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416 § 326. concerning the samaritAns.

Temple, Josephus, Antiquities, XIII. 9, 1. On the other hand, the Samaritans, whenever they could, harrassed and injured the Jews, Antiq. XII.4, 1. XVIII. 2, 2. Whence the hatred, already strong, was mutually increased, and, in the time of Christ, there appears to have been no intercourse between them, Luke 17, 16. John 4: 9. et seq. So that the Jews in going from Galilee to Jerusalem could not with safety pass through Samaria, but crossed the Jordan, and went through Gilead. The Jews, under the influence of the hatred they bore to the Samaritans, changed the name of the city to Sichem, into that of onzo Sychar, which means drunken, John 4: 5. Other grounds of controversy and ill-feeling, between the Samaritans and Jews, were as follows. I. The Samaritans did not receive, as of divine authority, all the Books of the Old Testament, but only the Pentateuch, which they had received from the Jewish priest, who had been sent to them from Assyria. They, nevertheless, expected the advent of a Messiah, John 4: 25, et seq.; grounding their expectations on this point probably on Genesis 12: 3. 18:18. 22:18. 26:4. 28:14. II. The Samaritans contended, that the proper place of worship was not Jerusalem, but mount Gerezim, John 4:20. Josephus, Antiquities XIII. 3, 4. For some remarks, respecting the errours, which Josephus has committed in his account of Manasses, mentioned in this section, &c. see the original German edition of this Work, P. II. vol. II. § 63. p. 278—280.

CHAPTER II.

OF SACRED PLACES.

§ 327. OF SACRED PLACEs in GENERAL.

In the earliest ages, God was worshipped, without any distinction, at any time and at any place, whenever and wherever, the promptings of devotion moved in the hearts of his creatures; more especially, however, under the shade of imbowering trees, on hills, and mountains, and in places, where they had experienced some special manifestations of his favour.

The earliest ALTAR, of which we have any account, is that of Noah, Gen. 8:20.

Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob erected a number of altars in the land of Canaan, particularly in places, where they had been favoured with communications from God, Gen. 12:7. 13:4, 18. 26: 25. 33: 20. 35:1, 3, 7.

Moses, and the author of the Book of Joshua both speak of idols, altars, and groves, but are silent respecting Temples. The first Temple of which we have any account, was the one at Shechem, which was dedicated to the god, Baal-berith, but, as it was furnished with a tower, &c. there had probably been others before it, Jud. 9:4.

Moses, although he had been acquainted with temples in Egypt, was not in a condition to erect one, while marching through Arabia, and, constructed in its stead the Tabernacle, which could easily be transferred from place to place. This, as we may infer from Amos 5:26, was not the first of its kind, and it is, furthermore, worthy of notice, that the Carthaginians are said to have borne with them likewise, at least in their warlike expeditions, a sacred tent.

With respect to the Temple, which was subsequently erected 418 § 328. of the TABERNAcLE.

in Palestine, it may be observed, that Moses gave no command on the subject. The plan appears to have originated with David; although it was left to be executed by his successor.

§ 328. OF THE TABERNAcle.

The place, where publick worship was held from the time of Moses till Solomon, viz. the Tabernacle, is mentioned in the Old Testament by various names, to wit, or N a tent, Joa habitation, won a sanctuary, nor a house, Hyn, 11-2 12+n the dwelling place of Jehovah's glory, Hon: Fris Jehovah's tent, ozo Fris and no-or; ois the tent of the congregation, and sometimes =="ri the palace. It was divided into three parts. The first part was the AREA or court of the Tabernacle, an hundred cubits, [about an hundred and fifty feet, long, and fifty cubits, [about seventy five feet,) broad. It was surrounded on all sides, to the height of five cubits, with curtains pop made of linen. They were suspended from rods of silver, which reached from one column to another, and rested on them. The columns, B***ay, on the East and West, were ten, on the North and South, twenty in number, and were, without doubt, made of the ACACIA, (shittim wood.) The columns, in order to prevent their being injured by the moisture of the earth, were supported on bases of brass boos. Near the top of the columns, were silver hooks, E"), in which the rods that sustained the curtains, were inserted. That part of the court of the Tabernacle, which formed the entrance, was twenty cubits in extent, and was on the East side of it. The entrance was closed by letting fall a sort of tapestry, which hung from rods or poles, resting on four columns, and which was adorned with figures in blue, purple, and scarlet. When the entrance was opened, the tapestry was drawn up. The curtains of the entrance were called Too [in distinction from the curtains, that were suspended around other parts of the court of the Tabernacle, Exod. 27: 9–19. 38: 9–20. The TABERNAcle, (strictly so called,) was situated in the middle of the western side of the court. It was covered on every part, and, in point of form, was an oblong square, being thirty cubits long from West to East, and ten broad from North to South.

§ 329. THE ALTAR AND BRAZEN LAVER. 419

The walls were composed of forty eight boards or planks, viz. twenty on the North side, twenty on the South side, and six on the West. The two at the angles were doubled, making the forty eight, Exod. 26: 15–30. The Eastern side was not boarded. The boards, Bogos, were of acacia or shittim wood, ten cubits long, one and a half broad, and overlaid with plates of gold. They rested on bases of silver, and were united together by bars or poles also of gold. .

The Tabernacle, thus constructed, was shielded by four coverings. The first, or rather interiour or lower covering, called, son, was made of “fine twined linen,” extended down within a cubit of the earth, and displayed pictures of Cherubim, wrought into it with various colours, viz. blue, purple, and scarlet. The second, properly called bris, was a fabrick, woven of goats' hair, and extended very nearly to the ground, Exod. 26: 7–13. The third was of ram’s skins dyed red, the fourth, of the skins of the trip, a difficult word, meaning, according to some, a sky-blue colour, according to others, a sea-animal; both of the last were called H$o.

The eastern side or ENTRANCE was closed by means of a curtain made of cotton, which was suspended from silver rods, that were sustained by five columns, covered with gold.

The interiour of the Tabernacle was divided into two parts; the first, twenty cubits long, and ten broad and high, was separated from the second, or inner apartment, by a curtain or veil, which hung down from four columns overlaid with gold, and was denominated devrégov zot atterwoud, or the inner veil, Exod. 26:36, 37. The first apartment was called ujo, or the Holy, and in Hebrews 9:2, oznvn irgorn ; the inner apartment was callei, RoR of, gyeo dyvov or the most Holy, and sometimes oxnvn Öevrégo, or the inner Tabernacle.

§ 329. THE ALTAR AND BRAZEN LAVER.

Nearly in the centre of the outer court was the altar, Hājo, Honor; no, Exod, 40; 29. It was a kind of coffer, three cubits high, five iong and broad, made of Shittim wood. The lower part rested on four short columns or feet, the sides of which were grates of brass, through which the blood of the victim flowed out. 420 § 330. The golden cANDLESTICK.

The sides of the upper part of the altar were wood covered with brass, and the interiour space was filled with earth, upon which the fire was kindled. The four corners of the altar projected upwards, so as to resemble horns. At the four corners were rings, niszt, through which poles, D-12, were placed, for the purpose of transporting it from place to place. On the South side there was an ascent on to it, made of earth heaped up, Exod. 20: 24. 24: 4. 27: 1–8. 38:1–7. Lev. 9:22. The appurtenances of the altar were the jo n***t, or urns for, carrying away the ashes; the py; or shovels, for collecting them together; the nopolo, or skins for receiving and sprinkling the blood of the victims; the noon, a sort of tongs for turning the parts of the victim in the fire; the nonro, or censers for burning incense, and other instruments of brass, Exod. 27: 3. 38; 3. Between the altar and the Tabernacle, a little to the South, stood a circular Laver, onio, which, together with its base, h;2 72, was made of the brazen ornaments, which the women had presented for the use of the Tabernacle, and was thence called, ho non; Exod. 30: 18, 40; 8. The priests, when about to perform their duties, washed their hands in this laver.

§ 330. The GoLDEN CANDLESTICK.

The Golden Candlestick, Ho, was placed in the first apartment of the Tabernacle, on the South side. It stood on a base T}, from which the principal stem Hop, arose perpendicularly. On both sides of it, there projected upwards, in such a way as to describe a curved line, three branches, op. They arose from the main stem, at equal distances from each other, and to the same height with it. The height in the whole, according to the Jewish Rabbins, was five feet, and the breadth, or the distance between the exteriour branches, three and a half. The main stem together with the branches were adorned with knops, flowers, and other ornaments of gold.

The seven extremities of the main stem and branches were employed, as so many separate lamps, all of which were kept burning in the night, but three only in the day, Exod. 30: 8. Lev. 24: 4. Antiq. III. 8, 3.

The priest, in the morning, put the lamps in order with his

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