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1827.]
On the Sceattas of the Anglo-Saxons,

403 3 feet from the ground, which appear ters seldom capable of forming a reto be composed of rubbish and clay. gular legend. Being anxious to ascertain the length Those of the Danes were all probaof the columns, and likewise to know. bly struck after the year 870, when if a pavement existed, the church- the Danes first formed any considerwarden very obligingly directed the able settlements in England, and seem sexton to excavate the ground, when to have been in imitation of the coins we found about a foot from the surface of Berbtulf, Burgred, Eadmund, Æthelthe basement of the columns, and a ward, Ethelstan, and other princes of Aooring of stone, but the water pre. the middle of the 9th century. Many sently rising prevented further research. of them are executed with considerable Opportunity, however, was given to elegance, but the legends totally uninmake a correct drawing. The pillars telligible; whilst those of the Saxons, were found to be 4 ft. 24 inches high. whenever they present any legends, are

According to Stow, “St. John's almost always easy of interpretation, Church' was dedicated by Heraclius, as we find with respect to the sceattas patriarch of the holy resurrection of bearing the names of Egberht, EdChrist at Jerusalem, in the year 1185, berht, Alcred, Alhnoth, Beorna, Etheland was the chief seat in England of red, and perhaps some others. The the religious knights of St. John of arrangement of these two classes seems Jerusalem, whose profession was, be- to have been attended to by Dr. Combe, sides their daily service to God, to de. who has in his two plates, with the fend Christians against Pagans, and to exception of No. 17, P. 1, which is fight for the Church.” H. S. STORER. evidently Danish, and Nos. 18 and

21, Pl. 2, which are perhaps Saxon, Mr. Urban, Cork, April 25. put down those probably Saxon before YHE coins I am now about to no

appear to ; tice are unquestionably the most perhaps Dr. Combe's object was only difficult to class of all thie Anglo- io exhibit them in chronological order, Saxon coins; nor has any attempt, that and therefore the Saxon have for the I am aware of, been made to assign most part been put down first, as they them to any particular Kings, or even are evidently of earlier date than the Kingdoms of the Heptarchy. I can. Danish. Attending to the above disnot indeed entertain any very sanguine tinctions we may, I think, consider the hopes of being able to throw much entire of the sceattas in Ruding's 1st light on a subject involved in so much Plate, except No. 17, to be Saxon; the obscurity; but as every step may lead first seven Nos. and Nos. 18 and 21, to further discoveries, I shall not he- Pl. 2, are also, I believe, Saxon ; and sitate to submit to the judgment of you also the entire 16 Nos. in Pl. 26, and and your learned readers such ideas as the sceatta in Plate 29; the remainder have occurred to me.

of Pl. 2, viz. from Nos. 8 to 37 inThe first idea that naturally suggests clusive, with the exception of Nos

. 18 itself is, that the sceattas were minted and 21, will, I think, be found to be at different periods, commencing pro- Danish, having every appearance of bably about the latter end of the 6th being struck since the middle of the century, and ending about the latter ninth century, and inany of them, parpart of the 9th; it will also, I think, be ticularly Nos. 8 to 17, having letters readily admitted that some of them some of them not unlike the Runic, were struck by the Saxons, and some and such as we do not find on any of by the Danes. To enable us, there- the ruder and more early sceattas. fore, to form a better judgment of these Thus far we have proceeded on coins, it will be necessary to distin- grounds which, if not certain, may at guish them into the above two classes, least be considered highly probable; into which I think it will not be dif- when, however, we come io distinficult to reduce at least a great part of guish them into Kingdoms, and atthem. The former were most of them, tempt to appropriate them to any parif not all, struck before the year 800; ticular princes, our progress beconies of for we do not find any which bear the a far more unsatisfactory pature; alnames of princes of later date; they are most the only guides we have to digenerally of rude workmanship, and rect us being a comparison with the bear for the most part rude heads, and sceattas, whose legends the figures of animals, with a few let- ble, and an attention

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404
On the Sceattas of the Anglo-Sutons.

(May, ! appearing on them, and to the animals No. 2, Pl. 26, will afford, as I have on them, which may perhaps have de- above said, some confirmation that noted the ensign or arms of the king- Speed was right as to the ensigns dom. This last mode of distinguish, which he has attributed to Wessex ing them indeed we cannot place much and Sussex. All these numbers have reliance on, not only from the rude- every appearance of having been coinness of the coins and consequent un- ed by the same people, and perhaps certainty as to what animals were in- nearly at the same period; and the en tended to be represented, but also be- signs we find on thein are a dragon or cause we cannot be certain that Speed, dragon's head, a bird, and a cross. If and those other authors who have at- we examine Speed we shall find that tributed particular ensigns to the dif- a dragon was the ensign of Wessex, ferent kingdoms, had sufficient autho- that the cross was also assumed by serity for so doing. On the coins attri- veral of its princes, and that the martbuted to Ethelbert of Kent, and on se- let was the ensign of Sussex. We shall veral of the other sceattas, we find a also find, in all historical accounts, that figure, which, on account of the re- Sussex was conquered by Wessex in semblance of part of it to the obverse 290 ; and ever after, with the excepof No. 18, Pl. 1, has been supposed to tion of two or three short periods of be a bird, but on a close examination independence, and a few years that it and comparison of these figures, many was under the dominion of Wulfhere, of them will be found to have been in- King of Mercia, remained under the tended for a human face, and many power of that Kingdom. The only for a four-footed beast. Nos. 10 to 14, other sceattas in Ruding, except those Pl. 1, appear intended for the former, which appear to be struck by the and 15 and 16 for the latter, and the Danes, that bear the figure of a bird, coin attributed to Ethelbert, and Nos. are Nos. 18 and 25, Pl. 1, and 15, Pl. 5 to 9, bear so strong a resemblance to 26, which may have been struck when No. 11, that I think it probable they Sussex was an independent Kingdom. also were intended for heads. The ob- Nos. 19, 28, and 29, Pl. 1, from their verses of No. 1, Pl. 26, and No. 11, strong resemblance to Nos. 32, 33, Pl. 29, which are evidently heads, are 34, seem also 10 belong to Wessex, alsurrounded with the same kind of though they may perhaps belong to lines which were intended for hair. Mercia, as the cross was said to be the From what I have above said we can badge of that Kingdom. Nos. 1, 3, 4, therefore, I think, place little farther Pl. 2, may also belong to Wessex, and dependence on these badges than as it is possible Nos. 5 and 6 may belong they may help to confirm other and to Sussex. Before I proceed to the more important evidence, but a com- sceattas of the other Kingdoms, it is parison of Nos. 23, 24, 27, and 30 to right I should notice two remarkable 36, Pl. 1, No.2, Pl. 2, and No. 2, Pl. 26, coins of Offa, Nos. 16 and 17, Pl. 4, would incline one to think Speed was which bear the figures of serpents, right, as I shall presently attempt to and which would seem to weaken the shew.

force of the above remarks; but I think To begin, then, with Kent: I do not it likely the serpents on these coins find any of the sceattas which can were only intended for ornaments, as with any degree of probability be as- we do not find any similar on any signed to that Kingdom; a few of others of the very numerous coios of them indeed bear the figure of an ani- Mercia. mal which may have been intended: I cannot find any evidence which for a horse, said to be the ensign of would warrant us in assigning any of Kent, particularly Nos. 23, 24, 28, Pl. the sceattas to Mercia, although it is. 1, and No. 2, Pl. 2; but so far from its probable that some were struck by being probable that they belong to that them previous to the introduction of kingdom, I think there is some proba- the pennies, which commenced at bility that they all, except No. 26, be- least as early as the beginning of the long to Wessex.

8th century, nor can we say anything Let us now consider whether there more satisfactory of the sceattas of the are grounds for assigning any of the East Saxons. sceaitas to Wessex; and here I think We now come to East Anglia, to a comparison of Nos. 23, 24, 27, which it is probable several of the and 30 to 36, Pl. 1, No. 2, Pl. 2, and sceattas belong, and as to some of

1827.]
On the Sceattas of the Anglo-Saxóns.

405 them we may I think arrive at a con- on one side, and half on the other; for siderable degree of certainty. Many it does not appear probable that, exof them have on the reverse a square cept the X behind the head, there pot unlike that on the coins of Beorna; were ever more than the six letters on many also bear the letter A, either be- ir; it is also possible that the letters hind the head, or on some other part XLF may be repeated on the reverse, of the coin distinct from any of the and that the clipped' letter may be an letters of the legend. This A we find F, in which case it is still' more likely on almost all the coins of Eadmund that it belongs to Alfwald, as the name and Ethelstan, Kings of East Anglia, of no other King of East Anglia comand on the coins of Æthelward, who, menced with a LF; and that it belongs I have no doubt, was also King of that to that Kingdom there is great probaKingdom, and I believe it was adopted bility, both from the letter A behind exclusively by the East Angles, and the head, and its similitude to Nos. intended to denote the word Angles. 13 and 14 above noticed. A farther The Mercians were certainly Angles, proof that these coins belong to East but we always find the letier M on Anglia may be deduced from the foltheir coins, and never A, except on lowing comparison. Nos. 5 and 6, the coins of Ciolwulf I. and Berhtulf, 13, 14, and mine, all seem of the who were also Kings of East Anglia. same Kingdom, and a progressive imThe only other Heptarchic penny, on provement in the coinage seems viwhich the A occurs, is that of Beorih- sible. Nos. 5 and 6 appear to have ric King of Wessex ; but it is possible the letters EO, for the letter A is dein that instance it may have been tached. No. 13, EADL. No. 14, adopted by the moneyer, who was ig; ALDVL; and mine ALFVA, and norant of its real signification, and if we refer to the annals of East Anonly copied it from other coins to fill glia we shall find the following kings, up the centre of the reverse ; I am in. Eorpwald 624, Ethelhete 654, Ethelclined therefore to consider the first wald 655, Aldulf 664, and Alfwald 14 Nos. of Pl. 1, and No. 16, Pl. 26, 683; we thus find that the order' of as belonging to this Kingdom, as many succession of these princes, and the of them bear the A, and almost all of progressive improvenient in the cointhem the square, and they seem all to age of the above sceattas, present a rehave been coined by the same King, markable coincidence. The proof of the dom. The figures on the obverses of appropriation of each individual coin No. 10 10 14, I think were intended seems indeed to rest on a very slender for heads, and the reverse of No. 13 foundation'; but when we compare appears to bear the letters Lang them and take them together, the eviread backwards, and may have belong- dence becomes much stronger. Many ed to Ethelhere, 654, or Ethelwald, of the Danish sceattas belong also to 655. No. 14 seems to read IVCLA, East Anglia, as we shall presently see. and may have belonged to Aldulf, 664. The only other Kingdom whose sceI have in my own collection a sceatta attas remain to be noticed is Northvery rare, and I believe unpublished, umberland. In a former letter I conwhich was evidently struck about the sidered the coins of Edbert, Egbert, same time as Nos. 13 and 14, and I Alcred, and Alhnoth, and I have lite think belongs also to East Anglia ; it tle more to say in this place than to is in very good preservation, and bears notice such coins as resemble them in a head on each side. One of them, al- type. Nos. 15 and 16, Pl. 1, and No. though rather better delineated, bears 6, Pl. 26, appear also to belong to a strong resemblance to those figures Alhnoth, and No. 9, Pl. 25, is evion the obverses of Nos. 13 and :4, and dently similar in type to those of Eg. I think clearly shews that at least on bert and Edbert; it is also very likely those two coins the rude figures were No. 7, Pl. 2, Nos. 1, 5, 8, and 10 10 intended for heads; the letters on one 14, Pl. 26, and No. Il, Pl. 20, also side appear to be ALF, and those on belong to Northumberland, but perthe other VL.; the third letter, the haps some of these last were struck by greater part of which was clipped off, the Danes. Nos. 21 and 22, Pl. 1, was perhaps D, and I think it likely are perhaps British, the figure on the it may belong to Alfwald, King of the obverses appears to be the Ceres of the East Angles, 683, half the name being Britons. As to Nos. 20; PI. 1, 18, and

406
Danish Sceattas.-Stonehenge.

[May, 21. Pl. 2, 3 and 4 Pl. 26, and the If I aspire to so difficult a theme sceattas attributed to Ethelbert of

as Stonehenge, a subject which has Kent, I am unable to offer any con- racked the brain of many an Antijecture.

quary, let me add, in extenuation of I shall now consider the sceattas my anubition, that my remarks are by which appear to be struck by the no means pertinaciously offered, and, Danes, on which I have not many unlike many who handle the subject, remarks to make. Only three types I shall feel a pleasure in correction, if are observable on them; the first is my opinions be erroneous. found on Nos. 8 to 17, and Nos. 22 Thanks to the investigation of reto 25, Pl. 2; the second on Nos. cent Antiquaries, Stonehenge has been 19 and 20, and the third on No. divested of the monkish legends17, Pl. 1, and Nos. 26 10 37, Pl. 2; Geoffrey of Monmouth is exploded, those with the two first types seem to and the honour of its construction is belong to East Anglia, as they have snatched from the Saxon period. Dr. both in most instances the A behind Stukeley, followed by Mr. Grose, has the head, and square on the reverse. established it to have been a British Many of them bear letters totally dif- Temple, while the subscquent minute ferent from any of those to be found and laborious researches of Sir Richard on the coins struck by the Saxons. Colt Hoare have proved the high anNos. 19 and 20 were, I think, struck tiquity of this celebrated relic. by Ethelstan, the Danish King of 'I cannot accede to the common opiEast Anglia. No. 19 seems to read on nion, that the Saxons gave this venerthe reverse -VOCID, and was pro- able pile a name so disgraceful as the bably struck at Norwich.

No. 20 "Stone Gallows,. Stonehenge. It has seems to read 3 JOZTA. Those of occurred to me that Stonehenge is a the third type were perhaps struck by corrupted compound of two words of the Danes of Northumberland, as a far different import to that which they have on the reverse a bird, which has been generally ascribed to it, viz. was probably intended for the raven, Slan, the site or temple, Onga of Miused as an ensign by the Danes, and particularly by Anlaf King of North- It may be advanced, that the British umberland; ihe letters on these are name for this temple was Choir Gaur; very plain and legible, but we can but is it not possible that the term make out of them no intelligible le- Choir Gaur might have referred to gend; indeed it is possible the moneyers Abury? a temple of vast extent, and did not intend to form any, although undistinguished by any name equal to the coins themselves are remarkably its high importance. The Chorea well executed, but put down any, let- might allude to Abury, and Stoneters at random, as was evidently done henge have been the original and not with many of the Danish coins minted Saxon name of this splendid relic of in Ireland.

the west. There must be many unpublished Every scholar must be aware of the Sceattas in different cabinets in Eng- extraordinary analogy of various lanland which would throw light on this guages. There exists a similarity' besubject, aud by comparing them one tween the Sanscrit, Hebrew, Arawith another, and with those already bic, and Celtic, too close to have been published, great discoveries might be the result of acccident. Many Heobtained; others also are discovered brew words are in ancient Irish; (a almost every year, a single one of paragraph has lately appeared in a pewhich may determine a whole series.

riodical, stating that the Irish learn Yours, &c. John LINDSAY. Hebrew with greater facility than the

English); and many Sanscrit words Mr. URBAN,

May 8. are in the Hebrew. There are cerFU NULLY impressed with the force of tain words which are found in all dia

Plato's remark, os ày ra óvóuato lects, and appear the wreck of some cidad CET Os xai sá spárypata, “that universal language now lost. the knowledge of the etymology of

The two letters at form an elewords leads to the knowledge of ment or root which springs in the things," I have ventured to ramble Sanscrit, and can be traced in various in that alluring but dangerous field, modifications through various lanwhere so many have lost themselves. guages--Sitan or Stan implies a re

nerva.

1827.] On the Etymology of Stonehenge.-Eve of St. Nicholas. 407 gion or place. Thus in Persian,

Thus in Persian, name by which the Druids worshipped Goolistan, the place of roses, a rose- Minerva, especially since she was a bed; durukht sian, the place of trees, Phænician Deity, and the fact bears an orchard ; boo stan, the place of fra- nearer to conviction when we see, on grance, a garden. We find Stan con- immutable stone, parts of the human tinually in composition, as Indostan, body as allusive to those blood-stained Mogoli-stan, Phari-stan, Chusi-stan. rites which we are informed were

The Greeks, noted for their arbitrary common also to the Druids. alteration, preserve it in Tos; hence Thus I venture to suggest that Stonewe find Opheltis, Altis, Baaltis, Aban- henge is not a Saxon, but a term of *tis, Absystis *. It was in use among higher antiquity, implying the Temple the ancient Hetrurians and other pa- of Minerva-Stan-Onga, Stonehenge. tions, and we trace it in Aventinus, Had the priests of the Cimbri comPalatinus, Numantinus, Palæstine, mitted their tenets to writing-(“neTon, Town, Station.

que fas est ea litteris mandare," Cæs. Hence it appears to me that the Bel. Gal. vi. 13,) the names of their word Stone is a corruption of Slan, divinities might have reached us; and implying the sile, spot, or temple.

it is evident that Cæsar gave to the The word Henge I will endeavour to deities of these regions not the names trace to the Deity Onga, a name of by which they were adored, but the Minerva, by which title she was names of the Roman gods, according known to the Lacedemonians, and to their corresponding attributes; since probably to the Druids. An altar has Baal is termed Apollo, Hæsus or Hybeen discovered in Greece bearing an gus, Mars or Hercules ; and Onga inscription in very ancient characters, might have been the Minerva in these stating it to have been consecrated to Jatitudes, as well as among the LaceOnga (v. Memoires de l'Académie des demonians.

W. A. MILES, Belles Lettres, tom. 15, 402). This altar is adorned with sculptured knives, Mr. URBAN, feet, hands, thighs, and legs, and other

May 10. parts of the human body, favouring AMONG the various reprints of our molated to this Deity Onga, or Minerva.ed during the last twenty years, it is It is by no means difficult to sup

rather surprising that the curious poetipose this Deity to have been known io cal translation of the Popish Kingdom, ihe Druids, as under the title of Onga by Barnaby Googe, has not found a she was adored by the Phænicians place. I have never had the good for(v. Count Caylus; v. I. p. 64) and my

iune to look over the whole poem, but remarks upon the Kimmeridge Coal from the different extracts which have money will bring those people not

fallen in my way, the work, as illusvery distant from Stonehenge.

trative of our ancient customs and suWhile on the one hand it is allowed perstitions, is highly interesting. that the Druids offered human vic- Many of the observances alluded to tims, it must be remembered that Cæ

are no doubt attended with obscurity, sar states Minerva to have been a Dru- and cannot readily be explained, not idical Deity,“ Post hunc (Mercurium) only from their long disuse, but from A pollinem, Martem, et Jovem, et Mi- the circumstance possibly of their nervam (colunt). De his eandem ferè never having been adopted in this quam reliquæ gentes habent opinio- kingdom. The original author being nem-Apollinem morbos depellere ; a German, had the ceremonies of his - Minervam operum et artificiorum mi- own country more particularly in view. tia transdere; Cæs. Bel. Gal. lib. vi.

One of the customs mentioned in the 16; and as if in compliment to this

work, connected with the Eve of St. Deity, the finest temple in Britain, re

Nicholas, has ever struck me as one quiring strong mechanical powers and most, pleasing and attractive, and high mathematical knowledge, was

which, as tending to make young raised to such an extent, even that its faces merrier, and young hearts lighter, construction bas ever remained a it is a pity we have abandoned. It is stumbling-block to subsequent ages.

thus described in the words of Googe: I do not see any objection to the " The mothers all their children on the possibility of Onga' having been the Eeve do cause to fast,

And when they every one at night in sense* Faber's Analysis, vol. I. p. 94.

Jesse sleepe are cast,

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