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scene where Moreton's life seems to hang upon that slender thread, the relentings of a man of blood. Queen Mary's Closet at Holyrood, and her Bedchamber, with Walter Scott happily introduced in meditation on the strange transactions connected with the surrounding memorials of by-gone times, are less striking as subjects, but equally skilful as drawings. Linlithgow Palace, surrounded with old and shattered pines, the foreground enlivened by a festive party of dames and gallants, pages and falconers, is good; the Falls of the Clyde, better; but to our mind, the view of Craignethan Castle, with the skirmishes at the foot of its precipice, is best. Mr. Cattermole, indeed, excels in the management of water, whether quiescent or in tumult. Lochleven, with the calm lake and the light passing shower, is beautifully treated, and as beautifully rendered by Brandard; while, in the same view by moonlight, the lake stirred by a breeze, and the spray thrown up by the shots fired at the boat in which Mary is making her escape, are expressed with equal skill. Glendearg, with the mule and its clerical rider in the foreground, and Christie of Clinthill in the distance, is a fine specimen of ability in the artist. To a common eye, the subject would present small promise of the picturesque : a bank of no great height on the left, a strong rivulet winding round its base, a low brae and two stunted trees on the right, with a few weeds and sedges in the front, are so combined and blended by the subdued shadows of a calm sunset, as to produce an effect of singular beauty and truth. It is well engraved by Willmore, with the exception of a little scratchiness in the water. A sailing-boat crossing the Forth in a gale, Edinburgh Castle from the Grey Friar's Church Yard, and the rock and towers of Stirling, being mentioned with general praise, we believe we shall have gone through the whole series. We cannot afford room for an equally minute analysis of the various degrees of skill manifested in the engraving; but it were unjust to omit the observation, that we have not often met with a work, in this respect, of more equal and more satisfactory execution. On turning over the plates again, we perceive that we have omitted to notice the scene in Crichtoun Castle, where Marmion is represented as relating to Douglas the circumstances of his ghostly combat; it is spiritedly expressed, and Heath has made of the engraving a perfect gem ; the armour is metal itself, and the silver cups and flaggons have the finish of a miniature.
Our readers may recollect that, some time since, tired of the endless repetition of Venice and Naples, Switzerland and the Rhine, we suggested that matter less familiar, and more acceptable to eyes somewhat fatigued with a perpetual succession of canals and gondolas, glaciers and chateaurt, might be found in Spain, especially in its southern provinces, where the magnificence of the Moorish sovereigns yet survives in the towers and courts and galleries of the Alhambra. Sequence and consequence are things distinct and different; but it is certainly remarkable, that hard upon' this suggestion of ours, two able artists, at least, should have started for those regions of romance. Of one, Roberts, we have in our hand the first sample: the other, Lewis, has not yet come formally before the public, but we have seen two or three specimens of his lithographed and tinted sketches, and if these be fair averages, there can be no question of the brilliant success of a work so judicious in selection and so spirited in execution. Mr. Lewis has happily seized upon those striking portions which exhibit, perhaps, more impressively than a larger scope, the singular character of Moorish architecture. Views of entire and extensive subjects may be found in Murphy, Taylor, and, if we remember right, Laborde; but these bits'—doors, balconies, gates, courts, galleries, are the exploration of a new and inexhaustible mine, valuable to the antiquary, and inestimable to the artist. We take it, however, for granted, that the collection will include the general as well as the particular, although it so happens that we have as yet seen only the latter. In fact, every hole and corner of this splendid monument of Saracenic taste deserves investigation, not only as connected with the study of antiquity, but as exhibiting at every step some fresh combination of picturesque and architectural beauty.
Mr. Roberts is a pleasing and assiduous artist, not perhaps strikingly original or vigorous in his handling or effect, but ready, dexterous, and always fairly encountering the difficulties of his subject. The portfolio which now lies before us, containing the proof-impressions of Jennings's Landscape Annual' for 1835, exhibits a series of views chiefly connected with Granada, but including some of the more striking features of the neighbouring towns and country. The vignette title, had it been published thirty years ago, would, by itself, have made the book's fortune; but we have, of late years, had so much in the same way, that we need only characterise it as a wild and comprehensive view of tower and rock, winding ramparts and mountain-pass-a scene like those which the bold pencil of Stanfield, the skilful crayon of Harding, and the magic wand of Turner, have long since made familiar as our chamber-walls. "The Tower of Comares, and the general view of the Alhambra from the Albaycin; are pleasing pictures ; but a more decided and expressive treatment would have made them, in a far higher degree, interesting and effective. The view of the Generalife has a rich and striking fore-ground in the bastions and rocks of the Alhambra, and the * Vermillion Tower'is skilfully combined with terraces, balconies, and trellis-work. The · Gate of Justice' is simply and beautifully treated, and the engraver, Carter, seems to have entered
into the spirit of the drawing. In the Descent into the plain of Granada," Mr. Roberts has shewn that he knows both how to choose, and how to manage, a singularly wild and romantic
If Mr. R., instead of being a clever artist, which he is, had been a mere mechanic, which he is not, we would have forgiven him for the sake of his ‘Court of the Alberca :' without that vile affectation of making a picture,' to which so many fine subjects have been sacrificed, he has given a highly interesting architectural subject, just in the way that it ought to be given, in the best point of view, and with strict regard to the laws of perspective of the Remains of a Moorish bridge on the Darro,' Wallis has made a beautiful engraving from what we are quite sure must have been an exquisite drawing. The
Casa del Carboa' exhibits a whimsical association of heterogeneous materials; a profusely ornamented horse-shoe arch,-a modern specimen of church architecture, supporting, if our eyes see right, a Doric frieze by a Corinthian pilaster,-a calèche · constructed on principles utterly beyond our science, and other accompaniments not less picturesquely blended. Ronda' is a romantic scene of rock and bastion, precipice and clouds, and reminds us of a romantic book, written by a sort of hero of romance, M. de Rocca, the second husband of Madame de Stael. Alcala el Real is a glorious view of ultra-romantic scenery ; it is well engraved by Allen, and would be all the better without the clap-trap sun that overhangs the central summit. Then comes a Moorish fortress, Gaucin, forming an integral part of the crags on which it stands, and looking out, like a watch-tower, towards Gibraltar and the Barbary coast. Next we have a subject of singular beauty and attractive title—Tower of the Seven Vaults;' a calm, quiet, lovely scene of ruins and foliage, lit up, after Turner's fashion, with moon and setting sun. Loxa, a rugged view of fortress and mountain, is well engraved by Willmore. The
Moorish gateway leading to the great square of the Viva Rambla' does credit to Mr. Roberts as a skilful draughtsman: complicated, but clearly rendered, without artifice of light and shadow, it expresses admirably that mixture of Moorish and Christian architecture which gives so much interest to these localities. The Court of the Lions is excellent, and Higham has done justice to a difficult subject. The Bridge of Ronda is a sort of Spanish Tivoli, without a temple, and with but a slender stream, but displaying bold precipices, crowned with buildings to the very edge. Two exquisite interiors, the Hall of Judgement and the Hall of the Abencerrages, complete the work : as architectural amateurs, we might prefer somewhat more of distinctness in the details, especially in the first-named plate, but, as picturesque subjects, they can hardly be exceeded in richness and beauty. There are several wood-cuts, of clear and satisfactory execution.
We presume that the next volume will contain the Mosque of Cordova, and the Alcazar of Seville.
A common but unsuspected cause of deficient interest in many of the graphic productions which are from time to time offered to public admiration and patronage, is, we are persuaded, to be found in the neglect of exercising a due discrimination between a print and a drawing. The latter may appear, and may intrinsically be, a beautiful and attractive production : it may possess every desirable quality of colour and execution ; it may, to a certain extent, be interesting in its subject; and yet it may wholly fail to exhibit these characters when it comes to be transferred to steel or copper, though the engraver may have done his part with fidelity and skill. This is a matter in which it is not at all surprising that publishers and dilettanti should err, since it requires not only general knowledge, but specific discernment. We confess, however, that we have often felt astonishment at the want of sound judgement displayed in such affairs, by artists of high talent both in painting and engraving. The absence of decided colour is the first and most obvious consideration that presents itself in the comparison : this, specifically, the translator cannot render, though he may shew a strong feeling and an expressive indication of its effect, and even of its gradations and combinations. It would then, one might suppose, be a very simple question in the preliminary inquiry,-How far is the colouring of this picture capable of expression by the processes of engraving ? What will be the general effect when these beautiful tints and mingling hues melt away into a cold medium, while the rich impasto of the brush is represented by the lines, curves, angles, and dots of the engraver Nor are these questions always easy to be answered. So much depends on the skill and science of the artificer, that a very considerable degree of tact, much more than we usually see manifested, is required in the appropriation of the work. We have touched on these points chiefly for the purpose of observing, that they seem to us applicable in part to one of the Annuals--the Oriental-now before us. Mr. Daniel, by whom all the drawings were made, is an artist of great ability ; and several of his subjects, both in the present and the former volume, are likely to be highly popular, while others are conspicuous for the higher qualities of art. But there are also not a few which, however beautiful they may have been as paintings, come but tamely off in their translated state.
Independently, however, of these considerations, we are getting a little tired of the Hindoo and Mussulman picturesque, at least as it is commonly managed. We are grown somewhat fastidious about mosques and mausoleums, choultries, pagodas, and caravanserais ; and we require more of that clear and expressive detail, without which general forms soon become exhausted of variety. The dome, that striking, but questionable feature, recurs incessantly in the structures of Islam, while the conical form
predominates with little variation in the Brahminical temple ; and we have a quite sufficient supply of these in most of our Oriental illustrations. But we want something deeper than this; something that shall let us more into the secret of Asiatic invention and execution. Interiors, for instance, would be well suited to this purpose ; and, from the difficulty of their management by dilettanti makers of sketches, they are not likely to be speedily exhausted of novelty. We cannot withhold an expression of regret, that Mr. Daniel's science and skill have not been more extensively exercised in this way: there is one admirably treated interior of a mosque at Juanpore, which has keenly whetted our appetite for more exhibitions of the same kind. The Rhinoceros, engraved, as well as the former, by Redaway, though the scenery strikes us as African rather than Asiatic, forms the subject of a highly interesting print; and the Tartarian Yak, amid the hills and mountain-dwellings of Tibet, is scarcely less attractive. But the Lion' of the book will, we imagine, be the Boa-constrictor, with the boatman in his coil, and the wood-cutters hacking his body and tail with their axes : it is a novel subject, spiritedly expressed, and Brandard has done justice to it. The Gates of Goor and of Rotas are bold and well chosen specimens of their class. The figure subjects, The Salaam,' and The Favourite of the Haram,' will, no doubt, be popular, as interesting illustrations of Eastern character and customs. The Indian girl with her fruitstall, and the grove scenery of the distance, makes a beautiful vignette. The 'Rajpootni’ is, we suppose, a portrait. The Mausolea of Nujib-ud-Dowlah, in Rohilcund, and Sufter Jung, at Delhi, with a similar structure built by Asoph-ud-Dowlah, at Lucknow, well illustrate the sepulchral architecture of the Mohammedans. The Gate of the Chauter-Serai’ is chiefly remarkable for the skilful management of the foreground. A representation of the Moah-Punkee, or state barge of the Lucknow Nawaab, reminds us of the ninth of November; and the Garden of the Palace' affords us a glimpse of the domestic pomp of the same sovereign. The Mosque of Muttra, and another in the Coimbatore, are specimens of the religious structures of Islam ; while the temples at Benares, Muddunpore, and Bode Gyah, with equal interest, exhibit the sacred architecture of Brahminism. Calcutta, from Garden-House Reach,' does not particularly please us.