentively, the tops of fruit, haws, should resemble the structure of an apple. On a pistils become evident, that is to say, their stigmas, but their casual examination this does not seem to be the case, for styles are hidden. If a vertical section of the flower be now whereas the apple contains internally some parchment-like made, the stigmas will be seen to proceed from ovaries affixed, cavities, the fruit of the hawthorn contains seeds covered as already described, to the inside of the calyx, and hidden by by a hard strong investment, this is no other than a the envelopment of the latter, which surrounds them on all thickened condition of the parchment-like compartments of sides, only a narrow throat-like opening being left at the top. the apple.