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ry, they were in the highest degree prejudiced against it. They could not separate in their mind the idolatrous from the innocent use of things in themselvesconfessedlyindifferent: and they ran into the common error of imputing effects to concomitant circumstances, rather than radical causes. Even a Dissenter would now confess that Popery is no necessary adjunct, either to a square cap or a surplice; and that when we kneel, we no more adore the elements than they do when they sit. 2. The intervention of Queen Mary's reign, which gave to the reformed Church of England, like another Hercules, a serpent to contend with in its cradle, humanly speaking, produced the worst effects. It inevitably gave to Eliza beth's forcible methods (though how different!) of establishing the reformation, the same complexion to unwary observers that Mary's previously had in abolishing it. The violence of intolerant Protestantism had a most ill look after that of persecuting Popery: whilst the comparative lenience of the former rather fostered than repressed trivial scruples, and we believe, on the whole, left the balance in favour of the persecuted party, as to general profit and esteem. Protestantism was no game at all to play under Mary. Nonconformity was not a bad game to play under Elizabeth and her successors.
3. But the most fatal of all the secondary causes of mischief was, that connection established with the continental Reformers, particularly those of Geneva, during the reign of Mary. Our travelled English divines, who perhaps had better have stayed at home, and wielded the sword of the Spirit by the side of their suffering brethren, returned so strongly prejudiced in favour of the new discipline, and of all the light and liberty they had enjoyed in those halcyon days of free religious converse and worship, that nothing else could satisfy
them. They associated religion with Calvin's institutions, and nothing else. Every thing was flat and stale-in other words, popish and anti-Christian-that was not on that model. And though the testimony of many wise Reformers abroad was given again and again in favour of things, as they stood in England, rather than hazard all in a new change, still that change must be made, or Puritans, would be Puritans still. They could not see how wholly inapplicable the discipline of Frankfort, Strasburg, Geneva, or Zurich, was to such an extended, diversified, and free, perhaps licentious kingdom as England: nor that it was little short of a miracle, to have Calvinists in doctrine at the head of affairs, unless they could have Calvinists in discipline too. They learnt that most pernicious of all heresies, in ecclesiastical policy, the habit of tampering with the civil government: and crude sophisms deduced from the Judaical state, worked imperceptibly in their system, till they finally burst forth in the guilt of rebellion and regicide. Let the documents even of Queen Elizabeth's reign be fairly consulted; let the commendations of Wyatt's rebellion in the preceding reign be considered; let the various positions of Knox, Goodman, and others, be properly weighed; and little doubt will remain how early and how deeply this political leaven began to work. The Bible was made to serve a purpose it never was intended to serve. And in the rejection of all human wisdom, all ecclesiastical authority, all primitive examples, (which it is true had been much abused by the Papists), they devised from the Scriptures alone a new wisdom of their own; set up as supreme, their own self-constituted authority; and gave a fresh and grand, but negative, example of zeal without pru. dence, loyalty without obedience, purity without peace, and religion without amity.
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
In the press:-The Life and Campaigns of Field Marshal Blucher, translated from the German of General Gneisenau, his Quarter-Master-General;-A Treatise on Locomotive Machinery, especially Steam-boats and Carriages, with plates, &c., by Mr. Robertson Buchanan*;-The Fifth and Last Number of Mr. Britton's History and Antiquities of Salisbury Cathedral;-A Familiar History of England, for the Use of Schools, by Mr. Harris and Mr. W. Savage; The Speeches of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke;-A new Edition of the Family Bible, edited under the Sanction of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, in parts containing 20 sheets,' at 8s. each.
Preparing for publication :-(By Subscription) A Series of Practical Treatises on Mill-work, beginning with a Treatise on the Teeth of Wheels, by Mr. R. Buchanan;-In two vols. 8vo., Sermons and Norrisian Prize Essays, by the late Rev. Joseph Whiteley, M.A.; A Topographical History of Stafford shire, by W. Pitt, Esq. A Work on the Costume of the Original Inhabitants
Mr. R. Buchanan has just published a Treatise on the Economy of Fuel and Management of Heat, espe cially as it relates to heating and dry ing by means of steam; wherein he treats of the effects of heat, the means of measuring it, the comparative quantity of heat produced by different kinds of fuel, gas-lights, &c.; of heating-mills, dwelling-houses, baths, and public buildings; of drying and heating by steam; with observations on chimney fire-places, stoves, lime-kilns, furnaces, chimnies, distilleries, &c. &c,
of the British Islands, by S. R. Meyrick, LL.D., and C. H. Smith, Esq.;A Treatise on Theology, written by Mrs. Lucy Hutchinson, author of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson, with a Life of Mrs. Hutchinson written by herself.
The edition of Stephen's Greek Thesaurus, edited by Mr. Valpy, late Fellow of Pembroke, Oxford, and Mr. Barker, of Trinity College, Cambridge, will be published in parts, at a guinea each-large paper, two guineas; to be completed in three or four years. The copies to be printed not to exceed the number of subscribers. .
A steam yacht has been established between London and Margate. It will go down one day, and up the next, and start and arrive at regular hours within the day.
Mr. Carpue is said to have succeeded a second time in forming a new Nose on the Asiatic Plan, (see our Number for February, p. 119.)
It is expected that in the next session of Parliament a law will be passed to establish an uniformity of weights and measures throughout the British do minions. Ten pounds avoirdupois, of pure water, at the temperature of 561 degrees, is to be the new gallon, containing 276.48 cubic inches, about 20 per cent. more than our present wine gallon. The pound avoirdupois is to be regulated by a pound of pure water, as above; that is to say, it is to be 27.648 cubic inches of pure water. The present yard is to be retained, being corrected by a pendulum vibrating seconds of mean time in the latitude of London. A cube foot of pure water of the above temperature weighs 1000 ounces avoirdupois.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
- War inconsistent with the Doctrine and Example of Jesus Christ; by J. Scott, Stockport. 58. 6d. per hundred copies.
Remarks on the Effusion of the Fifth Apocalyptic Vial, and the late extra
ordinary Restoration of the Imperial Revolutionary Government of France: to which is added, a Critical Exami nation of Mr. Frere's Combined View of the Prophecies of Daniel, Esdras, and St. Jolin: by G. S. Faber, B.D. 8vo. 2s. 6d.
A Manual of Instruction and Devotion on the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper; by the Rev. John Hewlett, B.D. foolscap 8vo. 5s.
Sermons on the most important Doctrines of the Gospel; by the Rev. John Thornton. 12mo. 4s.
An Essay on the Doctrine of the Trinity, attempting to prove it by Reason and Demonstration; founded upon Duration and Space, and upon some of the Divine Perfections, some of the Powers of the human Soul, the Language of Scripture, and Tradition among all Nations; by the Rev. James Kidd, Ă.M.
A Series of Questions upon the Bible; for the Use of Families and Young Pers sons: originally composed for Sunday Schools; by the Rev. Edward Stanley, M.A. 12mo. 3s. 6d.
The True Christianity of the venerable John Arndt; edited by William Jaques. 2 vols. 8vo. (with portrait of the Author), price 11.
Memoirs of Mrs. Newell, wife of Rev. Samuel Newell, Missionary to India from the United States; by Dr. Woods with Funeral Discourse.
Christian Triumph: a Sermon occasioned by the Decease of the Rev. James Wraith, who died 1st May, in his 81st year; delivered at Hampstead, on the 15th May, 1815; by the Rev. Jacob Snelgar. 1s. 6d.
The Lives of Edward and John Philips, nephews and pupils of Milton, including various particulars of the literary and political history of their times to which are added, Collections for the Life of Milton, by John Aubrey, F.R.S. 1681, printed from the manuscript copy in the Ashmolean Museum; and the Life of Milton, by Edward Phillips, first printed in 1694; by Wm. Godwin. With an original likeness of President Bradshaw, and two other portraits. 4to. 21. 2s.
Memoirs of the Abbé Edgeworth, containing his Narrative of the last Hours of Louis XVI.; by C. Sneyd Edgeworth. post 8vo. 7s.
The Political Life of William Wild
man, Viscount Barrington; compiled from original papers by his brother Shute, Bishop of Durham. 8vo. 6s.
Popular Models and Impressive Warnings for the Sons and Daughters of Industry; adapted to the leisure Hours of the Apprentice, the Nursery, and Ser vants' Hall. 5s.
The Literary and Scientific Pursuits which are encouraged and enforced in the University of Cambridge, briefly described and vindicated, with various Notes; by the Rev. Latham Wainwright, A.M. F.S.A. 8vo. 4s. 6d.
A practical Treatise on finding the Latitude and Longitude at Sea, with Tables from the French of M. de Rossel, with practical Examples; by Thomas Myers, A. M., of the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. 16s.
A System of Laud-surveying_and Levelling; by Peter Fleming. Illustrated by twenty-two copper-plates. 4to. 158.
Second Report of the London Society for the Improvement and Encouragement of Female Servants; instituted 1815. 6d.
Recreations in Natural History, or Popular Sketches of British Quadrupeds; describing their Nature, Habits, and Dispositions, and interspersed with original Anecdotes. 8vo. 21. 8s.
The White Doe of Rylstone; or, the Fate of the Nortons; by William Wordsworth. 4to. 11. 1s.
Ode to Desolation, with other Poems; by M. W. Hartstonge, Esq. 8vo. 7s. Poems, by Hugh Lawton, Esq. Royal 4to. 11. 58.
De Rancé, a Poem; by J. W. Cunningham, Vicar of Harrow. Evo. 6s. Helga, in seven Cantos, with Notes by the Hon. Wm. Herbert. 8vo. 12s.
The Poetical Works, collected, of Lord Byron. 4 vols. foolscap 8vo. 11. 8s.
The Speeches of the Right Honourable Charles James Fox, in the House of Commons, from his Entrance into Parliament in 1768, to the Year 1806, now first collected, in 6 vols. 8vo. 41. 4s.
A Treatise on the Economy of Fuel, and the Management of Heat, especially as it relates to Heating and Drying by Means of Steam, illustrated by plates; by Robertson Buchanan, Civil Engineer. 8vo. 18s.
Letters from France, written by a Modern Tourist in that Country, and descriptive of some of the most amusing Manners and Customs of the French; with characteristic illustrations from drawings taken on the spot; by M. S. 8vo. 4s.
BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE
THE following is an abstract of the Eleventh Report of this Society, which was read at the Annual Meeting on the 3d of May last:
At the last Meeting, the members of the Society were encouraged to indulge the pleasing hope, that the pacification of Europe would lead to a more extensive adoption of the principle of their institution. This expectation has been amply verified. The societies instituted on the continent, during the year, are numerous and important. The Committee will first notice those, the formation of which was assisted by the presence and exertions of the Rev. R. Pinkerton, while on his return to Russia.
1st. The Netherlands Bible Society, established at Amsterdam, under the presidency of his Excellency Mr. Roel, Minister of the Interior; and of which many Catholics are members.--Another Society has been formed at Rotterdam, of which his Excellency Mr. Van Hoogstraaten, Member of the States General, is President.-Thirty more Bible Societies have been instituted in different parts of the United Netherlands, which, together with Rotterdam, are considered divisions of the Netherlands Society. A plan has been adopted for instituting 32 Bible Associations in Amsterdam and its environs, comprising nearly 200,000 inhabitants.
2d. The Grand Duchy of Berg Bible Society, established at Elberfeld.-The population is large, and includes a great proportion of Catholics. Many thousands of them had never seen a Bible; and among some, even the meaning of the word was unknown. His Excel lency Baron Von Gruener, governor general of the duchy, was chosen pre
3d. The Hanoverian Bible Society. In Hanover, as in Petersburgh, the Lutheran, Calvinistic, and Catholic elergy, join hands to promote the good cause. When the chief Catholic priest entered the room, he grasped Mr. Pinkerton's hand in the most cordial manper, and with a countenance beaming with joy, said, "I rejoice that I have
an opportunity of uniting in such a glorious cause. I am decidedly of opinion, that the Scriptures should be put into the hands of every class of men, and that even the poorest and the meanest should have it in their power to draw Divine instruction from the Fountain Head." The president of this society is his Excellency Baron Von Arnswaldt, minister of state, privy counsellor, and president of the ecclesiastical court. His royal highness the duke of Cambridge is its patron.
4th. The Prussian Bible Society, established at Berlin, under the presidency of his Excellency Lieutenantgeneral Von Dierecke, tutor to the Crown Prince of Prussia.-His Prussian Majesty has approved of the Society, and confirmed its laws; and has granted to it the freedom of the letterpost. The Bible Society, which had existed at Berlin since 1805, has merged in the Prussian Bible Society.-At Königsberg, the printing of the Lithu anian Scriptures was rapidly advancing. An additional grant of 2001. to the Bible Committee at Königsberg has enabled them to procure additional types, and to print 3,000 extra copies of the Lithuanian New Testament. A Bible Society has been recently instituted at Königsberg, in connexion with the Prussian Bible Society at Berlin.
5th. The Saxon Bible Society, established at Dresden, under the presidency of his excellency Count Hohenthal, the minister for religion.-A most interesting account of the formation of this institution, given by the Rev. Dr. Dæring, chaplain of the court of Saxony, concludes with observing, "Universal was the impression, and loud the gratitude expressed both towards the Parent Institution in London, and its worthy member, Mr. Pinkerton. Tears of joy glittered in many an eye, and the name of the Lord was glorified. May he command his blessing on this holy union!"
Mr. Pinkerton, in passing through Warsaw, held a meeting in the palace of Prince Czartorisky, for the purpose of forming a Polish Bible Society; at which meeting, certain regulations were adopted, subject to the approbation of
the Emperor of Russia. In Poland, it is asserted, that a copy of the Bible is scarcely to be obtained at any price. Mr. Pinkerton, before he left Warsaw, made arrangements for the distribution of 250 Polish Bibles, and 500 New Testaments, as well as of a number of German Testaments and Bibles.
The societies above enumerated, were established in less than three months after the last annual meeting. At the meetings convened for the purpose, the greatest joy and harmony prevailed; and from the rank, abilities, and respectability of the presidents, vicepresidents, and directors, there is every reason to hope their example will have an extensive influence, and their exertions a most beneficial effect. The Committee have granted 3001. to the Berg Bible Society, and 5001. to each of the four other societies: and they have since granted 1001. to the Auxiliary Bible Society at Potsdam; and the like sum to the Saxon Bible Society, for promoting an edition of the New Testament in the Wendish dialect, for the use of the poor Wendes or Vandals in Lusatią.
The Bible Society at St. Petersburg has now assumed the title of "The Russian Bible Society." The proceedings of this institution, formed under the patronage of his imperial majesty, and superintended by a nobleman not less distinguished by his piety and abilities than by his high rank, are conducted with a zeal and energy which promise substantial benefits to the Russian empire. The great object of its exertions is, to distribute a large number of copies of the holy Scripture at the lowest rate: its committee is now printing them in seven different languages, while the committees of its auxiliary societies are printing them in several other dialects. The number of Bibles and Testaments now printing by the Russian Bible Society is stated at 92,000 copies.
The Moscow Bible Society, which almost rivals that at St. Petersburg in the number of contributors, has undertaken an edition of 5000 Bibles and 5000 Testaments in the Slavonian language, for the use of the native Russians; the printing of the latter is nearly finished. In 260 years, not more than 50,000 copies of the Slavonian Bible have been printed. This Society has also undertaken, at its own expense, the printing
of 5000 copies of the Georgian New Testament. A set of Georgian types, which escaped the conflagration of Moscow, has been discovered: and this work is now in progress, under the superintendance of the Georgian Metropolitan Ion, and Archbishop Pafnut, both residing at Moscow.
The Society at Dorpat has established a Bible Association in every parish, under the direction of the Pastor. This has been found a most efficient plan for promoting its success among the common people.
The Societies at Mittau and Riga are printing 14,000 Lettish New Testaments, and the Society at Revel an edi tion of the Bible in the Revelian Esthonian dialect. To the Societies of Mittau, Riga, Dorpat, and Revel, 1000 copies of the German New Testament have been ordered from St. Petersburg, at the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society.
The Committee have granted the sum of 2001. to the Russian Auxiliary Society, formed at Arensberg, the capital of Oesel, for that and the neighbouring islands. The scarcity of the Scriptures is so great in these parts, "that even some, who are teachers of others, are destitute of a Bible."
The printing of the Persian New Testament, translated by the late revered Henry Martyn, is printing at St. Petersburgh, from a copy brought thither by Sir Gore Ousely, Bart., Ambassador from his Majesty to the Court of Persia, who has undertaken to superintend the press. The zeal, learning, piety, and diligence of Mr. Martyn, afford the most satisfactory assurance of the accuracy of this translation. A singular testimony in its favour has already appeared in the interesting letter of the King of Persia, to Sir Gore Ousely. Under the countenance of this sovereign, the Persian New Testament will probably be extensively read; and the western provinces of Persia, now subject to Russia, afford a wide field for its circulation. The Committee have as sisted this work by a grant of 3001.
Intelligence from the Crimea authorises the hope, that the Tartar New Testament, printed at Karass, will prove a blessing to the Mohammedans in that quarter. A Mufti, to whom a Tartar New Testament had been presented, accepted it with gratitude: he has be come an annual subscriber of fifty rubles to the Society at St. Petersburg,